On each farm the cows were blocked two and two according to number of lactation, days from latest calving, and expected days to next calving and then randomly allocated to the two treatments. Cows on the rape seed cake treatment were fed 2.0 kg dry matter (DM) rape seed cake per cow per day on both farms. In addition, cows were fed 2.7 kg DM rolled barley on farm A and 3.1 kg DM barley on farm B. Cows in the barley treatment was fed barley as sole supplementary feed consistent with the same amount of energy in Scandinavian Feed Unit (SFU) as in the rape seed cake treatment. Therefore, cows in the barley treatment was fed 4.9 kg DM barley on farm A and 5.4 kg DM barley on farm B. The planned feeding of the two treatments on the two farms is shown in Table 1 and the nutrient content of the different feeds is shown in Table 2.
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Figure 5 shows the variation of cylinder pressure with crank angle for diesel, Rape seed oil methyl ester, rape seed oil methyl ester with various proportions of EGR in a ceramic coated piston engine with turbocharger. The combustion characteristics were analyzed based on the measured in- cylinder pressure. From the figures, it can be seen that the occurrence of peak pressure advances with respect to the top dead centre with an increase in load. Also, the occurrence of peak pressure retards with an increase in EGR levels. This leads to an increased rate of pressure rise and engine noise, whereas the cylinder pressure reduces for EGR and the occurrence of peak pressure is maximum in RME biodiesel. The ignition delay has been increased in increasing the EGR concentration in both diesel and biodiesel and the engine knock increases at higher load with these blends. The B100 also has variable increase in peak pressure compared to diesel. In general, peak pressure varies from about 69 to 70 bars for the entire load range considered. For diesel the cylinder peak pressure was 69 bar , for rape seed oil methyl ester the peak cylinder pressure was 73 bar, for ceramic coated piston with RME and with 10% EGR the peak cylinder pressure was 74.5 bar, for RME with ceramic coated piston with 15% EGR the peak cylinder pressure was 76 bar , for ceramic coated piston with RME and 20% EGR the cylinder peak pressure was 76.6 bar, for RME with ceramic coated piston with 20 % EGR and turbocharger the peak cylinder pressure was 77 bar. This increase in pressure with the increase in EGR quantity and turbocharger was to rise in delay period due to the presence of exhaust gas in to the cylinder.
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The experiment was carried out at the AgResearch Lincoln farm (43 o 38’S, 172 o 28’E) on a Templeton silt loam soil type. Trethewey (2012) presented crop management strategies to improve forage rape seed yield, and the data reported in this paper were taken from the control (untreated) plots of Trethewey (2012). Briefly treatments were two sowing dates, 25 March and 13 April 2011, each replicated four times in a randomised complete block design. Soil preparation consisted of conventional cultivation after deep ploughing. Seeds of forage rape cv. Greenland were drilled at 3 kg/ha using a precision seeder in 15 cm rows at 2 cm depth. Plots were 2.7 m wide by 10 m long.
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In New Zealand, forage rape (Brassica napus L.) is an important supplementary feed crop in animal production systems. Detailed investigations on seed production are limited and strategies for maximising seed production are not well understood. The objective was to increase seed yield of forage rape by manipulating crop architecture using combinations of mechanical topping, plant growth regulators (difenoconazole and paclobutrazol) and sowing date. Data were collected for components of yield, including dissection of plants into four seed fractions. Topping at yellow bud or delaying sowing until April significantly (P<0.05) increased seed yield by 40-60% compared with control treatments. On average, 85% of seed was from secondary racemes with 60% coming from middle and lower racemes. Plant height was significantly (P<0.05) different among treatments. Seed yield of forage rape can be influenced by manipulation of crop architecture through mechanical topping and sowing date. There is therefore scope for forage seed growers to improve seed yield of forage rape through adoption of simple improvements in practice.
yield is a quantitative trait and its expression is the result of genotype, environmen t and GE interaction and the large magnitude GE interaction, cause to the more dissimilar genetic systems, which controlling the physiological processes (Cooper et al. 2001). The relative contribution of GE interaction effects for canola seed yield found in this study are similar to those found in other studies (Marjanovic‑Jeromela et al. 2011; Zhang et al. 2013) and makes it difficult to se lect the most favorable genotypes in any plant breeding program. Once combined ANOVA revealed that GE interaction was statistically significant, 13 parametric stability approaches were performed the multi‑environment yield data, in order to measure the stability levels of 36 canola genotypes. Details of parametric stability statistics are given in Table IV.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of supplementing different plant oils to the basal diet on milk yield and milk composition in mid-lactating dairy cows. Forty Chinese Holstein dairy cows averaging 120 days in milk (DIM) at the start of the experiment (body weight = 580 ± 18.2 kg; milk yield = 33.0 ± 2.00 kg/day) were used in a completely randomized block design. The animals were assigned to four dietary treatments according to DIM and milk yield, and supplemented with no oil (control), 2% rapeseed oil (RSO), 2% peanut oil (PNO) and 2% sunflower seed oil (SFO). Milk yield and milk composition (fat, protein, and lactose) were measured. Dry matter intake was similar in all treatments. The supplementation of plant oil increased milk yield, with the highest milk yield in RSO group. Percentages of milk fat, lactose, solids-not-fat and SCC were not affected by treatments except for an increase in milk protein content in oil supplemented groups. The fatty acid (FA) profile of milk was altered by fat supplementation. Feeding plant oils reduced the proportion of both short-chain (C4:0 to C12:0) and medium-chain (C14:0 to C16:1) fatty acids, and increased the proportion of long-chain (≥ C18:0) fatty acids in milk fat. The inclusion of vegetable oils increased the con- centration of cis-9, trans-11 CLA. The cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk fat was higher from RSO to PNO and SFO was higher than the control. The TVA concentration was higher in the SFO diet, followed by PNO, RSO, and control diets. The results of this study indicated that linoleic acid was more effective in enhancing contents of TVA and CLA in milk fat than oleic acid. No significant effects of week and treatment by week interaction were found out in this study. Overall, feeding plant oils increased monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and decreased saturated fatty acids in milk fat. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of RSO increases milk yield the most, while SFO enhances the cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk fat more effectively.
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To investigate whether SDP1 triacylglycerol lipase family genes play a role in oil turnover during oilseed rape seed development, we chose to use a commercial open-pollinated spring variety called Kumily (Lantma¨nnen SW Seed AB) as an experimental system. To characterize the pattern of oil accumulation over the course of seed development in this variety, plants were grown under both greenhouse and field conditions. Seeds were harvested from siliques on the primary raceme and their developmental stage was scored morphologically (Figure 1a) using a scale similar to that described previously by Chia et al. (2005). This scale includes seeds at early, early – mid and mid – late phases in oil accumulation, at the onset of desiccation and at maturity. The total fatty acid content of Kumily seeds (as determined by gas chromatography) increased up until the onset of desiccation, when the content reached approx- imately 2.3 mg of total fatty acids/seed. It then declined signifi- cantly by maturity [P < 0.05, least significant difference (LSD) test], equating to a net loss of approximately 10% in the greenhouse and approximately 9% in the field (Figure 1b).
Small plot trials studying the impact of different seed treatments on the occurrence of pests and diseases in autumn were carried out during 2000–2003. The aim was to verify the efficiency of different fungicidal and insecticidal oilseed rape seed treatments and to determine the economical effectiveness of this method of protection. The following inse- cticidal seed treatments were used: Promet 400 CS (furathiocarb), Cosmos 500 FS (fipronil), Chinook 200 FS (imidaclo- prid & beta-cyfluthrin) and Marshal ST (carbosulfan). The seed treatment Chinook 200 FS in combination with newly developed fungicidal compound was also assessed. The most effective treatment was Chinook 200 FS (imidacloprid & beta-cyfluthrin), particularly against flea beetles (Phyllotreta spp.), and lower infestations by larvae of the turnip gall weevil (Ceutorhynchus pleurostigma Marsh.) were also found. However, the efficiency lasts no more than 4–5 weeks af- ter sowing. The use of common insecticidal treatments in cases of necessity was found to be beneficial. Plant density in autumn and in spring was greatest in the Chinook 200 FS treatment and in some years a positive influence on yield was also observed with this treatment.
These results confirm the conclusions drawn by WILLIAMS and SOBERING (1992), VELASCO and BECKER (1998), VELASCO et al. (1999a) that NIRS analysis may facilitate effective selection of oilseed rape genotypes with the desired content of FA in oil similar to other significant parameters of qual- ity (MÍKA et al. 2003). NIRS method enables the analysis of intact rape seeds in an extremely short time without loss of their germination capacity. This allows the processing of selected samples immediately after harvest and sowing of materials selected according to quality criteria in the same year when they are harvested. The advantages of NIRS analysis become more apparent with large sample collections of the same character.
Cruciferous oilseed crops accumulate relatively high concentrations of oil, proteins and dietary fibres (DF) in their seeds, in addition to bioactive components as glucosinolates and myrosinase isoenzymes (thioglucohydrolase; EC 184.108.40.206). When mixed in the presence of moisture, myrosinase isoenzymes and associated components transform glucosinolates into various types of products, which reduces the value of the extracted oil and the remaining seed components, as well as producing unwanted environmental effects due to smell and toxicity. This gives a need for special care concerning myrosinase inactivation as the initial step during processing of oilseed rape, including technologies applied for biodiesel/bioenergy production. The myrosinase inactivation is thus a critical processing step, which needs to be performed at conditions with limited negative effects on other seed components, including proteins and glucosinolates. New bioprocessing technologies are now developed at levels that allow technology transfer from laboratory scale through pilot plant to industrial scale. The extraction of glucosinolates from the seed components remaining after oil separation-pressing and/or extraction is technically possible and has proven successful with the use of bioprocessing technologies. This is also the case concerning isolation of active myrosinases. The possibilities therefore exist for extraction and formulation of glucosinolates as “natural product derived” food and plant protection agents. With the great amounts of partly de-oiled rapeseed meal resulting from bioenergy/biodiesel production, the new bioprocessing technologies call thus for attention in relation to environmental friendly production of food (vegetable oil, protein and DF products), feed and other non food products.
The first three parameters are able to assess basic properties of oils required in technical conditions of hydraulic liquids. Thermooxidation properties of oils manifest themselves in the increased rate of the formati- on of resinous deposits hardening in the course of time. An important contribution of so far carried out work is the study of thermooxidation properties of oils by means of peroxide number. Together with iodine number the value of which is known for rape-seed oils enabling rough estimate of the thermooxidation stability of oil the peroxide number makes possible by its marked changes during the course of the service life test to determine the time of the oil service life. Iodine number informs on the number of double bonds causing potential danger of the origin of rapid oil ageing. The peroxide number provides information on the amount of fixed oxygen on these double bonds. A slight increase in the peroxide number at the beginning of operation called induction period is to be as long as possible. It corresponds to the conception of the chemical service life of oil. Increased degradation of oil is shown in the higher formation of peroxides, formation of di- and polymers, splitting the ester bond under the formation of free fatty acids and partial glycerols, origin of aldehydes, ketones, oxy- and hydroxy-acids. The tests have shown that the technical service life of oil ends roughly in the domain of the maximum value of peroxide number. In the field of the decrease of peroxide number, i.e. the field of advanced degradation of oil, a marked increase in the formation of polymers and acids occurs showing in marked changes (increase) in the acid number and viscosity of oil. In re- cycled oils due to the previous disintegration of double bonds, slightly increasing course of peroxide number is expected together with marked decrease in the formati-
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The biodiversity of non-conventional oil and feeding crops in Western Siberia is extended due to involving Brassica napus L. Metzg., Brassica rapa L. ssp. oleifera campestris, Sinapis alba L., and Camelina sativa Crantz . into production. The advantages of these crops are early ripeness, resistance to cold weather, stable crop yield and high quality of the seeds (Shpaar, 2007; Marcinkevichiene et al, 2010). There are some publication concerning oilseed rape protection in different countries. Occurrence and distribution of important weed species have been studied in German winter oilseed rape fields (Hanzlik, Gerowitt, 2012). Critical period of weed control in oilseed rape have been studied in the fields in Turkey and in Morocco (Maataoui et al., 2003; Hamzei et al., 2007). Effects on weed and invertebrate abundance and diversity of herbicide management in genetically modified herbicide- tolerant winter-sown oilseed rape have been shown in some European countries (Bohan, 2005;
At the beginning of the XX century, only two locations of this species on the territory of the Tomsk region were known (Krylov, 1933). In 50s of XX century, it was first discovered in the territory of Shegarsky and Molchanovskiy districts, where it was stated as a rare weed in cereal crops (Kachaeva, 1950). A.V. Polozhij (1954) listed it among weed species of the Tomsk region that occurring sporadically in agricultural crops. In our study of households of Tomsk Region in 2003- 2005, Vicia hirsuta was detected in several administrative districts in the crops of oilseeds (Rape, Camelina, Wild Turnip, White Mustard). Currently, it is quite common in all parts of the Tomsk region, where there is the development of crop production. As invasive weed it is found in crops of spring and winter crops, on the outskirts of the fields on deposits, roadsides. In the south of Tomsk Region it has been repeatedly noticed in the meadows.
If we take into account the same numbers of organic poultry to be fed into the future as we have now, and if we continue to feed them with concentrates, then several options are available to fulfil the requirement of 100% ingredients of locally produced organic origin in organic poultry concentrate diets. However if the practical, economic and environmental foot print issues are taken into account, then the list of current viable options is quite small. Within the category of plant ingredients, oilseeds and in particular European-produced soya bean meal seem to be the most promising long term alternative to imported soya bean meal. Sunflower seed and rapeseed have potential as widely available protein crops due to the high value of extracted oil for other markets. Within the category of legumes, peas, beans and sainfoin seeds seem to be a viable option because of their relatively high digestible methionine content, and their good availability. Reducing the protein and energy concentration of poultry diets, and with it the amino acid concentration, thereby increasing feed intake, is another option to help fulfill the requirement of 100% organic diets.
To resolve ecological concerns about transgenic plants, it is necessary to expand the current database on the behaviour of these plants, not only in small agricultural plots but more importantly in natural habitats. These data provide information on part of the broader picture, namely persistence of buried seeds of the transgenic crop. This is only one component of fitness ; other components include survival and re- production (Crawley et al. 1993). Whilst this study illustrates that for these constructs there is no enhanced risk that the transgenic seeds will persist, this is not the only potential reservoir for the transgenes that should be considered. It has recently been demonstrated that transgenes from oilseed rape can appear in the weedy relative B. campestris in the first back-cross generation (Mikkelsen et al. 1996), and the persistence of these hybrid seeds will be of crucial importance in deter- mining the long-term dynamics of the transgenes. We thank PGS Belgium for the transgenic seeds, and S. Brown, S. Malcolm, J. Buxton and the many Silwood students who helped with the fieldwork. The work was carried out under MAFF licence and was supported by the PROSAMO programme, a consortium of the Department of Trade and Industry, The Agriculture and Food Research Council, and industrial members. The sponsoring companies were Advanced Technologies (Cambridge) Ltd, Agricultural Genetics Company, Ciba-Geigy plc, Du Pont (UK) Ltd,
The cultivar-dependent effect of the selected bacterial strains on the growth of oilseed rape seedlings, as well as their respective seed colonization abilities were stud- ied using gnotobiotic soil free assay. The winter oilseed rape Brassica napus L. partim cultivars Avatar and Sherpa (NPZ, Germany; Additional file 1: Figure S1) as well Traviata H 605886 (KWS Saat Einbeck, Germany) were bio-primed with the V. longisporum antagonistic bacterial strains Pseudomonas brassicacearum CKB26, Burkholderia sordidicola 288P4R and Pseudomonas spp. 315P5BS (Table 1) following the protocol described in Rybakova et al. . The plant growth promoting capacity and the seed and root-colonization ability of each strain was estimated . The weights of the green parts of the 14-day-old seedlings were compared to the untreated control seedlings of the same cultivar. The experiment was carried out in 4 replicates for each strain with 14 bio-primed seeds from each cultivar. Plant growth promoting effects of the microorganisms were statistically analyzed using the IBM SPSS program ver- sion 20.0 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). The significance of the differences in plants’ weights between the non-inoculated control versus each treatment group was calculated using a pairwise t test with independent samples. The decision to make use of the non- parametric Mann-Whitney U test as an alternative to the t test was based on assessment of the distributions of variables (normal versus non-normal). Data was expressed as the geometric mean ± standard deviation.
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The FSE experiment was a randomized block experiment compar- ing GMHT and conventional cropping systems, in which the two treatments were allocated to half-fields at random. Each crop (beet, maize, spring oilseed rape and winter oilseed rape) was considered as a separate experiment (Perry et al. 2003). Farmers managed the two treatments in each half-field to achieve the goal of cost-effective weed control (Champion et al. 2003). We measured a range of plant and invertebrate indicators before, during and after the crops were sown (Firbank et al. 2003b). There were three cohorts of sites, sown in 2000, 2001 and 2002. After a single year of contrasting GMHT and conventional varieties, the fields were sown with the non-GMHT crops of choice of the farmer. Nearly all fields were revisited in the two subsequent years for spring assessments of the soil seedbanks. Soil samples were taken, and weed seedlings were germinated and identified at a range of locations around the field, using the same methods, and the same sample locations, as in the previous seasons (see Heard et al. 2003a for details of methods, and of analyses using data collected during 2000–2002). We quantified any differences in weed seedbank counts before the crops were sown (year t) and between the half-fields sown with GMHT and conventional crops a year after sowing (year tC1) and a year later after a subsequent crop (year tC2). The significance of any differences between treatments was tested with a paired randomiz- ation test (Perry et al. 2003). The size of treatment effects on seed counts were measured as R, the multiplicative treatment ratio of the counts in the GMHT treatment divided by the conventional (i.e. where there is no difference in effect R Z 1) (Perry et al. 2003). Comparisons with total counts of one or zero were excluded, giving rise to different sample sizes for different tests. Tests for samples taken before the GMHT crops were sown (time t) are given, even though no significant difference was expected. Analyses are given for the total seedbank, for the monocot and dicot seedbanks, and also for the 12 individual species for which demographic data were reported by Heard et al. (2003b).