Bringing functions and services together into a unified managerial framework has been seen as one way to “exercise greater strategic control and direction over the converging areas of IT and Library Services” (Hanson, p.3) and as a way to address the increasingly wide range of student needs via a “one-stop shop” service approach. The Fielden and Follett Reports of the 1990’s (mentioned above) first recommended that academic library personnel could, and should, influence learning support and that they required appropriate training and development to do it. The term “para- academic” was coined to describe the pedagogic role that subject librarians would need to play in the future in order to remain relevant to their institutions. I believe the profession has been active in taking forward this agenda. At my own institution this has been fully embraced through the Learning, Teaching and Assessment Strategy; however it is evident that continued effort needs to be put into the design of super convergence models to foreground the academic nature of the service, especially in times of economic uncertainty. There is a real danger that we may slip back to the reactive models of the past.
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Teachers are the most important elements in the successful implementation of the education system in line with the objectives. The teaching profession is the name of the profession which includes the activities regarding the process of initializing, directing, facilitating and realizing the learning of individuals in line with a particular purpose (Üstüner, 2006). The number and quality of teachers should be sufficient in order to be able to fulfil the objectives of the education system. While teachers are raised at Education Faculties, teaching certificate programs (pedagogical formation) and MA without thesis were initialized as a result of the high level of need for teachers. Thus, whether high-quality teachers are raised with these programs is discussed despite trying to fulfil the need for teachers (Yüksel, 2004). Students who graduate from the faculties other than the educational faculty or study at the third grade have started to be given pedagogical formation certificate programs as of the 2010-2011 academic year. Candidates who receive certificates by completing these programs get the right to become a teacher. In our day, teaching is regarded as a profession that requires special knowledge and skills. The preparation for teaching profession is ensured with general knowledge, field knowledge and teaching knowledge (Demirel, 1999). The quality of education is in direct proportion to the qualifications of the teachers to a great extent (Şişman, 2006).
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due to recent developments in technology as well as changes in social and economic structures of the societies. In that respect, continuous investigation of students’ needs and their characteristics is very important (p:85).”Among these individual characteristics, the affective characteristics of pre-service teachers are considered to be important as they may influence future teachers, their students’ behaviors, be related to attrition from teaching profession . One of these affective characteristics is the teaching anxiety of pre-service teachers which is one of many concerns not only of experienced teachers but also something pre-service teachers have to deal with and consider as teaching anxiety has influences upon teachers’ classroom behaviours, effectiveness, teaching-learning process and students’ achievement levels and their anxiety level (; ; ). In this regard, Gardner and Leak  conceptualized teaching anxiety as anxiety experienced in relation to teaching activities that involve the preparation and execution of classroom activities. Meanwhile, the literature (; ; ) lists some of the causes of teaching profession anxiety as follows: being appointed as a teacher, Public Personnel Selection Examination (PPSE-KPSS) or finding a job, specific characteristics of learning situations (teaching planning, the ability to analyze problems and learning, classroom management, student assessment), teaching competencies, supervision, professional career and development, being unqualified and skilled in the field of study, the status and the value of the profession in the society, decrease in employment opportunities, working in a different fields, increase in the number of university graduates, heavy work conditions, changing education system.
Before community placement, the students’ major moti- vators were availability of basic requirements like food, water, shelter, power, and money; however, after community placement, money and infrastructure (transport and accom- modation) were the important motivators for teaching and learning. The shift in responses was after the students had experienced the rural communities without direct provision and needed to survive beyond the basics of life as a health- professional. Money is perceived to change people’s moti- vation and their behavior toward others, 18 including being a
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A third new circumstance can be identified: a diversification process of ideologies. Partly clashing ideological trends can be identified. In Sweden, as in many other Anglo-Saxon and western countries, right-wing political movements are attempting to influence how schools operate. These movements include a return to order, punishment and retribution, league tables, classification, individualism, elitism, focus on core subjects, and the separation of theoretical and vocational upper secondary programs. In other words, we can see a movement away from the ‘fuzzy school’ with group work, interdisciplinary teaching, holistic learning, and the trust in the student’s own drive for knowledge. In some aspects, this reinforces old ideals in the profession (core subject focused) and works against new ideals (interdisciplinary, problem-based learning). On the other hand, many educators still endorse holistic views on education and learning with interdisciplinary teaching, problem- based learning and appealing to students’ own drive for learning. These ideological trends flourish simultaneously. The former trend encourages an organisation-oriented identity among teachers, whereas the latter encourages the traditional professional identity. Also this can be interpreted as a diversifying process within the profession.
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Training future teachers at university is constantly scrutinised, not only by students, academic personnel preparing future teachers, curricula and assessment teams, and expert staﬀ from the Ministry of Education, but also by a range of scientiﬁ c research. The aim of the Institute of Lifelong Learning at Mendel University is, on the basis of its own research and content analysis of the existing bachelor’s degree programs, to upgrade teacher training colleges in correlation with the changing demands of the teaching profession. College preparation should be more focused on gaining practical skills that relate to theoretical knowledge. It should be remembered that students must be well equipped with theoretical knowledge, which should subsequently support their professional performance once qualiﬁ ed, and which they will not be able to gain in later training. However, this theoretical knowledge must correspond to the concept of the profession and must not be isolated from the professional reality. The aim is to improve the quality of teaching in teacher education to include subjects which will allow teachers to better understand the educational reality of students, to solve problems and to get adequate practical experience. This research shows that the majority of students on the Specialization in Pedagogy bachelor program are satisﬁ ed with the course content. However, in some cases only partial satisfaction prevails when students feel a degree of inadequacy in particular regarding the practical experience and skills they have gained. Currently, teacher education programs favour the teaching of theory over practical teaching. Also, evaluation of selected areas of the professional skills of students on the Bachelor’s degree program shows that the best- and worst-rated areas of the professional skills of students on both Bachelor’s degree programs are almost identical. The highest-rated include the willingness to learn and undertake further education; teamwork, and communication skills. The biggest weakness of the students was perceived to be in foreign languages, understanding of sources of information, and also their understanding of legislation within their sector. The reason for this negative evaluation may be to some extent the fact that legislation in the sector is undergoing constant change, and if students can’t understand sources of information, then they will be unable to search for and register changes in the relevant legislation.
When pre-service teachers are given opportunities for observing and applying understandings about teaching and learning in real educational contexts, significant professional development can result (McIntyre, Byrd & Foxx, 1996). Regular feedback from Coaches has shown that working in schools as a paid employee of the university has resulted in a number of benefits as pre-service teacher students are able to gain skills and knowledge in their chosen profession in an environment that is distinct from the university classroom or formal practicum placement. Brennan Kemmis and Ahern (2011) define “practicum” as usually being “a supervised activity where a novice is placed in the workplace and mentored through a set of experiences that will hopefully equip them to enter the profession. The practicum is generally assessed” (p. 211). Such assessed practical learning experiences in schools can be an especially stressful time as students encounter the realities of teaching (Gardner, 2011).
Abstract . In most Schools of Architecture, Architecture Studio is at the core of the architectural learning process. In the process, students are trained to have the skills of architectonic spaces design based on the study of the site, its function, and its aesthetics. Students are also trained to have awareness and understanding about the impact of their design on the surrounding environment, both physically and socially. Also, students are trained to present their designs in various forms such as visual graphics, verbal narratives, and three dimensional model animations. Indonesian Association of School of Architecture (AP- TARI Asosiasi Perguruan Tinggi Arsitektur Indonesia) and Indonesian Institute of Architects (IAI - Ikatan Arsitek Indonesia) has formulated an education Standards, Curriculum, and Achievements of Architect Professional Program to be referred by Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education (KEMENRISTEKDIKTI – Kementerian Riset, Teknologi, danPerguruanTinggi) as the guidance for the implementation of Architect Professional Program (PPA - Pendidikan Profesi Arsitek) in Indonesia. One of the eight recommendations is the PPA Content Standard which contains the learning for the achievement of IAI Architect Competencies through the recommended study materials. However, the recommended study materials did not indicate the activity of the Architecture Studio learning model (Final Report of APTARI Part II and IAI). Will architect’s competence be achieved if the learning process withoutarchitectural studio learning model? The formulation of the curriculum that is developed independently by the IAI recommends the learning of Architectural Studio as Professional Studio. The size of the SKS is large enough to enable someone who follows the lesson to intensively gain experience in designing the building as a real architectural work. This Architecture
Training young accountants according to (Okafor, 2012; Ezeani, 2012) advise that professional bodies, parents and/or guardians, and teachers are held accountable for insufficient skills desired by a prospective employer in a potential employee. It is not without facts that it is also the responsibility of accountants either in the academia or in organizations to continuously improve their skills and knowledge by continuously undergoes training. Learning is certainly not limited to the students. Teacher or tutors become experts in the accounting major and are able to mentor probable accountants— teachers of quality. There are various methods undertaken to train students in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. More qualified accountants contribute in its own way in the transformation of the accounting profession. Moreover, integration of professionalism (Langmead & Sedaghat, 2007) in the accounting curriculum will loosen the bottle- neck causing discomfort in the accounting profession. Potential bosses will see more reasons why fresh graduates should be selected with their already robust curriculum vitae at this level. Additionally, the competition gap between accountants who studied locally and foreign students will be bridged eventually. Langmead & Sedaghat (2007), undertook a an empirical study from fall 2004 to fall 2005, by introducing new a new course, Masters of Science in Finance (MSF) and the existing MBA. The results were that performance with and without updating the syllabi. It was stated that the accounting and finance department did not help in improving management conditions due to the crisis. However, those that were able
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In an educational environment, faculty and staff members globally are seeking ways to utilize software programs to improve professional development, leadership development training and the delivery of instruction and assessment of students’ work. Students today are seeking ways to self-check their work before submission to faculty members. Therefore, needed programs and technology tools are a must to have today at the university or for student to access from their own home environment at any place around the world. In order to ensure that the university has the support from key top leaders, the leadership team at various levels at the university should make sure that the infrastructure needs are in place to accommodate or support blended learning programs. It is important to have at the maintenance stage blended learning teaching programs that are relevant and meaningful for the workforce economy. Therefore, curriculum technology programs should be mapped out properly, strategically, updated and improvements should be clear for all ongoing planning and implementation stages and evaluation of all new or improved programs (Welch, 2007). Blended learning programs should be updated within a three year period or less in order to stay current with the needs of industry in the public and private sector. Regardless of the instructional methods used, all college programs should show quality in their content and delivery. Faculty use of time wisely, plus surveying faculty and students to secure feedback of program satisfactory use of software for blended learning should take place by the leadership team at least twice a year (Mandernach, 2005). The leadership team at the university should support quality blended learning programs by providing needed resources to faculty, students and staff. It is essential that students are receiving quality services.
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can impact on students’ success, academic engagement and retention (Tinto, 2000; Krause et al., 2005; Harvey and Drew, 2006; Tinto, 2006; Thomas, 2011, 2012; Andrews et al., 2012; Vossensteyn et al., 2015). This can lead to a negative impact on the academic reputation of the HEI and possibly leading to student dissatisfaction and increased attrition rates. It is critical, therefore, for HEI personnel to ensure that the product students are investing in matches their expectations in order to hopefully engender higher student satisfaction (Connor et al., 2001; Yorke and Thomas, 2003; Davies, 2012). Thus, the UK HE landscape is likely to change with greater emphasis on the dissemination of high-quality learning and teaching (L&T) information to current and prospective students (see BIS, 2015).
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It is the teacher-training through which student-teachers get simulated environment of teaching in a controlled atmosphere which is called Micro-Teaching. In this Micro-Teaching session, student-teachers play the role of teacher whereas other peer student-teachers become student in an artificial classroom situation. Here, in Micro-teaching session, the student-teachers, practice teaching is supervised by the Faculty Members and the process of rectification and filtering goes on until perfection comes at least acquiring some basic skills of teaching such as narration, explanation, black-board work, using lesson plan and teaching aids, questioning, stimulus variation, reinforcement , recapitulation, providing homework etc.
Only a few experiences have been described in these works, and this is due mainly to the low level of direct involvement of the authors in the experiences described. We believe that most of these authors usually have a rather good idea of what action research is all about, yet they seem to be somewhat removed from the professional involvement this type of research entails. This leads us to consider that this methodology is plagued with too much doctrinaire theorisation and too little professional commitment.
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challenge and support through critical friendship for schools in challenging circumstances also emerges as an especially powerful form of support and an especially effective route to capacity building; this is also proven to be impactful on attainment outcomes (Hill and Matthews, 2008 and 2010). A critical factor in the partnership is the deliberate focus on teaching and learning (National Audit Office, 2009). Where high performing partner schools are engaged in such activity, there is no proven deleterious effect on their outcomes (Hill and Matthews, 2008 and 2010; Levin, 2007). For schools in urban and other challenging circumstances, contextual intelligence is also considered vital in terms of addressing barriers to learning
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It is also interesting to note that to enhance the teaching profession, the world body of teaching councils, that is, the International Forum of Teaching Regulatory Authorities (IFTRA), with headquarters at Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom in its 2009 world conference mandated member countries to expedite action on the standardization of teacher education programme and teachers recognition criteria. The need for the Post Graduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) Benchmarks was pursued vigorously by the committee of deans of Education, especially by its chairman Prof. O.O. Anowor. It urged the TRCN to expedite action on the challenge. The TRCN CAP T3 of 1993 gave responsibility to the TRCN to determine who is a teacher in Nigeria and to determine the level of knowledge and skills required to be a teacher and to raise the level from time to time. The PGDE National Benchmark, therefore, is an outcome of the international, national and statutory mandates (2012. TRCN).
more information about the process and job market in different areas of Canada, tools such as this help manage the expectations of skilled immigrants upon their arrival in Canada. The CPSO (College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario) has also put forth a number of recommendations fairly recently by way of its Physician Resource Task Force. These recommendations were put forth to address the doctor shortage as well as address barriers to practice for foreign-trained graduates to help ease the transition into the Canadian medical profession (CPSO, 2004). Of the CPSO’s 15 recommendations, the Ontario government has supported several which include: creation of a clearing house to assist international medical graduates through the registration/credentialing process; increasing the number of post-graduate training programs; increasing funding for educational infrastructure to support the increase in number of training positions; the establishment of a quality assurance program to province accelerated registration for physicians who are currently in practice in other jurisdictions; establishing a policy to recognize non-family medicine specialists who, while meeting educational and practical criteria, have not received the royal college of physicians and surgeons specialist
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1978;Vygotsky 1986). Learning began to be conceptualised as something that takes place amongst groups, between peers and with the more knowledgeable people in groups passing on knowledge and skills to less knowledgeable others, who in turn act upon the knowledge and skills to develop them further according to their circumstances. Since then, socio-cultural approaches to theorising and researching learning have developed. New research agendas arising from this work include the value of examining learning at the individual, interpersonal and community levels (Rogoff 2003), of considering the situated nature of cognition (Kirshner & Whitson 1997), of looking closely at the nature of interaction and dialogue involved in learning (Edwards & Mercer 1987;Mercer 1995), of
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This research was conducted in one of the six HEI-schools partnerships in England where the initial research studies described in the introduction took place. The students were all on one year, secondary (age 11-18) Post-Graduate Certificate of Education (PGCE) courses, covering a range of subject specialisms. While the students are all required to have a first degree in their relevant subject, some come straight from undergraduate courses and others later in life after other career experiences. In England, students on such courses are required to spend a minimum of 120 days in school, two-thirds of the 180 day total. At the university they are taught as a cohort, with most teaching taking place in small subject or cross-subject groups. Underpinning the teaching approach is a commitment to developing reflective practice. There are strong links between the university and partnership schools, with committees made up of representatives from schools and university faculty responsible for developing and monitoring the partnership. Faculty tutors visit students in school on a minimum of four occasions during their practicum placements. The schools involved are very diverse in terms of: indices of social deprivation (e.g. level of poverty); city/ rural locations; sizes; and ethnicity profiles.
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Thus, the concept of student TP is deeply rooted in a drive towards the development of competent and professional teach ers. Furthermore, the global demand in fostering international networking among universities is escalating. As a result, many higher education institutions initiate and develop collaboration with other international organizations. According to Kabilan (2013), the collaboration is determined by political will and educational policies. Additionally, the current concept of border less education emphasizing on eliminating boundaries of time, space, and geographical factors in delivering education has also contributed to the growing demands of international networking that support collaboration and networking in a multicultural context (Azkiyah & Mukminin, 2017; Middlehurst, 2006). International teaching practicum and placement have been part of practice in many universities in developed countries (Parr, 2013; Thomas, 2006). Equally, the trend has also become a practice in Asian countries (Kabilan, 2013). This study focused on the pre-service student in gaining their skills and experiencing in Pre-Service Student Teacher Exchange in Southeast Asia (SEA-Teacher Project). There are several reasons why this study is important to be investigated. First, in order to improve the quality of education in Southeast Asia, the SEAMEO Secretariat has initiated a project titled, ―Pre-Service Student Teacher Exchange in Southeast Asia (SEA-Teacher Project)‖. The SEA-Teacher project aims to provide opportunity for pre-service student teachers from universities in Southeast Asia to have teaching experiences (practicum) in schools in other countries in Southeast Asia. Second, pre-service sea teacher program is a new program that is organized by one of the public universities in Jambi. The pre-service sea teacher‘s program has been started from 2017 until present. Third, the number of researchers who investigated about this topic are still limited. The present sought to answer the following research questions: How do pre-service sea teachers experience professional learning during teaching practice in different culture? What meanings do they make of their experiences in the schools as they become teaching professionals?
Lastly, the findings also reveal that training has the potential to enhance mentoring skills for supporter teachers. Although the teachers argued that some of them are naturally endowed with skills needed for effective mentoring relationships, they all agree that provision of regular and adequate training could take their professional practice to another level. This indicates that on-going training for teachers involved in mentoring practice should be taken seriously by ITE providers and partner
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