Abstract: Postnatal care is the care given to the mother and her newborn baby immediately after the birth and for the first six weeks of life. This period marks the establishment of a new phase of family life for women and their partners and the beginning of the lifelong health record for newborn babies. The main objectives of the study was to access the health status of mother and new born and to monitor the dietary intake of mothers and also to council the mother about the essentiality and necessity of breast feeding their infants and to create awareness about immunization of the infants.the aim of the present study was to assess to prevelence of post natal care women in hyderabad. A study of post natal care and creating awareness on post natal care was done by questionnaire. the place of study was “ MODERN GOVERNAMENT MATERNITY HOSPITAL” located at betlaburg Hyderabad. The sample consist of the total of 500 subjects. A well structure questionaire was employed to interview the subject about their AGE, BMI ,FAMILY HISTORY, REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH , DIET, AND LIFE STYTLE and also . thee questions were regareding the intake of supplyments during pregnancy and to aware people care ,daily recommendation of iron , calcium and folic acid . type of diet which they consume etc .
Objective: to evaluate the level of knowledge and awareness of women about post-natal services. Methods: across sectional study was conducted on 298 women who attended AL-Salam PHCC, at AL-Amel district in Baghdad from June to September 2018 using a modified structured questionnaire. Results: level of utilization of postnatal care services was (65.7%), most of the participants were housewives, with intermediate income and with intermediate and secondary education. Conclusion: the utilization rate was relatively high, with significant association with factors such as, age, occupation, parity, history of abortion and awareness about the presence of the services.
services compared to those who were self-employed or in the casual employment. Similarly, household wealth index boosted respondent‟s utilization level; those in high income (OR=3.6211, p=0.0000) and middle-income earners (OR= 1.9121, p=0.015) respectively were more likely to seek PNC service than those in low- income category. Adjusting place of delivery, respondent who delivered in private and mission hospitals respectively were three times more likely to be PNC service utilizers (OR 2.926912, P=0.000) and (OR 2.978261, P=0.053) than respondents who delivered in government facilities. Mode of transport affected utilization of PNC service. Walking to a health facility (OR 0.0214, P<0.001) and using a public transport (OR 0.0936, P<0.001) reduced the odds of seeking PNC services compared to those using private transport. Utilization of PNC services were inversely proportional to cost. Knowledge of services was directly proportional to services utilization. Highly knowledgeable people (OR=2.2307, p=0.008) were more likely to be utilizers compared to those who rated services poorly. Quality of service endeared people to be utilizers. Those who perceived quality of care to be good and average were 4 (OR 3.9941753-, P<0.001) and 5 (OR 5.260799, P<0.001) times more likely to be utilizers compared to those who perceived care to be poor. Similarly, attitude to PNC service was a predictor. Those who had positive attitude (OR=3.6507, p=0.000) towards PNC services more likely to be utilizers compared to those who had a negative attitude.
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During FGD one mother who delivered at a private facility reported; “The nurses were very kind and helpful I had no problem going their several times to ask for assistance”. Another said, “I declined to go to the clinic as informed because I felt they just wanted money as I was feeling well and the baby was fine as well. This was seconded by a rejoinder from a mother using the public facility who said, “The nurses are unfriendly and the queues are so long, that put me off”. A statement expounded by Key informant, who said, “There is shortage of nurses at the public facilities resulting in delayed services and clients may not get enough attention. Similarly, attendance of fourth ANC visit (χ² =4.62 df =1 p=0.032) influenced utilization of PNC services. Higher proportion (95%) of women who attended the fourth ANC visit utilized the PNC services compared to those who had not completed (5%). This finding was explained qualitatively. During FGD the mothers stated that at the fourth ANC visit they received a lot of counselling on the post-natal care, one of the mothers reported “she used to wait until 6 weeks to start PNC care but with the last pregnancy she was encouraged by the nurse to go after two weeks”.
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Maternal and infant mortality are a major concern world over. Approximately 287,000 maternal deaths occur annually of which more than half (56%) occur in sub-Saharan Africa [1,2]. Nigeria’s maternal mortality rate of 630 per 100,000 live births is very high even by African standard [3,4]. Nigeria which has approximately two per cent of the world’s population contributes almost 10% of the world’s maternal deaths [5,6,7]. Most maternal deaths-approximately two thirds occur in the post natal periods [4,8]. Similarly, an estimated 4 million babies die worldwide in the first 4 weeks of life (the neonatal period) annually . Of these, 99% occur in low and middle income countries, where a large population of births take place at home and where post natal care is either not available or is of poor quality . In Nigeria, more than half (56%) of women did not receive any post natal care, 38% received a post natal check-up within two days of delivery while 3 per cent of women had a check-up 3 to 41 days after delivery . The postnatal period is the time from just after delivery through the first six weeks of life . Postnatal care services enables health professionals identify post-delivery problems, and their associated risk factors as well as provide prompt treatment [12,13]. Additionally, postnatal care provides a veritable opportunity for parturients to reinforce their knowledge on best practices in motherhood initiated during the antenatal period. These include information and support on exclusive breastfeeding, adequate nutrition during breastfeeding, instructions on breast care, advice on the care of the newborn and use of family planning .
these gene mutations are considered to be the major cause of Familial Alzheimer Disease (FAD) . The role of γ-secretase in Aβ production and in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is well established. How- ever, recent reports suggest that co-factors of the en- zymatic complex have biological functions that con- tribute to other non-disease related pathways. Moreover, γ-secretase has important roles in embryonic devel- opment through the regulation of specific signal trans- duction pathways . Strong expression of PSENs has been observed in the cells of the ventricular zone of early and late rat embryos followed by a gradual decrease during post-natal development . Song and colleagues proposed that during early embryogenesis the role of PSENs is most probably related to Notch cleavage . Loss of PSEN1 expression in mice results in lethality at early stages of development , with embryos having characteristics similar to those of Notch-null mice . The relative levels of PSEN1/PSEN2 mRNAs vary among different tissues at different stages of brain de- velopment: PSEN1 mRNA levels are approximately three-fold higher than those of PSEN2 in the brains of developing humans and mice, suggesting that the ex- pression of PSEN transcripts is differentially regulated during nervous system maturation [8,7]. PSEN1 expres- sion peaks at post-natal day 10 (P10), particularly in the cerebellum and hippocampus . A recent work by Kumar and Thakur reported that PSEN1 expression is upregulated from P0 to P45 in mice, a critical time window for synaptogenesis, including the formation of new synapses and the elongation of axons and dendrites, while PSEN2 mRNA showed no significant change . These developmentally regulated differences in tempo- ral-spatial expression of PSENs are likely due to pre- sence of large numbers of extracellular signaling mole- cules such as neurotrophins and neuromodulators that act through distinct pathways to regulate PSENs expression
behavior of women that they want another child shows a proxy for death of current child, so if a woman wants further children then she must take more care for the current child. It is also observed that some independent variables associated with child mortality by cross-tabulation analysis but are rejected as invalid when checked by those based on refined technique such as multinomial regression. Such a situation may be due to interrelationship between independent variables. The effect of variables ANC receive not found significant on child mortality after adjusting of social status of women. The effect of other health care practices variable effect on child mortality also became week after adjusting for social status of mothers. So it is clear that child mortality outcomes have relationship with social status of mothers in selected EAG states. In the results it was also found that the effect of various variables on child mortality varies with different levels so a proper emphasis should be given to act on these factors to reduce child mortality at various levels during planning by the government.
This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “A study on the clinical profile, management and outcome of Sacrococcygeal Teratoma in children” is a bonafide work done by Dr.K.Sriram MCh Post graduate student Institute of child health and hospital for children, Madras Medical College, Chennai in partial fulfillment of the University rules and regulation for the award of MCh (Pediatric Surgery) under my guidance and supervision during the academic year 2011-2014.
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Protected at birth (PAB) against tetanus is the proportion of births protected from tetanus infection at birth by tetanus toxoid protective dose immunization (TTPDI) of the mothers before birth [1, 2]. World Health Organization (WHO) recommends 5 consecutive doses of tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination for child bearing age women (CBAW) per schedule to protect the birth against tetanus . Tetanus is a highly fatal, non-communicable, toxin-me- diated disease caused by Clostridium tetani bacteria [3, 4]. Women and their newborns are at high risk of ac- quiring tetanus related to the birthing process . Glo- bally, tetanus toxoid (TT) immunization of the mothers is one of the preventive strategies of maternal and neo- natal tetanus (MNT) at birth [5–7].
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Bloom SL, Kelly MA. (2000)conducted an experimental study to assess the effectiveness of prone vs supine positioning in relieving afterpains. Samples were 85 postnatal mothers who divided into two groups and within 24-72 hours of childbirth prone positioning provided first group and supine for second group. The study results revealed that significantly about 95% of women preferred prone position compared with supine position .The study concluded that prone position is more effective method of pain relief than supine position when applied within 24-72 hours after child birth . 15 The above tables shows the obstetrical information of post natal mothers. Majority of women had time of first stage of delivery 6-12 hours. In experimental group 15 (50% ) while in control group10 (33.3%)
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Reproductive health is defined as a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and process: Reproductive health therefore is multi dimensional and associated with various life cycle events of women such as menarche, marriage, pregnancy, child birth and menopause, poverty, lack of purchasing power, illiteracy and malnutrition are the main factors in the causation of reproductive health. Early age at marriage, large family size, high parity, small inter-pregnancy interval, ignorance and prejudices, social customs, non availability of skilled health service at times of need, poor referral services and communication systems are the other factors which have a direct bearing on the reproductive health of women. In every seventy girls who reach reproductive age in India; one will eventually die because of pregnancy, child birth or unsafe abortion compared to one in 7300 in the developed world. More will suffer from preventable injuries, infection and disabilities, often serious and lasting a life time, due to the failures in maternal care. Nearly 250 mothers will die of child birth in India in a day. Indeed, India contributes a little under a fourth of the world’s maternal mortality (Deccan Chronicle, 24th October 2009, Hyderabad). At present 2.70 crore babies are born every year. 20 lakh babies and 70,000
Ayurveda elucidate due importance for the care of mother at every phase of her life especially when it comes to antenatal and postnatal care. Post natal care (post-natal) is a period following child birth which can be certainly co-related with Sutika paricharya explained in Ayurveda. In this stage mother should be educated to take care of herself and the new born baby. After delivery woman becomes weedy, also empty bodied due to physical and mental stress and debility at the level of reproductive organs. It is essential for a mother to deepen and gain the mental, emotional and spiritual resources needed to carry her through all the demands of family life, without feeling depleted. This paper highlights on various major components of Sutika Paricharya such as Ashwasana (Psychological Reassurance), Vihara and Aahara (Normal diet in puerperium) etc. Ayurveda prescribes numerous herbs to establish healthy status of the woman after delivery.
The paper has been conceptualised with the rationale. First, the cost was one of the major barriers in availing the antenatal and natal care among poor and margina- lised. This has particular bearing in the state of Rajasthan that has higher infant and maternal mortality than national average and large variation in maternal care util- isation among different population sub-groups within the state. Second, because of poor quality of the services at public health care institutions, utilisation of maternal health services from private sector increased over a period of time, which had a significant burden on the economic condition of households across various socio-economic groups. Also, women switch the service provider from public to private and vice versa during pregnancy and child birth. No attempt has been made to capture this pattern of service utilisation. Third, it is important to document to what extent the large investment on mater- nal care under the NRHM helped in the reduction of cost for end users. This is generally of great interest to policy makers and planners for evidence-based policy-making.
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In Ghana, a child born either at home or in a health facility is mandated to have a postnatal care (care given to the mother and the child one month after birth) and subsequent monthly weighing of the baby known as child welfare care. The reasons for the child welfare care include: growth monitoring of the child, for early detection of any abnormal growth existing condition for referral to the appropriate health unit for special attention, for immunization against the six childhood killer diseases and for counseling of the mothers with regards to the welfare of both the child and the nursing mother.
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This article describes a survey of alumni perceptions of a post graduate programme in Information and Library Science (ILS), the B.Bibl. Honours, at the University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. The aim of the survey was to investigate the extent to which the B.Bibl. Honours Programme was seen by its alumni to have achieved its desired outcomes. The survey is part of a larger tracer study planned for the University of Natal's Information Studies Programme. Following on Bell's 1998 study of the role of the Information Studies Department (as it then was) tracer studies of the various categories of alumni were planned. As a form of regional needs analysisfeedback from alumni was regarded as important for programme review. Such feedback can indicate which aspects of formal professional training were useful or may become useful and also which areas need to be considered for inclusion in future curriculum revision. As co-ordinator of the B.Bibl. Honours programme the author embarked on the study reported in this article. A tracer study of the Post Graduate Diplomates is in progress.
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Chiu, Jin-Yu; et al ,(2010), Effects of Gua-Sha Therapy on Breast Engorgement: this study was to determine the effects of two breast care methods, that is, scraping (Gua-Sha) therapy (administered to the experimental group) and traditional breast care (i.e., massage and heating; administered to the control group). A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 54 postpartum women. The Gua-Sha protocol selected appropriate acupoint positions, which included ST16, ST18, SP17, and CV17. Each position was lightly scraped seven times in two cycles. For the control group, we used hot packs and massage for 20 min. Results showed no statistical differences between the two groups at baseline. Body temperature, breast temperature, breast engorgement, pain levels, and discomforting levels were statistically different between the two groups at 5 and 30 min after intervention (p < .001). The results of generalized estimating equation analysis indicated that, with the exception of body temperature, all variables remained more significant (p < .0001) to improving engorgement symptoms in the experimental group than those in the control group, after taking related variables into account. Our findings provided empirical evidence supporting that Gua-Sha therapy may be used as an effective technique in the management of breast engorgement.
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People of all ages can have PTSD. However, women may be at increased risk of PTSD because they are more likely to experi- ence the kinds of trauma that can trigger the condition. Whereas childbirth is a naturally occurring event within the range of usual experience for the majority of women, for some women child- birth is physically and psychologically traumatic and can trigger emotional stress reactions of sufficient intensity to cause PTSD (Ballard 1995; Boorman 2014; Czarnocka 2000; Moleman 1992; Reynolds 1997; Wijma 1997). It is accepted that childbirth is, at least in some instances, a complex event that may lead to a variety of psychological responses. Women may perceive their birthing ex- perience as traumatic as a result of the mode of birth, intervention during the labour or birth, or the way they were treated by health- care professionals (Allen 1998). The DSM-5 definition of stressors for the development of PTSD was revised in 2012 to include the trigger to PTSD as exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury or sexual violation. This definition can clearly be applied to certain experiences of childbirth, whether the perceived threat is subjective or objective. However, the onset of PTSD following childbirth has been a somewhat controversial topic.
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The in utero environment in which a eutherian mammal fetus develops can determine pre-dispositions to metabolic diseases later in life. The maternal uterine lining connects to the developing fetus’ umbilical cord via the placenta. This organ regulates fetal gas exchange, macronutrient supply and carbon dioxide elimination. Oxygen concentration and macronutrient supply are two in utero environmental conditions that can affect immediate fetal and later life post-partum metabolism. In fact, the association between a poor in utero environment and later life development of metabolic diseases has recently emerged as a global health concern for humans (Hales and Barker, 2001). The notion that the in utero environment could play a role in adult-onset diseases was first entertained by David Barker. His hypothesis (deemed the Barker hypothesis) stated that low oxygen and nutrient transfer across the placenta can result in increased risk of metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors for metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), in later life (Barker, 2004). This hypothesis led to the investigation of in utero hypoxia and under nutrition as possible contributors to such diseases (De Boo and Harding, 2006).
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od and sleep conditions. They were provided appropriate nursing interventions when treat- ment measures took effect. The conventional care group only used the conventional nursing mode. The contents include: Daily use of ben- zalkonium bromide solution to scrub twice, to keep the incision dry, use warm water to scrub the nipple and areola before and after nursing, and urge the patient to pay attention to diet, with high protein and liquid food. Furthermore, the extended care group added extended care to conventional nursing. The nursing items in- cluded care of the site where the mother gave birth: two scrubbings per day with a bromogera- mine solution, keeping the incision dry, instruct- ing maternal side rest as well as taking strict measures to monitor the infection condition. Breast care: wiping the nipples and areola with lukewarm water before and after breastfeed- ing, guiding the mothers to perform simple stimulation and massage before breastfeed- ing, and instructing the mothers to pump the breastmilk by hand or use a breast pump in case of insufficient milk to avoid the occurren- ce of a blockage to the lactiferous ducts. Dietary care: the mothers mainly had a high protein diet with vitamin and mineral supple- ments. Mothers and their families were also reminded to eat more deep-sea fish, cherries, and bananas to help regulate emotional func- tions. Psychological care: assisting mothers to completion of conversion from wife to mother, guiding mothers to read books and articles re- lated to puerperal healthcare and childcare, and communicating with mothers. Post-disch- arge care: establishing a maternal chat group, arranging nurses to answer maternal problems every day, promoting maternal communication, performing follow-up telephone surveys among all mothers once or twice a week, asking the mothers for periodic reviews or personal revi- ews once every three weeks, scoring the Self- Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and the Self- Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) with reference to a study of Basnet et al. . Once the outliers were observed, the counseling physician was informed to provide guidance and intervention for a period of three months.
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Urban slum population is socially, economically, politically, environmentally and psychologically disadvantaged . Due to their low level of health literacy and autonomy, they are less likely to take part in health and health care service. So concerned efforts are needed to educate and empower the urban poor to enable them to take informal decision and actions for promoting and preserving their health. Community health workers and volunteers play an important role in health education and empowerment of the urban poor, strong community organizations and social network could be established through the supports of NGOs and related government organizations .