A 15-day study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Artemia metanauplii enriched with two commercial supplements (Easy DHA-Selco and S. presso) which contained high levels of n–3 long chain polyunsaturatedfattyacids (n–3 LC-PUFA) on growth performance, stress resistance and fatty acid profile of Litopenaeus vannamei post larvae (PL). In this regard, PL were fed with three different types of Artemia including: (1) newly hatched Artemia franciscana nauplii as the control group; (2) Artemia metanauplii enriched with Easy DHA-Selco; and (3) Artemia metanauplii enriched with S. presso. Survival rates did not change among different groups. PL fed Artemia enriched with the S. presso and the Easy DHA-Selco showed the highest wet and dry weight, respectively (p<0.05). Moreover, PL fed Artemia enriched with the commercial emulsions had higher survival rate (~ 10 %) than treatments fed newly hatched Artemia (p<0.05).The concentration of n–3 PUFA especially DHA and also n-3 / n-6 PUFA ratios were higher in PL fed with Artemia enriched with the commercial emulsions than the control group. Feeding enriched Artemia with n–3 LC-PUFA is recommended to improve growth performance in larval stages of L. vannamei.
AbstrAct: We studied the effect of different levels of linseed oils made either of the flax cultivar Atalante with a high content of α-linolenic acid (612 g/kg) or of the cultivar Lola with a predominating content of lino- leic acid (708 g/kg) in a chicken diet upon the fatty acid pattern in meat. Cockerels Ross 308 were fed the diets containing 1, 3, 5 or 7 per cent of oil in the last 15 days of fattening. Breast meat (BM) and thigh meat (TM) without skin of 8 chickens from each dietary group were used for analyses. The relative proportions of fattyacids were expressed as percentages of total determined fattyacids. When feeding Atalante oil, the proportions of n-6 fattyacids were highly significantly lower while those of n-3 fattyacids were higher; the ratio of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturatedfattyacids in meat was narrower (P < 0.001) than in chickens fed oil with a low content of α-linolenic acid. In BM and TM, the relative proportions of α-linolenic and γ-linolenic acids were nearly the same, the proportion of linoleic acid in BM was lower, and the proportions of the other polyunsaturatedfattyacids in BM were higher than in TM. In BM, the ratio of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturatedfattyacids was significantly (P < 0.001) more favourable than that found in TM. The relative proportions of total saturated and monounsatu- rated fattyacids in meat decreased and those of polyunsaturatedfattyacids increased significantly (P < 0.01) in dependence on the increasing level of dietary oils. When feeding Atalante oil, a significant increase in the propor- tion of linoleic acid in BM but not in TM was observed. The proportions of the other n-6 fattyacids decreased and those of all determined n-3 fattyacids, with the exception of docosahexaenoic acid, significantly increased with the increasing level of oil in the diet. When feeding Lola oil, its increasing content in the diet increased the relative proportion of linoleic acid as well as its elongation to γ-linolenic acid; however, the proportions of ara- chidonic and adrenic acid did not change significantly (P > 0.05). The proportion of α-linolenic acid increased in both BM and TM. The proportion of eicosapentaenoic and clupanodonic acids in BM significantly decreased. The ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturatedfattyacids ranged from 0.9 to 13.6 and from 1.0 to 17.2 in BM and TM, respectively. An increase in the level of Lola oil in the diet by 1% caused that the n-6/n-3 polyunsaturatedfatty acid ratio extended by 1.00 and 1.19 units in BM and TM, respectively. Dependences of n-6/n-3 ratio on the level of Atalante oil were expressed by equations of convex parabolas with minima at the level of oil 5.8 and 5.9% for BM and TM, respectively. By means of the inclusion of linseed oil with a high content of α-linolenic acid in the feed mixture it would be possible to produce poultry meat as a functional food with a very narrow ratio of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturatedfattyacids.
Although feeding supplemental polyunsaturatedfattyacids can overwhelm the normal esterification capacity of the small intestine allowing increased incorporation of polyunsaturatedfattyacids into triglycerides secreted from enterocytes , partitioning of polyunsaturatedfattyacids into plasma lipid fractions that are less avail- able to the mammary gland is more common . Previ- ous results have demonstrated that supplemental, very long-chain, n-3 fattyacids are primarily transported in the phospholipids or cholesterol ester fraction of blood, making them largely unavailable to the mammary gland for enrichment of milk fat [53–55]. Christie et al.  hypothesized selective hydrolysis of very low-density lipo- proteins triglycerides at the liver may protect polyunsatur- ated fattyacids from nonessential functions. Mammary uptake of triglyceride fattyacids from plasma is dependent upon the action of mammary lipoprotein lipase on chylo- microns and very low-density lipoproteins [46, 57]. The low transfer of polyunsaturatedfattyacids to milk might be explained by the incorporation of polyunsaturatedfattyacids into phospholipids and cholesterol esters at the small intestine or liver limiting their uptake by the mammary gland , although some data suggest that phospholipid fattyacids can contribute to the milk fattyacids [59–61].
Paper V Mazahery, H., C. Conlon, K.L. Beck, O. Mugridge, M.C. Kruger, W. Stonehouse, C.A. Camargo, Jr., B.J. Meyer, B. Tsang, B. Jones, and P.R. von Hurst, A randomised controlled trial of vitamin D and omega-3 long chain polyunsaturatedfattyacids in the treatment of core symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder in children. J. Autism Dev. Disord., 2019 (online)
In order to encourage discussions on "polyunsaturatedfattyacids" and health, the Brazilian branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) promoted the XII International Workshop Series on Foods with Functional Properties and/or Health Claims (28-29 November 2013) which consolidated knowledge, presented scientific advances, and promoted exchange of experiences on "PolyunsaturatedFattyAcids: Health Impacts". Various topics were addressed at this meeting including: nutritional needs and consumption issues; impact on chronic diseases: cardiovascular diseases and cancer; influence on gene expression; immunological system and inflammation; sources of these fattyacids; benefits during pregnancy and childhood; cost and benefit of supplementation; and regulations (legislation). In general terms, the event presented evidence of the benefit of polyunsaturatedfattyacids on cardiovascular diseases, pregnancy, breastfeeding, and infant development, as well as possible influence on gene expression, contributing to their relationship with the immunological system and, therefore, inflammatory processes. The
ABSTRACT: Omega 3 fattyacids are long chain polyunsaturatedfattyacids (LC – PUFA) which are essential for normal growth and prolonged health of higher eukaryotes. Nutritionally, eicosapteanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) are the most important component of the omega 3 fattyacids family, as they have significant human health benefits such as brain functioning, reducing cardiovascular, neurons and immune system related diseases. Microalgae are primary source of EPA and DHA.EPA is polyunsaturatedfattyacids that act as a precursor for prostaglandin – 3(which inhibits platelet aggregation), thromboxane – 3, and leukotriene – 5 groups. The other marine sources such as fish and krill do not produce omega 3 fattyacids, but rather accumulate it from the algae and their prey consume in their natural environment. The microalgae Tetraselmis sp. is a potential source of economically valuable eicosapteanoic acid and docosahexanoicacid.Thus this paper explain the extraction of omega 3 fattyacids directly from the microalgae through cell disruption method.
Increasing evidence from animal and human experi- ments has demonstrated that two particular long-chain n-3 polyunsaturatedfattyacids (PUFA), i.e., eicosapenta- enoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been associated with multiple positive health effects in- cluding improvement of obesity and diabetes mellitus , cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases [2,3], asthma , and inflammatory diseases . Furthermore, we previously reported that a fish oil – derived concen- trate containing long-chain monounsaturated fattyacids (MUFA), i.e., C20:1 and C22:1 isomers combined, alle- viated metabolic syndrome partly by regulating genes involved in lipid metabolism, energy expenditure, and
from the scraped mucosa using a chloroform/methanol (2:1, v/v) ratio as described by Folch et al. (39). Phospholipids were separated from other lipid classes using silicic acid columns (Sigma-Aldrich, MO)(40). Fattyacids were methylated (41), and analyzed by a 5890 Hewlett Packard gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector and a 6890 autosampler (Hewlett Packard PA). A 100-m fused silica capillary column with an i.d of 0.25 um, a 0.2 um film coating and a SP-2380 stationary column (Supelco, PA) was used for separation of the each fatty acid, and each peak was identified by using standard fatty acid methyl esters (Sigma-Aldrich). The operating conditions were as
Even though supplements may seem to be a helpful alternative for achieving the recommended intakes of n-3 LC-PUFAs, there are also some disadvantages to be considered. These include increased susceptibility to oxidation, lack of regulations to secure high-quality products and sustainability issues. For instance, fish oils contain highly unsaturated n-3 fattyacids that are very unstable and prone to oxidation. Although health implications from consuming oxidised fish oil supplements are unclear, oxidised lipids can trigger the oxidation of other fattyacids leading to a chain reaction that can reach the fattyacids in the membrane and cause cellular damage, which may give origin to disease (Albert, Cameron-Smith, Hofman, & Cutfield, 2013). A recent NZ study testing fish oil supplements showed that only 8% on 32 supplements had the fattyacids composition in accordance with what was described in their labeled contents and were below the recommended limits of oxidation levels (Albert et al., 2015). However, this study did not use validated and certified tests, which can compromise the reliability of their findings.
Individual daily food consumption, energy, total fat, fattyacids, and antioxidant nutrients (vitamins A, C, E, and Zinc) were calculated from dietary records using a program developed in the GSF National Research Centre for Environment and Health based on the BLS-German national nutrient data file (Bundeslebensmittelschlüssel II.2). 47-48 Although some nutrient calculations were available from previous work, all calculations were repeated with the updated nutrient data file to obtain better quality and consistent information because this data file is constantly being expanded and corrected. For the first time, the current version of the BLS allowed the calculation not only of fat in the form of saturated (SFA), monounsaturated and polyunsaturatedfattyacids but also of the specific fattyacids (arachidonic acid, for example). Therefore, the dietary data of this paper may not necessarily be identical to published data which was derived using the preceding BLS II.1.
malnutrition . The Moringa is often considered as important famine food because of its high resistance to drought and arid conditions owing to their tuberous roots . Almost each and every part of Moringa tree is useful for medicinal, functional food preparations, nutraceuticals, water purification, and biodiesel production; including roots, leaves, flowers, green pods, and seeds . The immature pods, flowers, and foliage of this tree are used for culinary purposes in different parts of the world . The foliage of M. oleifera has been established as a rich source of phenolics and glucosinolates, minerals , tocopherols , carotenoids , polyunsaturatedfattyacids , ascorbic acid , and folate . Moringa seed oil also known as ‘‘Ben oil’’ is used for the production of biodiesel, because of the high content of monounsaturated fattyacids in form of oleic acid [11, 12]. Moringa seed oil is a potential candidate for biodiesel production, as it meets all the main specifications of the biodiesel standards of US, Germany, and Europe . Thus, it has great commercial and industrial importance. The low molecular weight cationic proteins, chitin binding protein isoforms, lectins, napins, mabinlins, and other seed proteins extracted from M. oleifera seeds are successfully characterized and used in domestic and industrial water purification, and hardness removal because of the potent antimicrobial and coagulant properties .
Conversely, each of the following acidspalmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic increased significantly in processed cheese fortified with vegetables and mushroom; and that increasing of fortification ratio increasing the content of the previous fattyacids. The obtained results explained that the addition of vegetables and mushroom mixture to spreadable processed cheese reduced the content of saturated fattyacids, but polyunsaturatedfattyacids increased linearly with increasing fortification ratio of mixture. It can be seen that unsaturated fattyacids showed significantly higher (p≤0.05) levels of oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids than the control sample. This may be due to the high level of unsaturated fattyacids in mushroom and leafy vegetables, which confirmed that vegetables and mushroom can be an interesting source of essential unsaturated fattyacids. The gained results for fatty acid profile were in agreement with Rafiq and Ghosh. (2017b) who reported that the supplemented processed cheese with Table 1. The Chemical composition (%) of used ingredients in the manufacture of fortified spreadable processed cheese
Principal fattyacids in lipid fractions of the two gastropod species B. spinosa and T. telescopium were palmitic acid (6.11% (in B. spinosa), 20.16% (in T. telescopium)), stearic acid (4.76-6.88%), oleic acid (6.13% (in B. spinosa), 19.11% (in T. telescopium)) and 5,8,11,14- eicosatetraenoic acid (5.36% (in T. telescopium), 5.71% (in B. spinosa)) (Table 2). This result showed a resemblance with the observations of 19,20,21 . Major fatty acid compositions observed in all these species were the same. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were the major polyunsaturatedfattyacids (PUFAs) observed in T. telescopium (5.97 ± 1.43 and 8.30 ± 3.21 respectively). Approximately, 50% of the total fatty acid fraction was covered by PUFAs in B. spinosa. Out of which, 44% comprised of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Marine members from the Molluscan class gastropods have been found to contain 18:1n-9, 20:4n 6, 20:5n-3 and 22:5n-3 as the major fattyacids 22,17 . C16:0 and C18:0 were the major saturated fattyacids (SFAs) observed both in T. telescopium and B. spinosa, while C14:0 was observed only in B. spinosa species. C20:0 and C22:0 were observed in trace amount. Odd chain fattyacids such as pentadecanoic acid (C15:0), heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) and nonadecanoic acid (C19:0) were present in both the species. Tridecanoic acid (C13:0) (1.88%) was observed only in T. telescopium. Collectively, the SFAs were present in much greater quantity than polyunsaturated ones in T. telescopium, while the reverse was observed for B. spinosa (Fig. 2). Among the SFAs, hexadecanoic acid occurred in major quantity among all the fattyacids quantified. This is in good agreement with previous reports 23,10 that C16 fatty acid is the main fattyacids in molluscs and in all tropic levels too. From the literatures, it was clear that C13 and C14 were especially active in antisporulation 24,8 . According to 25 , twenty-two SFAs were found in Leuconia johnstoni species with relative abundance 59.1%. Studies on the lipids of adult molluscs show that palmitic (16:0) and stearic (18:0) acids were the dominant fattyacids 26,27,28 . SFAs with an uneven chain length (nonadecylic, heptadecylic, pentadecylic and tridecylic acids) were detected in the extracts of both T. telescopium and B. spinosa, and the same have been previously reported from molluscs tissue 26,27 .
The effects of solar and experimental drying on the protein concentration and total fatty acid (TFA) content of the muscles of Atherina boyeri (sand smelt) were studied. The percentage of protein was 18.3% for fresh fish and 14.2% for sun-dried fish, while TFA content was 4.9 g/100g and 0.5 g/100g. After the drying experiment, the percentage of protein was 23% and the fatty acid (FA) content was 2.8 g/100g. The results show that natural or experimental drying favors saturated fattyacids. The n-3 polyunsaturatedfattyacids (PUFAs) are less sensitive to heat than the n-6 PU- FAs. From a nutritional point of view, it seems that the drying conditions, where parameters are T = 50˚C, moisture = 30% and air speed = 2 m/s, would be the most beneficial for the preservation of sand smelt.
factors and mechanisms, by which perinatal nutrition impacts later susceptibility to obesity, remains limited. Nevertheless, the early nutritional environment may set adipose tissue growth and function towards either fat storage or oxidation, later in life . There is some evi- dence that the composition of dietary fattyacids and especially the essential polyunsaturatedfattyacids (PUFA), linoleic acid (LA; C18:2n-6) and a -linolenic acid (ALA; C18:3n-3) and their respective long-chain products, arachidonic acid (AA; C20:4n-6), eicosapentae- noic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3) influence early adipose tissue develop- ment. These effects may be mediated by eicosanoids, and more especially by prostaglandins (PG; PGD 2 , PGE 2 ,
Abstract – Elongation of Very Long chain fattyacids-like 4 (ELOVL4) is a fatty acid elongase responsible for the biosynthesis of very long chain (VLC; ≥ C26) fattyacids in the retina, brain, skin, Meibomian gland, and testes. Het- erozygous inheritance of mutant ELOVL4 causes juvenile macular degeneration in autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STGD3). Retinal photoreceptors are enriched with VLC polyunsaturatedfattyacids (VLC-PUFAs), which have been shown by our group and others to be necessary for the survival of rod photoreceptors. Our group per- formed a series of studies using mice conditionally depleted of retinal Elovl4 (KO) aimed at understanding the role of VLC-PUFAs in long-term retinal health and function, focusing on the role of these fattyacids in mediating synaptic function between the photoreceptors and the rest of the neural retina. The absence of VLC-PUFA from the retina of KO mice resulted in a marked decrease in retinal b-wave responses of the electroretinogram as well as a decrease in the amplitude of the oscillatory potentials mediated by the neural retina. Although there were no measureable diﬀerences between KO and wild type (WT) mice in either pre-synaptic rod calcium channel function or post-synaptic bipolar cell glutamate receptor responses, ultrastructural analysis revealed a marked decrease in the diameter of synaptic vesi- cles in rod terminals. Recent quantification suggests that this decrease in synaptic vesicle size due to the absence of VLC-PUFAs in KO mice, and the consequent decrease in glutamate content, could account for the decrease in b-wave response amplitudes that were previously measured in these animals.
Methods: This analysis included 8,430 participants from the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) Project. The intake of saturated fattyacids (SFA), polyunsaturatedfattyacids (PUFA), trans unsaturated fattyacids (TFA), and monounsaturated fattyacids (MUFA) was assessed through a 136-item food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Quality of life was measured with the SF-36 Health Survey after 4 years of follow-up. Generalized Linear Models were fitted to assess the regression coefficients (b) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the 8 domains of the SF-36 according to successive quintiles of each kind of fattyacids intake.
reported with the possible association with increased risk of BC in rodents  and humans . It is proved that BC syn- thesizes endogenously 95% of FAs for nutritional lipid sup- ply. SFAs and MUFAs positively associated are reported with the risk of BC . Polyunsaturatedfattyacids (PUFAs) are an important part of the diet, sufficient amount of PUFAs in the diet is essential because they are structural components of cell membrane and play an important role in cell signaling, metabolism, regulation of gene expression and inflammation . Some animal studies found that n-6 PUFAs are associated with tumor enhancing effects while n-3 PUFAs shows protective effects . The n-3 PUFAs may be associated with several mechanisms that counteract carcinogenic processes [11, 12]. Another study found that saturated fat increased the risk of BC but they did not found a significant association of total PUFAs  or n-3 PUFAs intake . An experimental study reported that n- 3 PUFAs in comparison to n-6 PUFAs shows inhibitory ef- fects on BC .