Boards of directors in NPOs may be viewed as the “long-range strategy makers” of the organization, meaning that they decide the mission and objectives to be pursued (Hay, 1990, 154). Members should act as the “protectors of the various resource contributors to the organization” (Hay, 1990, 154) and are ultimately liable “for all authorized activities generating financial support on the organization’s behalf” (Pappas, 1996, 105). Board members must serve as “watchdogs that seek to minimize conflicts of interest between managers and shareholders” (Fama & Jensen, 1983, 315). One way to accomplish this is to “ensure sound policy guidance of the highest moral character” so that organizational employees, volunteers, and other stakeholders operate from solid and equal ground (Pappas, 1996, 105). Primary humanresources roles that boards must play include, “hiring and evaluation of the executive director” and “ensuring that an ongoing strategic planning and resource allocation process is in place” (Pappas, 1996, 105). Additional humanresources duties boards take on include developing incentive plans for managers and maintaining in-house command so that the organization’s human capital is not diminished through “breakdown of internal control” (Fama & Jensen, 1983, 315). Administratively, board members must ensure sound governance, monitor use of funds, encourage development of an annual report, and see to it that the organization has a detailed annual budget that is board approved (Pappas, 1996, 106). Also, they “develop organizational visibility through networking and linkage to the community,” and “recruit and select new board members and provide them with an orientation to the board’s business” (Block, 1998). Performance of these many, multifaceted, and sensitive leadership roles often determines the overall successfulness of a NPO in reaching its stated mission and moving toward fulfilling its vision.
ABSTRACT: Oracle HumanResources (Oracle HRMS) represents a strong set of applications for the optimization of the human capital an organization disposes of. In the new economy, based on the Internet, the optimum usage of work force is one of the imperatives in e- business. In order to successfully meet this target, an organization needs a simple and efficient system for the administration of the human capital.
Let us analyse Composition of the Lithuania financial system Tab. 1. It consist of Monetary intermediation enterprises or Credit and Payment Institutions: Banks, Credit unions, financial undertakings controlled by foreign banks, payment institutions, Payment institutions of EU member states, Electronic money institutions, and Electronic money institutions of EU member states. Electronic money institution — a public limited Liability Company or private limited liability company which has been issued a license with the right to issue electronic money. A payment institution is an economic entity providing payment services, which is neither a credit institution nor an electronic money institution and may not accept deposits or other repayable funds from unprofessional market participants and issue electronic money. In addition to payment services, payment institutions have a right to provide additional services closely related with these services and they are also permitted to perform other activities not associated with payment services.
There are three distinct phases in the Human Resource Management (HRM) in Tanzania. These include paper-based, transition phase to web-based (HRIS), and web based system (HRIS). During each phase, HRM is determined by availability of suitable ICT and ability of an organization to procure such technology. The paper-based system was introduced during the colonial period and lasted until the first four decades after independence. In this phase, ICT was as not advanced as it is today and therefore papers were used to keep personnel records in government and non-government organizations. The paper-based system was characterized by slowness, inaccuracy and incompleteness in the output . During the period of 1980s and 1990s, fraud in the public payroll, unqualified civil servants, delayed employee promotion and poor employees training and development plans were critical HRM challenges the publicsector [9, 19]. In 1988 for example, the government of Tanzania conducted a public service censusto identify ‘ghost workers’ in the government payroll. A total of 16,000 ghost workers were identified out of around 350,000 employees .
As Inge Kaul has pointed out in her work on global public goods, many issues today cannot be simply relegat- ed to the national but require inter- national cooperation and resourcing. Nevertheless, as many international human rights agreements illustrate, we still rely on national states to give substance to women’s human rights through social policies, publicsector employment and taxation systems that favor social investment for a collective future. Thus, a focus on governments and budgets makes virtue of what Dominique Clement identifies as a weakness in the human rights legacy in Canada– its exclusion of social rights, which have always been a critical component of the feminist agenda in giving tangible reality to the right to equality. A brief version of the ideas expressed in this article initially appeared in July 2011 for the Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences Equity Matters Blog (see Bakker, “Connecting the Canadian Women’s Human Rights Legacy to Budgets”).
Under the Soviet era, a highly centralized 'San-Epid' (sanepid) network focusing on environmental and epide- miological health was put in place in Georgia. Perhaps the most tangible achievement of the sanepid system was high immunization coverage and communicable disease control; however, it was relatively ineffective in combat- ing environmental pollution, occupational diseases and noncommunicable diseases . Public health workers employed by the sanepid system were mainly graduates from sanepid faculties of State medical institutes/universi- ties, having completed a five-year course largely focusing on environmental health and infectious disease epidemi- ology and control. Graduation was followed by central- ized training within continuous professional education programs. The 5-year course also included basic medical education (anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, etc.) as well as some clinical training (internal medicine, infec- tious diseases, surgery, etc.), and graduates were given an MD degree with specialization in epidemiology, environ- mental health, nutrition, etc. Sanepid system was a part of the entire health care system under the Ministry of Health umbrella management, and humanresources were mainly managed by employing Soviet command and con- trol approaches and style. Reporting lines were clearly defined under regulations of the Ministry of Health, and there was a strong accountability framework put in place. Following independence, Georgia embarked on health sector reforms, the main focus of which was a moderniza- tion of public health services combined with decentraliza- tion efforts. In 1996, a dedicated Department of Public
present, the problem of the performance of institutions and public officials is being monitored, the conditions required to discover their abilities and potentials are not created. In order to increase the efficiency of the work of institutions, the system for the motivation of humanresources needs to be improved. Motivation of public officials is related to the motives of human behavior, i.e. with personal motives to seek well for society and the company that provides them with services. One of the main discourses of scientists and business members are factors that influence the motivation of employees. A number of scientific analyzes have been carried out to identify motivation factors in the publicsector. However, there is no common approach among students to the concept of employee motivation and the ability to properly assess the motivation of workers and its impact factors. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the motivation tools that were applied by the leaders of the state administration services of state and municipal institutions, the aspects of motivation are divided into five groups of factors: material, recognition, self- expression, social and security factors. In the group of material factors, wages are most motivated by employees, while other assets (bonuses, premium allocation, one-time payments prescribed by the government) are rated as inadequate funds for increasing employee motivation. In the group of recognition factors, the most effective motivation modes are the participation of employees in the decision-making process, more responsibility and authority, thank-you, career opportunities; inadequately motivation funds are nominal gifts and state awards. In the self- expression group, the ability to work interesting and responsible work and the possibility of constant improvement (training, training courses, rotations, internships, missions) are well rated. In the group of social factors, the most effective motivation tools were the attention of the leaders, informal discussions, teamwork, and the appropriate leadership style. In the group safety factors, appropriate working conditions, equipped workplace, social security and insurance are well rated. In short, the most effective motivation tool in the private sector is social security, insurance, appropriate working conditions, equipped workplace, the possibility of continuous improvement. The least efficiently motivating asset in the private sector is the one-off payment prescribed by the government, state awards, bonuses, nominal gifts.
Civil service laws and negotiated agreements with worker unions have limited the freedom of publicsector manag- ers to reorganize the workforce; managers had to "admin- ister the rules"  issued elsewhere. For instance, managers could not change the status of publicsector employees to flexible contract workers, dismiss employ- ees, increase workloads or change the working schedule. They may also have had difficulties rewarding their employees because the salaries and the conditions of employment were set outside the health sector by the public employment commission, the ministry of labor, or the ministry of finance or their corresponding decentral- ized entities. Reformers did not foresee these limitations. Managers overcame these constraints by hiring additional personnel under flexible contracts. In Brazil there are now about 15 different types of contracts for publicsector employees; a significant expansion of the use of tempo- rary workers and contracts without fringe benefits has been reported in Argentina , Colombia , Ecuador , El Salvador , Panama and Peru . Funds for the temporary positions have different origins, including extrabudgetary government allocations, revenues gener- ated through user fees, or savings from positions left empty due to retirements or administrative leaves. Transferring humanresources to other politico-adminis- trative levels was more difficult than anticipated. Koleh- mainen-Aitken  and Homedes and Ugalde  have suggested that this is the most complex part of the decen- tralization process. The fear of transfers caused discontent and anxiety. On the other hand, managers did not want to absorb everybody who was transferred . The decen- tralized personnel felt insecure about the new reporting
Through CEF eTranslation and the data collected by ELRC, European public services and public administrations across Europe will be one step closer towards operating without language barriers. By helping to improve eTranslation public service providers will gain access to better quality MT systems. These increase the efficiency of human translators and, in addition, the MT systems can be integrated in various online services. This provides a major motivation for public services across Europe to donate and share data through ELRC: increased data provided for the content and languages relevant to particular administrations and/or services produces increased translation speed based on better accuracy of the machine translation output.
Another frequent approach has been to convert fixed (labor) expenditures in variable costs, by outsourcing services, particularly those of the non-clinical workforce (cleaning, laundry), but also the more technical services . The following forms of contractual relationships have been identified : Contracting out, where only private bids are allowed and where contracts may be agreed with or without a competitive process; Perform- ance contracts, which are explicit agreements between the government and publicsector managers; Internal mar- kets, where there is complete separation between the roles of purchaser and provider within the publicsector, and links through trading agreements or contracts. Competi- tive tendering (also known as market testing), where internal staff can bid for contracts in competition with pri- vate contractors; Internal contracting, where only inter- nal bids are allowed.
Among the various concepts of service quality, two of the most widely accepted and used by researchers is the SERVQUAL model by Parasuraman et al. (1988) and the technical/functional quality framework by Gronroos (1983, 1990). Parasuraman et al. (1985) proposed a conceptual framework of service quality based on the interpretation of qualitative data from extensive explanatory research performed in four service businesses. The SERVQUAL instrument by Parasuraman et al. (1988) included two 22- item sections. The intent is to measure customer expectations of various aspects of service quality and customer perceptions of the service they actually received from the local service organization (Lassar et al., 2000). Parasuraman et al. (1988) in their research found that customers consider five dimensions in their assessment of service: reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, and tangibles, which represent how the customers organize information on service quality (Cook and Verma, 2002). Apart from the expectations-performance methodology by Parasuraman et al.(1988), Cronin and Taylor (1994) claimed that a psychometrically superior assessment of service quality could be obtained through the SERVQUAL performance items alone. TQM is not only limited to product quality improvement. It also covers a wider aspect of quality in the service sector. Previous empirical studies regarding the linkage between TQM and organizational performance as well as quality have shown significant and positive results see Flynn et al. (1994), Ahire et al. (1996), and Terziovski and Samson (1999). The main focus of TQM as suggested by Ishikawa (1972), Crosby (1979), Deming (1982) and Juran (1988) is to improve overall quality including process quality and service quality (Litton, 2001). Successful TQM implementation will give benefits in improving quality and reducing rework as well as reduction in costs of poor quality such as scrap
In this paper, we seek to focus on the mechanisms through which unintended human resource effects have arisen, using the case studies of Bangladesh and Uganda, two countries that have faced many reforms attempting to improve health systems performance and delivery of care. Both countries have extremely low per capita expenditure on health (Bangladesh has a public health expenditure of 14 international dollars, one of the lowest in the region and Uganda's public health expenditure lies at 22 interna- tional dollars) and face challenges in the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals and national develop- ment. After 20 years of military regime, Bangladesh became a parliamentary democracy in 1991. With rigid central government structures and disagreement between the main political parties inhibiting response to local health needs, the country began a wide programme of reforms to address issues of responsiveness. In Uganda, a series of reforms were introduced from the early 1990s as part of a larger initiative to restore the health system fol- lowing its collapse during the political crises of the 1970s. Focusing on selected reforms in each country (see Table 1) the first section of the paper outlines the scope of the reforms implemented and provides observations on workforce responses made by earlier evaluations. The sub- sequent section then presents the results of this research, exploring the impact of the mechanisms on social interac- tions.
Jamaica is the largest English-speaking country in the Caribbean with a population of approximately 2.8 million. Recently reclassified as a lower middle-income country with a mean gross national income (GNI) of US$7,310 per capita, Jamaica spends roughly 5% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health care . Health care in Jamaica is financed through a mix of public and private sources, with approximately 56% of health care expenditures com- ing from public funds, 11% from private insurance, and 31% in the form of user fees and other out-of-pocket ex- penses . The public health care system is administered through 4 Regional Health Authorities (RHAs) with a net- work of 24 hospitals and 348 primary health care centres across the island . In addition to chronic shortages of funding and personnel - Jamaica’s combined density of physicians, nurses and midwives of 15 per 10,000 popu- lation is well below the regional average of 66 per 10,000  - the public health care system is hindered by highly fragmented health information systems. The in- formation available about the private sector is minimal and unreliable .
The causes of frauds in banks have been classified under two generic factors namely: institutional or internal factors and environmental or societal/external factors. Institutional causes of frauds include excessive workload, poor staffing – in terms of technical competence and staff strength, inadequate or lack of staff training, poor management culture, frustration, inadequate financial infrastructure, poor accounting and internal control systems (Usenideh, 2014). Environmental causes of frauds, on the other hand, include poor and warped social values, the get- rich-quick disposition, slow and tortuous legal process, lack of effective deterrent or punishment and at times reluctance on the part of the individual bank to report frauds due to the perceived negative publicity it could create for the image of the institution. Generally, therefore, frauds come by three elements, namely: the will to commit the fraud, the opportunity to execute the fraud and the exit (escape) from sanctions against successful or attempted fraud or deviant behaviour (Hur-Yagba, 2003), very much in sync with the Fraud Triangle Theory. In their investigation of the factors that could be critical in strengthening fraud prevention systems in electronic banking, Usman and Shah (2013) found that frauds in e-banking services are caused by various compromises in security ranging from weak authentication systems to insufficient internal controls. That means, beyond technology, internal controls, customer and staff education need to be considered. Lannacci and Morris (2000) believe the causes of vulnerability to financial crimes include the lack of good record keeping in the country. It is believed (CBN, 2014) that bank managements embark on unethical acts and frauds to enable their banks, at least temporarily, hide capital deficiency; evade sanctions for breach of the regulatory lending limits; hide or disguise the telltales of illiquidity; minimise payment of premium to NDIC, cash reserve obligation to the CBN and tax to the relevant Tax Authorities. Other reasons are to present healthy credit portfolio and hide the weaknesses which the risk assets surreptitiously harbour; meet up with peer standards and industry performance benchmarks and paint rosy pictures of their state of affairs before the investing public and potential depositors. Furthermore, it affords the opportunity to shrink deposits and reduce their loan portfolio; and obtain arbitrage income from round-tripping of foreign exchange which are acquired from the CBN with fictitious documentation.
• Status of trainers and training: The status of trainers and training units is often very low and it was recommended that this be addressed. In view of the concern that trainers may not be placed strategically to influence decisions at higher levels, the elevation of training into a separate directorate headed by a director was proposed. It was recommended that a professional competence framework be developed for public service trainers and that their career pathing be reconsidered. The HRD Strategy for the Public Service aims at addressing the major human resource capacity constraints currently hampering the effective and equitable delivery of public services, including dealing with the consequences of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the threat that it poses to the development of the publicsector. The HIV/AIDS question adds urgency to the already difficult quest to improve access to and the quality of service in the Public Service.
But recent funding cuts and more demanding (and expensive) regulation have almost ended these once core services. Yet, not only do these projects support active community engagement and reduce the costs of vandalism and antisocial behaviour, they draw down huge amounts of grant aid, to often deprived areas and their communities. Finally, these combined efforts have the ability to transform failing areas and to trigger economic renewal through business investment and, especially, through the drivers of leisure, tourism, and sports. However, in order to reap the benefits there is a need to invest public money in skills, social capacity, and in critical infrastructure. For any new government coming into office, the delivery of these benefits, in the light of the emerging drastic cuts in public services, will be a huge challenge. Furthermore, failure to act effectively in the short-term to medium term on the massive challenges of environmental change will cause significant immense human suffering and economic cost in the longer-term.
On the one hand, job resources play an intrinsic motivational role as it may help individuals to learn, grow and develop, it also has an important role in goal achievement which may be seen as an extrinsic motivational role (Coetzer & Rothmann, 2007). Therefore, it has been found that job resources help fulfil the basic human needs such as autonomy, competence and relatedness. Thus, the effects of providing proper feedback has a positive impact on learning and increasing job competence, giving employees the opportunity to participate in decision- making and social support satisfy the need for autonomy and the need to belong (Coetzer & Rothmann, 2007). In order to increase the work engagement of employees, providing them with optimal challenges, feedback and freedom in their work creates intrinsic motivation. Job resources take on an extrinsic role in working environments that offer more resources which fosters an employee‘s willingness to dedicate their efforts to the work task (Bakker, 2009). It is more likely that the task will be successfully completed in such environments and that the work goal be achieved. For example, when employees receive support from colleagues and they are given regular feedback on their performance, they are highly likely to be successful in achieving their goals (Bakker, 2009). Therefore, whether employees‘ basic needs are met or goals are achieved, the outcome would be positive irrespective and engagement is thus likely to occur (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004; Schaufeli & Salanova, 2007).
In terms of job performance, many are brag- ging or boasting about their abilities to perform in a field they are not trained for such as businesses claim they are able to bring efficiency in the government. Many even claim they know better how to lead and manage publicresources and are crossing over into public policymaking through a Think Tank group. This is, as Rosen, Boothe, Dahlby, and Smith (1999) argued, very misleading. The saying goes, “Empty barrel sounds louder than a full barrel.” Business peo- ple and accountants are crossing the boundary of knowledge and entering public policy, becoming ex- perts in organization efficiency or in ethics and ac- countability. Towne (in Shafritz, Ott, & Jang, 2005) once stated, when there were some dysfunctions in the organizations, never ask business, accountant, or administrative clerk to fix the dysfunctions but have people who are trained in the field to fix the dys- functions. According to Piaget, people tend to take shortcuts when the matter is beyond their compre- hension. This is one of the greatest weaknesses of leadership in the publicsector. Some leaders take too many shortcuts because they are, said Mao Tse-tung (1970) and Rotberg (2006), knowledge illiterate and as managers they accumulate the greatest dysfunc- tion in the government.
great uncertainty and turbulence in the surroundings, the world literature and a number of researches point out the fact that the best source for sustainable competitive advantage are the humanresources. If the staff one works with is well-educated and permanently trained on professional level, than a labour force is created which understands the problems in the organizational performance and is ready to participate actively in their solving. In this sense, I would particularly like to stress that with an invaluable importance to the creation of quality organizational strategy is, also, the active inclusion of the employees in the process of its creation. One of the basic tasks of the management is to create synergically, to transfer the vision integrally to all the organizational cells and to make use of the capabilities and competencies of the employees in order to achieve the organizational aims. Thus, according to Krstic, in this direction there needs to be staff that possesses capabilities and competencies i.e. staff that is not easy to provide, because otherwise it will not provide long sustainability of the competitive advantage. 4 This fact implies the
Students can earn extra credit with active, ongoing participation in IUHRA. Students can also receive credit for viewing and summarizing publicsector meetings (e.g. City Council meetings, Plan Commission Meetings, Utilities Service Board meetings, etc.). Viewing two events and writing brief summaries will allow you to earn 6 points toward your cumulative total.