Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming (Caesalpiniaceae) plant is well known for its medicinal and therapeutic values in Indian Ayurveda. However, to be clinically useful, more scientific data are needed. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the antioxidant, antidiabetic and in vivo analgesic activities of hydroalcoholic extract of C. bonducella leaves. Qualitative analysis of various phytochemical constituents, quantitative analysis of total phenolics (Folins ciocalteau reagent method) and flavonoids (Aluminium chloride method), in vitro free radical scavenging activity (DPPH radical method), in vitro anti- diabetic activity (Inhibition of alpha amylase enzyme) and in vivo analgesic activity (Hot plate method) were determined by the well-known test protocol available in the literature. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids ect. The total phenolics content of hydroalcoholic leaves extract was (1.458mg/100mg), followed by flavonoids (1.025mg/100mg). The results of this study showed the evidence that the hydroalcoholic leaves extracts of C. bonducella have considerable antioxidant potential, in vitro enzyme inhibitory and analgesic activity. The results of this study indicate that the hydroalcoholic extract of C. bonducella leaves has significant pharmacological properties that may lead to new drug development.
The method of Boham and Kocipai-Abyazan (1994) was used for the analysis of the flavonoids in C. nutans leaves and stems. About 10 g each of the dried leaves or stems was extracted with 100mL of aqueous methanol (80%) (Sigma- Aldrich, US) at room temperature. The extraction was repeated thrice. The solution was filtered with Whatman No. 42 filter paper (125mm). The filtrate was heated to dry condition using a water bath (Memmert, Germany) (65°C) until constant weight was obtained. The percentage of total flavonoid content was calculated as below:
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considerations in dividing the topic into two separate parts. We then provide an overview of concerns in the current methodological discussion of QCA, identifying four core areas: 1. the conceptualization of QCA as a hybrid of quantitative and qualitative elements or as a genuinely qualitative method; 2. the relationship between the German and the international discourse on QCA; 3. the question of whether theoretical and / or epistemological foundations of QCA can be identified; and 4. the lack of transparency in documenting the application of QCA. Next, we outline the process of putting together this special issue and provide an overview of the structure and how the contributions relate to each other. In this current Part I, we focus on contributions in which authors deal with questions concerning the conceptualization of QCA, and on discussions of challenges that arise during the application of QCA and how these challenges were met. We conclude that there are multiple conceptualizations of QCA in the literature, and that this multiplicity is reflected in the variety of challenges and creative solutions described by the authors in this first part of the special issue.
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Abstract— Advertising is a consequential means of mass communication. Advertising practices are meticulously planned to impact on the public’s taste for distinct products or services. The influence of advertising on the public is not without danger. This study aims to assess the sex-role portrays of women in Moroccan print advertisements. Four hypotheses are made about the under-representations of women in Moroccan print advertising. The data were obtained from five Moroccan magazines issued in May, 2014. Content analysis was used under a mixed-method paradigm. Quantitative content analysis was used to yield numeric data for the purpose of frequency analysis of female role portrayals. Simultaneously, Qualitative content analysis was deployed to enable interpretive modes of enquiry on a limited range of advertising content. The findings from this study corroborate the stereotypical associations of women in Moroccan print advertisements and thereby document print advertising practices that are untrue to the welfare of the female society.
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definition: "Qualitative content analysis defines itself within this framework as an approach of empirical, methodological controlled analysis of texts within their context of communication, following content analytical rules and step by step models, without rash quantification" (2000, §5). In another source, the approach is described as "a research method for the subjective interpretation of the content of text data through the systematic classification process of coding and identifying themes or patterns" (HSIEH & SHANNON, 2005, p.1278). A similar definition is provided by SCHREIER: "QCA is a method for systematically describing the meaning of qualitative material. It is done by classifying material as instances of the categories of a coding frame" (2012, p.1). With these definitions, it seems that analytically QCA is positioned between the qualitative and the quantitative, or between positivistic and constructionist views of qualitative research, thus
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We can distinguish comparison issues of ontological and methodological qualitative and quantitative research data. Ontological investigation problem is determined by complex, multidimensional, contextual, stochastic and constructional psychosocial analysis of social reality. This means that if a researcher performs a full-length research it can take several years to accomplish it starting with the identification of the phenomenon and concluding with the description of its typological features present in the population. Another situation, which calls for alternative solutions, is comparison of data gathered during qualitative and quantitative parts of the study. Such situations are examined in the works of (Morse, 1991; Greene et al., 1997; Creswell et al., 2003; Eliot, 2005; Ivankova et al., 2006; Bryman, 2006; Creswell et al., 2007; Teddlie et al., 2009).
used as a vaccine preservative (COX, NH and A Forsyth, 1988). Estimation of thiomersal content test performed on the DTP vaccine by using UV Spectrophotometer. In this method Separating funnels were washed with concentrated nitric acid and rinsed with tap and distilled water. Two aliquots of a standard 0.01% aqueous solution of thiomersal (0.5 and 1.0 ml) and two samples of the test solution (1ml) were added to individual separatory funnels. The volume was adjusted to 10 ml with 1% solution of ammonium acetate at pH 6.0. Ten milliliters of a 1 in 10 dilution of a fresh solution of 0.01% dithizone in chloroform was added to each funnel. The contents were shaken vigorously for 45 seconds. The chloroform layer was separated carefully and spectrophotometer was set at 490 nm using the diluted dithizone solution and a scan were taken of the test solution from 470- 520 nm.The transmission at 520 nm was plotted against the thiomersal concentration of the standards on semi- logarithmic paper and the concentration of thiomersal in the sample was determined. The thiomersal content can be calculated by following calculation.
to raise awareness of the process and the potential added value of a mixed methods approach for sustainable tourism scholars. This article is a methodological review of the use of mixed methods in sustainable tourism, examining the articles published in the Journal of Sustainable Tourism (JOST). As JOST reaches its 25th anniversary, and having grown into a high ranking journal within the Social Sciences Citation Index and other impact measurement instruments, it is timely to review the evolution of its content in recent years, to complement earlier reflections (Bramwell & Lane, 2012) and assessments (Lu & Nepal, 2009). Analysing the history of research topics and methodologies in journals gives a good indication of the direction and sophistication of a field and provides an opportunity for self‐assessment (Baloglu & Assante, 1999). In tourism, emphasis is often placed on the value of qualitative studies (Botterill, 2001) rather than seeing the qualitative‐quantitative complementarity. The purpose of this review is to champion diversity and innovation in research designs through the use of mixed methods research.
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Dr Sherrill SNELGROVE is an associate professor in the Department of Public Health, Policy and Social Sciences and Dean of Academic Leadership (Research Integrity and Ethics) at Swansea University, UK. She has previously worked as a National Health Service (NHS) nurse manager and has over twenty years' experience as a lecturer and researcher. Sherrill has conducted both qualitative and quantitative research into chronic pain of older people living in the community, medication management of older people with dementia, advanced health care practice, health care professionals' experiences of stress and pedagogical research. She is one of just a few researchers at Swansea University, proficient in interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Sherrill has a track record in successful PhD supervision and is currently PhD supervisor to national and international students researching health and social care topics. A main role is leading on research integrity and ethics at Swansea University with a mandate to oversee and develop ethics, research misconduct and research governance procedures.
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Organoleptic evaluation represents those properties of materials that can be done by using the sense organs. It thereby defines some specific characteristics of the material which can be considered as a first step towards establishing the identity and degree of purity of the material. The organoleptic parameters were evaluated represent in Table 1.The crude extracts so obtained after each of the successive soxhlet extraction process were concentrated on water bath by evaporation the solvents completely to obtain the actual yield of extraction. The percentage yield of extraction is very important in phytochemical extraction in order to evaluate the standard extraction efficiency for a particular plant, different parts of same plant or different solvents used. The yield of extracts obtained from the leaves of the plants using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water as solvents are depicted in the Table 2.The physical constituent’sestimation of the drugs is an essential parameter to determine adulteration or inappropriate handling of drugs. The physicochemical characters of powder drug of leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata such as total alcohol soluble extractive, water soluble extractive, ash value, acid insoluble ash, and water soluble ash, loss after drying and foreign substances are given in Table3. The leaves showed less moisture content; it was 2.35%. Moisture content of drugs could be at minimal level to discourage the growth of bacteria, yeast or fungi during storage. These can serve as a valuable basis of information and provide suitable standards to establish the quality of this plant material as future prospects.An ash values are used to decide quality and purity of crude drug, it indicates presence of various impurities like, silicate, oxalate and carbonate. The water soluble ash is used to determine the quantity of inorganic compounds present in drugs. The acid insoluble ash helps to estimate the amount of silica present in the material. The total water soluble portion of the ash is considered as water soluble ash. Less amount of these three parameters indicate that the inorganic matter and silica were less in Kalanchoe pinnata leaf. The results of qualitative phytochemical analysis of the crude powder of leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata are shown in Table 4. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves sample of Kalanchoe pinnata showed the presence of flavonoids, phenols, tannins, carbohydrate, glycosides and proteins but in chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts all phytoconstituents was absents.
The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of seeds of Mucuna BCS & WCS registered the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, phenols, and saponins Table 2 and Fig. 2. Between two germplasms, phytochemical compounds viz., alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, phenols, and saponins were found to be present higher levels in raw BCS i.e., 1.05%, 0.25%, 0.39%, 2.78% and 0.45%, while lower level of
In our experiment, the lactose content was increased from 4.32 to 4.68 % and from 4.58 % to 4.72 % the control group although the experiment was performed during the summer. Sellen did not prove a significant effect on the change of lactose content. According to our hypothesis, selenium can have anti‑inflammatory effect which may result in a decrease in the number of somatic cells in the experimental group of animals. The official limit for the number of SB in goat milk is not legally regulated. As stated by Horky (2014), the average SB number in milk, taken from healthy animals, was in the range of 270 – 2,000 mg / ml, in cows with mastitis, the SB was in the range of 659 – 4,213 mg / ml. From our experiment, it can be deduced that the selenium did not effect the number of SB. In the control group, the number of SBs decreased from 764 to 506 mg / ml during the experiment. In the experimental group, the total SB was detected significantly lower. However, during the experiment, we observed a slight increase from 457 to 596 mg / ml in SB. Horky (2015), however, observed a significant decrease in somatic cells of cow milk, to which selenium was put in the amount of 0.3 mg / kg (organic form) into a diet.
Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is a thermo-analytical technique in which the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and reference is measured as a function of temperature. It was carried out using a Perkin Elmer DSC/7 (Perkin-Elmer, CT, USA) equipped with a TAC 7/DX instrument controller. The instrument was calibrated with indium for melting point and heat of fusion. A heating rate of 10°C/min was employed in the 25-200 °C temperature range. Analysis of the two pharmaceutical products was performed in triplicate under nitrogen purge.
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As highlighted by Bryant and Charmaz (2007), the term “grounded theory” itself leads to misunderstanding. It describes at the same time both the research process and the end result – i.e., a new theory that is empirically grounded in data. The GT research process may be described as investigating an area of interest to the researcher in order to highlight the main concern that emerges from the field through collected data; the purpose of this process is to identify a “core” category that also emerges from the researcher’s data as explaining this main concern. Glaser and Strauss’s 1967 seminal book, The Discovery of Grounded Theory (which we refer to hereafter as “Discovery”) provides founding principles and guidelines for the GT process. These guidelines may be applied with any data (qualitative and/or quantitative) and different philosophical assumptions (positivism, symbolic interactionism, constructivisim, critical realism, etc.). Because of this, the GT process may be perceived differently by different researchers and may produce different end results i.e., theories that may be, for instance, analytic, explanatory, and/or predictive. This situation has lead over the years to the emergence of different streams of GT, which have tended to blur the overall scope and reach of GT.
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Organophosphorous compound poisoning from occupational, accidental and intentional exposure is the global problem Toxicity in developing countries (Jaiswal et al., may result from an intentional overdose of a substance. This may be due to self administration, with the intention of commit suicide. The victim will select the substances depending on availability and his knowledge about the possible fatal effect of substances. Intentional overdosing occurs in homicidal cases. The route and mode of administration are important aspects in such cases. Accidental and unintentional exposure to a substance is another important . A drug or a substance may be consumed by mistake in place of another. Children are more likely to swallow drug/pesticides accidentally (WHO., 1997). The investigation of poisoning death is a common challenge faced by forensic investigators. Here colour test, TLC & HPTLC techniques are discussed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of common organophosphorous pesticides in spiked biological tissues.
Abstract: Medicinal plants are a pride of our nature. It is estimated that there are more than 45,000 species of medicinal plant present in India. One such traditionally used ethanomedicinal plant is Pergularia daemia. It is a hispid perennial twinning herb distributed in the roadsides of tropical and sub tropical regions. The whole plant possess more medicinal values and traditionally used in the treatment of various ailments. The present study involves to determine the qualitative and quantitative analysis of stem of Pergularia daemia in different solvents like methanol, ethanol, chloroform, petroleum ether and aqueous. The results of which showed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, flavanoids, saponins, phenols, tannins, aminoacids, cardiac glycosides, carbohydrates and proteins. The quantification of the compounds like alkaloids, flavanoids and phenols were estimated. The result confirms that the stem of Pergularia daemia possess significant phytocomponents as mentioned in traditional claims and highlights it as the source of many pharmacological studies and a curative for various ailments.
The objective of the present study was to find out the presence of phytochemicals in the methanol extracts of Molluginaceae family such as Mollugo cerviana by both qualitative and quantitative screening methods. In qualitative analysis, the phytochemical compounds such as Carbohydrates, Saponins, Tannins, Terpenoids, Flavonoids, Steroids, Phenols, proteins, Alkaloids and absence of Glycosides were screened in extracts by using standard methods. . In quantitative analysis the important secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, Vitamin C and Vitamin E were tested in the extracts. More active compounds will be isolated from the plants and they may be used for medicinal purposes in future.
3. The figure above shows that the city of Birmingham as having the higher average daily energy consumption while the city of Bristol as having significantly lower daily average during the months of May to July. The reasons for this are yet unclear, and further analysis is required, especially from the Living Lab partners. It is also interesting to see that even though outdoor temperatures vary substantially from March to July (6.8 o C to 16.1 o C), indoor temperatures do not have a steep gradient of change, where they remain around 18.8 o C to 21.7 o C. This range of indoor temperature indicates the comfort zone, where regardless of the outdoor temperature, households tend to maintain their indoor temperatures at this level. This is useful information to be fed back into semantics reasoning work done in WP3, and for other related work in this project.
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Total phenolics content of various extracts of root parts of L. acutangula was varying widely between 0.44 to 5.04 mg GAE/100mg extract (Table 3). Methanolic extract of root parts were demonstrating higher total phenolics content 5.04 mg GAE/100mg than that of the other solvent extracts. The total flavonoids content was high in ethyl acetate and chloroform root extracts (14.31 and 14.28 mg RE/100 g extract respectively). Among the solvents used the methanolic root extracts were found high amount of tannins, 1.61 mg GAE/100mg. The ethyl acetate extract of root parts depicted high content of saponins 16.69 mg DE/100mg.
A study on “Influence of humic acid on growth and yield of strawberry cv. Chandler” was conducted at Newly Development Horticultural Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan during 2014. The experiment was carried out using Randomized Complete Block design (RCBD) with one factor replicated thrice. Three levels of humic acid (1.5, 3.0 and 4.5ml L -1 ) were sprayed on strawberry plant after 30 days of transplanting. The data were recorded on various growth and fruit yield of strawberry at various stages. The analyzed data showed that more number of fruits (28.3) plant -1 , total carotenoids (17.84 mgg -1 ), total lycopene content