potential output are considered to be more model-dependent than the alternatives. Given the advantages and drawbacks of various approaches used in the literature, cen- tral banks do not usually depend exclusively on a single estimate of potential output. The most common approach is to rely on a production function approach and then compute alternative estimates, most likely from a statistical model, as a cross-check. Disparities across potential output estimates and comparison with those published by international institutions, like the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the European Commission, are often used as an indication of the uncertainty surrounding these estimates. When avail- able, survey data on the degree of capacity utilisation can also be used either as a check on output gap estimates or as complementary information to inform policy makers on the current state of the economy.
The input-output data obtained from a 1977/1978 survey of small- holder rubber farms in South Sumatra is the basis of this study. An unrestricted form of the Cobb-Douglas production function is fitted to LIOT and MURA data separately. The function is estimated by two different techniques, Ordinary Least Square and Linear Programming. The function estimated by the first approach is interpreted as the average production function, and expresses the output level which an average farm can obtain from a given set of inputs. The function estimated by the second approach is interpreted as the best or frontier production function, which expresses the maximum output level that can be obtained by only the most efficient farms from the combination of factors at the existing state of technical knowledge. The major findings with regard to the production coefficients are as follows:
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Second, since remittances do not directly enter a production function as an input, we assess how remittances might contribute to the output per worker by examining the extent and direction in which they affect the contributions of capital per worker, human capital, and factor productivity to output per labor. At this stage of analysis, we do a growth accounting analysis and develop three equations: where the contributions of physical capital, human capital, and total factor productivity are the dependent variables in three different equations in which we regress on the remittances while controlling for foreign direct investment, aid, trade-openness, institutions, income group level, and interaction terms. The interaction terms are important because remittances might have an effect on output through other factors, especially education, trade, official development assistance, and foreign direct investment, but also depending on the level of average income or institutional risk. The interactive terms might have either a positive effect or a substitution effect. In the event of a substitution effect, the interactive term will have a statistically significant negative coefficient.
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The paper shaded light on different methodologies used in the literature to estimate potential output, and focused on the production function approach which was used to estimate potential output. The contributions of labor, capital stock and total factor productivity to potential GDP growth rates in Egypt over the period (1991-2014) were calculated. Output gap estimates were also derived and used to visualize their relationship with selected economic indicators.
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Once analysis is expended to capture artist human capital accumulation, the supply of the labor in the arts market appears as a resulting from an inter-temporal process of resources allocation that is based on an accumulation of human capital decision. This dynamic extension of basic model allows some other, even more important, peculiarities of arts labor market to be explained (oversupply of arts labor, earning penalties, poverty among artists, and similar). In this article two such dynamic models of artist behavior are developed. Both are based on household production function approach. Both models are also based on the assumption that artists are multiple-job-holders and that they have to decide how much of their time to devote to artistic work and how much time to non-artistic work. It is in accordance with casual observation that artists, especially in the early ages of their career, works at both non-artistic jobs as well as at artistic one. First model that is proposed here is based on the assumption that artist are hired on the arts labor market and paid for their arts time. This approach was once proposed by Caserta and Cuccia (2001) but has not been solved and developed further. Second model is based on the assumption that artists sell their products, like paintings for instance, on the market. Labor supply is in this case derived from artist product supply function.
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The study delved into economic efficiency analysis of Fadama Telfairia farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. Specifically, it identified the production systems; estimated the economic efficiency and their determinants. A multistage random sampling technique was adopted in the selection of 40 Fadama Telfairia farmers from each of the three agricultural zones of the State. A well-structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio - economic characteristics and other relevant variables. Descriptive statistics, which subsume frequencies, means and percentages, were used in the analysis of data on socio – economic characteristics cum production systems. Economic efficiency was analyzed using Translog stochastic profit function. The Maximum Likelihood Estimation Technique was employed in estimating the function while t-test statistic was employed in testing their determinants. With respect to production systems, majority (63.33%) of Fadama Telfairia farmers practised mixed vegetable production while 36.67% adopted sole Fadama Telfairia cropping system. The profit level was influenced by fertilizer price, wage rate and farm size while efficiency was found to be influenced by age, farming experience, membership of cooperative societies, farm and household sizes. The mean economic efficiency was 0.57 and as such, the average Fadama Telfairia would require a cost saving of 42% in order to attain the profit status of the most economically efficient farmer in the sample. Given the fact that ample opportunity exists for improvement in their efficiency, introduction of birth control policies and reviews of Land Use Act of 1990 are among policy options suggested by the study.
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Results from this experiment (Figs. 1-9) provide worth information for developing liquid organic fertilizer that suitable for closed agriculture production systems in the highland of Bengkulu. It was clear that none of six green biomasses tested in this experiment provided complete high nutrient content. Each biomass has superiority over other biomasses in particular nutrient. It is therefore suggested that the use of green biomass for production of liquid organic fertilizer could not rely on single biomass. The source of green biomass should be a combination of several green biomasses in order to produce liquid organic fertilizer with high N, P, K, Ca, and Mg content. In addition, it also important to mixture the green biomasses with other natural composting material, such as poor soil , wood ash , cow manure , , ,  in order to increase composting rates, nutrient quality and crop yields. The use of a single green biomass for liquid organic fertilizer might provide high particular nutrient content, but low in other nutrients. This was confirmed by our previous result , ,  where tithonia-enriched liquid organic fertilizer contained 3,36% N, 146 ppm P, and 0.033% K. Although nitrogen content of this liquid organic fertilizer somehow comply with the standard quality for organic fertilizer issued by Indonesian Standardization Board (SNI 19-7030-2004) where total N should be > 0.4 %, but P and K content were very much lower than standard (SNI-19-7030-2004) which must be above 0.10% (P 2 O 5 ) and 0.20% (K 2 O), respectively.
For the sake of convenience, the capital input is the value of the capital required for production, the labor input is the number of workers required for production and the technology input is the funds required for the research and development of technologies for production. Thus, the production function (Solow, 1956 & 1957; Barro & Sala-i-Martin, 1995) for an economy can be expressed as follows:
Msuya et al. (2008) examined productivity variation among smallholder maize farmers in Tanzania particularly Kiteto and Mbozi districts. They employed a stochastic frontier production model to identify determinants of technical inefficiency in cross sectional data of 233 smallholder farmers. They found that land was the most important factor in maize production, and 40 percent of maize output was lost due to technical inefficiency. Smallholder maize farmers’ technical efficiency ranged from 0.011 to 0.910 with average of 0.606. Farmers with primary and secondary education, access to fertilizer and household size, use of agrochemicals, use of hand hoe, access to credit, gender(male), use of traditional seed and being member of the farming organization increased efficiency while, plots fragmentation, distance to plots, limited extension service, hired land increase technical inefficiency. Msuya et al. (2008) concludes that smallholder farmers operate inefficiently at lower levels; hence policies are needed to improve farmers’ extension and credits services to increase productivity and efficiency.
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This study analyses the impact of climate change on wheat productivity in Pakistan by employing production function approach using districts level data for the period of 1981-2010.The Fixed Effect (FE) estimations support the evidence that an increase of 1 0 C in the mean temperature during sowing time would reduce crop yield by 7.4 percent. The same rise in mean temperature in January and February enhances wheat productivity to the tune of 6.2 percent. However, no significant impact of rise in temperature normals during the maturity stage (March-April) was observed on wheat productivity. The deviations of mean temperature from historic (long run) mean — weather shocks are found posing no threat to wheat productivity during the period under study. Precipitation normals — during vegetative and maturity stages and their deviations from historic mean (positive) exert a positive impact on the wheat yield but the magnitude of the impact of incremental rains came out to be very low.
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Production of rice depends on some measures which are taken during cultivation. In case of both local and cultivated varieties weathering of soil, tillage, irrigation, fertilizer application are maintained so that the production may not affected by any unexpected event. But now a day we are keeping our concentration to the high yielding varieties evolved by the research organizations like BRRI, BINA, BARI etc. have produced many high yielding and disease resistant varieties. Scientists have changed the genetic sequence of the improved rice varieties. Production inefficiency is usually analyzed by its two components– technical efficiency and allocative efficiency. In this study we provide a direct measure of production efficiency of the Bangladeshi rice farmers using a stochastic profit frontier and inefficiency effects model.
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In concurrence with increasing agriculture efficiency in countries with developed market economy, also eco- nomic power of agricultural businesses increases en- abling intensification of reproduction process on farmed land. However, limited absorption land capacity does not enable inputs intensity increase over their limit level re- sulting partly from biological-technical processes and partly from relatively stable demand for food and conse- quently for agricultural raw materials. In prominent agri- cultural businesses which are crucial in use of modern technologies, funds are created with the limited possibil- ity of their allocation into agriculture. Then they have alo- cation in non-agricultural activities. Production aim of businesses is widened in such way and it includes still more varied spectrum of outputs, many of them is of in- substantial character, from internal economic stimuli. Si- multaneously, demand for agricultural raw materials and products of insubstantial character increases which rep-
To indicate the possible effects of farm specific characteristics on the efficiency of milk production, the variables such as the number of crossbred ani- mals, the experience and education of the manager, the herd size and the institutional finance ratio are included in the model for the technical inefficiency measurement. The number of crossbred animals in the livestock is likely to cast a negative effect on the level of inefficiency. The crossbred animals yield more milk as compared to the traditional ones and thus lead to a higher level of technical efficiency. hence, the farms having more crossbred livestock tend to be more efficient. Farmers having more experience are expected to be more efficient as they possess more experience in managing their enterprises and they are expected to be better crisis managers. Similarly, the farmer who possesses more formal years of education to his/her credit is expected to be more efficient as he/she tends to be more open to the new methods and technologies and more innovative as compared to others. Similarly, the farm possessing a larger herd size is hypothesized to be more efficient (provided that it possesses adequate resources to manage it). The milk producers having more finance from the institutional sources are again hypothesized to be more efficient as compared to others as they are subjected to the least exploitation and have to pay a lower rate of interests and other charges.
how tripeptide PG fragments are produced by this bacterium. We show that, unlike other characterized Gram-negative serine-protease LdcA homologs, GC LdcA is exported to the periplasm, where it associates with the outer membrane. By analyzing both the proﬁle of released PG fragments and the composition of assembled sacculi, we determined that the localization of this enzyme is critical for its function in PG fragment release and recycling. Mutations that (i) disable the active site of LdcA, (ii) restrict LdcA to the cytoplasm, or (iii) eliminate LdcA entirely all have identical phenotypes: an ablation of released tripeptide, loss of free tripeptide stems in the sacculus, and a loss of the ability of GC to activate inﬂammatory responses through hNOD1. Using reporter cells for hNOD1-dependent NF- B activa- tion, we identify LdcA as the sole enzyme in GC responsible for modifying liberated PG fragments into hNOD1 agonists, with an additional effect on the generation of hNOD2 agonist, likely through decreased supply of tripeptide substrate to make dipeptide. Unexpectedly, disruption of normal LdcA activity results in a much higher than normal release of PG fragments with monomer units still linked by intact peptide cross-bridges (referred to as peptide-linked dimers). We found that, when provided with peptide- linked dimers as the substrate, LdcA from GC can process these PG fragments to tripeptide monomers, using a combination of carboxypeptidase and endopeptidase activities not previously described for serine protease L , D -carboxypeptidases or related classes of enzymes.
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According to the literature on environment quality and pollution, we assume that 𝐸 is an inverted U-shape function with respect to 𝑁 . When the stock of water resources decreases below a certain threshold level (or the net extractive use of water resources grows beyond a certain threshold level), the degeneration process becomes irreversible. Conversely, for some high values of 𝑁 the regenerative capacities of the water resources will also decrease because it becomes more and more difficult to regenerate the entire stock of water resources. For each level of net extractive use, the stock of water will stabilize at a long-run equilibrium level. At this stable level the regenerative capacities are such that the stock of water resources remains constant. This is ensured by assuming 𝐸 𝑁 (𝑁, 𝑋(𝑄, 𝐼)) < 0 in a neighborhood of this stable level (as shown in Bovenberg and Smulders, 1995).
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their technical and allocative efficiencies. Effiong (2005) emphasized that farmers that belong to cooperative organization have more access to training, credit, production inputs and agricultural information, which enhances their efficiencies. In contrary, Abdulail and Huffman, (1988) observed that level of education accomplishment reduces technical and economic efficiencies respectively. This could probably be explained by the fact that high level of education reduces the desire for farming. Therefore, the highly educated farmers probably devoted much of their time on salaried employment instead. Therefore, policies for ensuring education attainment amongst farm households through enhanced formal and informal educational programmes that would impact positively to farmers’ efficiency and therefore should be encouraged
The evolution of a definition of role and function for proteins is difficult. At the level of the protein, I side with Dumontier , who suggests that the role/function distinc- tion may be redundant; broadly, proteins can do anything their structure allows, and only do things their structure allows. The definitions given in this paper have a consis- tent interpretation at the level of the protein; this avoids the necessity of deciding at which level of granularity to stop making the role/function distinction. We can make the distinction at all levels if we choose, but we are not forced to do so, at those levels of granularity where it is not useful. It is important to note that arguing against a role/ function distinction for proteins is not to dismiss the experience of biologists in the analysis of function assignment for genes. In this sense, the word “ function ” is being used to describe an association between a protein and a process that a protein mole- cule may be involved in; in short, the word “function”, in this case, can be considered to be a synonym for “realizable entity”.
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Using 250 initial angular velocities equally spread between -5 and 5 rad/sec, the equilibrium points were found for four different hydrofoil angles across a full range of boom positions stepping in 5 ◦ increments. The equilibrium angular velocities were then used to calculate the instantaneous power production for the system. The points highlighted in red denote negative angular velocities, meaning these would be used for a return stroke and the black points correspond to positive angular velocities which would be used for the deploy stroke. The four different hydrofoil angles were also used to evaluate Eq. (3.21) along the range of initial angular velocities. These plots show the roots of that function which are the steady-state boom angular velocities for the system. It can be seen in Figures 3.9, 3.10, 3.11 and 3.12 that with the changing hydrofoil angles some of the roots will “disappear” meaning that the angular velocity for either a deploy or a return stroke will be eliminated at a certain hydrofoil angle and the system will not be able to operate in that regime. Therefore, for some hydrofoil angles, the system could operate continuously for a complete range of boom positions (ranging from ±180 ◦ ) as seen Figure 3.8 or could only operate continuously for a
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Results of the analysis in Table 3 indicate that the coefficients of age (-0.127), is statistically significant at 5% level and maintained the right a priori negative relationship with technical efficiency. The older a fattener becomes, the more his efficiency drops. This is in disagreement with the findings by Moses (2017). It has been observed that the innovativeness of a farmer, his mental capacity to cope with the daily challenges and demands of farm production activities and his ability to do manual work, all of which bear directly on his production efficiency, tend to decrease, the older he becomes (Nwaru et al., 2006). The coefficient for fattening experience (0.110) had a significant positive effect on technical inefficiency at 5% level. This implies that a fattener who has a large number of years of experience in fattening will be able to understand the intricacies of sheep fattening and therefore will always aim to achieve higher level of technical efficiency. Effiong (2005) and Moses (2017) obtained similar results in their various studies among selected livestock farmers at both AkwaIbom and Yobe States in Nigeria. Herd size (-1.942) is statistically significant and negative at 10%, implying that the more the herd size, the more inefficient the farmer becomes. This result could be due to the fact that increasing the size of the herds will automatically mean more costs on inputs and a situation whereby most of the fatteners are smallholder fatteners who have little meager resources, increasing herd size without corresponding increase in other resources might affect
major pivot for a profitable farm enterprise and sustainability. Therefore, inefficiency in the use of resources, wrong choice of enterprise combination and cropping system constitute the major constraint to increased food production in Nigeria (Okorji and Obechina, 1985). Despite the fact that the study area is known to have a suitable environmental condition that favours high yielding and quality maize grain than other cereal crops, and its preponderance in maize production in the state with small scale farmers dominating the production, there still exist wide variations in the output level among these farmers, further with most farmers still producing below the potential average yield levels. The question therefore is, why are they producing at low levels of output? And are they efficient and profitable at the levels they operate? Are there problems of management in the allocation of resources, institutional and socio-economic constraints? This study is aimed at answering these questions. Maize being one of the most important staple food crops in the state is of vital concern to agricultural decisions, food security and the overall development of the agricultural sector and the economy. The available studies on the productivity gains in maize production following government investment in agricultural sector suggest little improvement in productivity so the goal of self-sufficiency in food production remains a long term target. Available statistics show no systematic increase in maize yield as measured by ISSN: 0976-3376 Vol. 6, Issue 02, pp. 1070-1075, February, 2015 Asian Journal of Science and Technology