Hughes methods (1962). Treatments were replicated six times and the experiment repeated two times. A completely randomized design was used in these experiments with Triticum sativum L. and RaphanussativusL. grown side by side, but in separate pots. Values are means from six replications. In these analyses, a p-value <0.05 was accepted as significant. Root tuber or ear fresh weight: Triticum sativum L. and RaphanussativusL. were harvested 45 and 75 days after planting. Triticum sativum L. ear and RaphanussativusL. root tuber were separated and adhering soil to root was removed by washing, then, root and ear fresh weight were recorded.
RaphanussativusL. is an economically important vegetable native to Asia and Europe. It grows in temperate climates.  The plant is used in ethnomedicine against liver diseases and respiratory disorders.  The antimicrobial activity of different extracts of Raphanussativus has been documented. [2-4] Some alkaloids, amino acids, arabinogalactan proteins and enzymes have been isolated from Raphanussativus. [5-17]
The effect of coal fly ash treatment on the chromosomes of RaphanussativusL. was investigated. The seeds of Raphanus sativusL. were placed in petri dishes in three replicates and allowed to germinate for five days in different concentration of coal fly ash solution. The root were treated with diluted, semi-diluted, and concentrated solution of fly ash, while the control group had distilled water. The total aberration were examined. The mitotic index was calculated. The mitotic index decreased as the concentration increased. The highest mitotic index value was diluted fly ash solution while the least was concentrated fly ash treatment. The results show the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities observed included: chromatid bridge, c-mitosis, and stickiness. Concentrated fly ash solution is much more genotoxic than semi-diluted fly ash solution, as it induced more aberrations having percentage abnormalities for the highest concentration tested.
Phytochemical investigation of RaphanussativusL. shows the presence of Alkaloids, Reducing sugar, Flavonoids, Glycosides, Cardiac glycosides, Tannins, Saponin, Protein, Amino acid, Terpenoids and steroids etc. Methanolic extract was more effective than water extract because phytochemicals shows positive result in methanolic extract in more amount. There was no effect of concentration on the phytochemical constituents. Mostly, results are same in aqueous and quath extracts so we conclude that no need to dry the green leaves. Result depends upon the solvent as well as the method of test we apply. The plant study reveals that there were more phytochemicals are present in radish leaves rather than radish roots. Carbohydrate is present more amount in radish roots and less amount in radish leaves. Flavonoids show anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-cancer activity. Glycosides play an important role in lowering the blood pressure. They are also used in treatment of congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia. The extract contains phytochemicals like phenols and flavonoids that cause inhibition, this property of plant may be important in preventing oxidative stress related diseases.
From mature and fresh leaves of RaphanussativusL. cv. Chetki long, discs were punched out and treated with two different concentrations of kinetin (KN, 0.375 and 3.75 µM) and a morphactin (MOR, CME 74050, 3.64 and 36.4 µM) in order to make a comparative assessment of plant growth regulators (PGR’s) with regard to senescence regulation. A gradual breakdown of chlorophylls, carotenoids, proteins and an increment in protease and peroxidase activity were noticed. Total sugars also registered an increasing trend. Applications of both PGR’s could delay senescence by minimizing degradation of chloroplast pigments and bringing down protease and peroxidase activity as well as sugar accumulation. Protein breakdown was reduced markedly by only KN.
decrease with Inhi-ST concentration increasing indicates that the inhibition effect enhances with the increase of Inhi-ST concentration. The inhibition process is attributed to the formation of an adsorbed film of the extract of RaphanusSativusL as green inhibitor on QS surface which protects QS against corrosion in HCl solution. The possible mechanism is the adsorption of the green inhibitor on QS surface through the electron pair of heteroatoms (N, O, S) and the conjugated systems (benzene rings, C=C, C=O) in molecular of Inhi-ST showing in figure 1. Obviously, the formed Inhi-ST film can block QS corrosive in HCl solution.
The main goal of this research study was to establish the physicochemical characteristics of sewage sludge, and the nutrients needed to enhance the properties of soil with a view to exploiting were potential for agriculture. The example used was the cultivation of radish (Raphanussativus). The findings are intended as a contribution towards making agriculture sustainable. This study was carried out to assess the response of radish (RaphanussativusL.) to doses of sewage sludge applied in medium texture soils, and the socioeconomic contributions that such cultivation of radish would make. Levels of 0.25 and 75 ton/ha of sewage sludge plus the equivalent dose of 25 ton/ha of se- wage sludge vermin compost by California Red were used after making a randomized experimental design with three replicates. 30 days after sowing radish seeds, the following data were collected: the number of leaves per plant (NLP); plant height (PH in cm); root diameter (RD) and tubercle production (TP ton/ha). In addition, the pH, EC-electric conductivity (EC), and soil organic matter (SOM) were determined. Statistical analysis showed that 25 and 50 tons/ha gave the best results for the parameters assessed. The estimated increase in family mean income from selling radish crops fertilized with sewage sludge is around 17%.
Radish (RaphanussativusL.) is a root vegetable. All the parts are edible (leaves, root, flowers and seeds). The edible part of roots arises from both primary root and hypocotyls. The leaves and roots are used for salad and a vegetable. The radish roots are the good appetizer. They are useful in curing liver and gallbladder problems. Roots are used in treating urinary complaint and piles. The juice of fresh leaves is used as diuretic and laxative. It’s a cheaper vegetable for the poor people (Sankari et al., 2006).
acetone as a solvent. Solvent-spiked artificial soils served as controls. After spiking, the soils were mixed with a stainless steel spatula and placed in a vented fume hood without illumination for 2 h to allow the acetone evaporation prior to exposure of the test organisms. All units were sprayed with reverse osmosis (RO) water immediately after the test organisms were placed on the soils, and, subsequently, every other day as needed. Triticum sativum L. and RaphanussativusL. seeds (from PVR. Seed and Plant Certification Research Institute, Tehran, Iran) were surface-disinfected by
ycorrhizae are known to increase nutrient absorption by plants leading to faster plant growth and increased reproduction. The following study examines the benefits of mycorrhizal interaction with radish, RaphanussativusL. A commercial mycorrhizal inoculate was used as a source of mycorrhizae. Growth parameters, including germination rate, plant height and mass, leaf number, leaf canopy size, and stem diameter, were studied and recorded over a six week period to determine the effect of the fungal relationship. The mycorrhizal inoculum was not found to have a positive effect on the germination and growth of the radish as defined in the
The purpose of this study is to determine the allelopathic effects of extracts obtained by using liquid nitrogen from the plant of Antep radish ( RaphanussativusL.) and little radish ( RaphanussativusL. var. radikula ) on germina- tion and seedling growth of sterile oats. The experiments were carried out in six groups with root, stem and root + stem mixed extracts of radish plants (Antep and little radish). A novel method that we developed based on the principle of liquid nitrogen crushing was used for extraction. According to this method, Antep radish and little radish plant parts were frozen with liquid nitrogen aid and then crushed to powder. These powders obtained were stored at −20˚C for nine months until the experiments were established. The aqueous solutions prepared at specific concentrations (0%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 8%, 16%) from the obtained radish powders were applied as 5 ml to per each petri dishes contain 10 seeds on Whatman No: 1 double layer filter paper. Experi- ments were carried out in six replicates for each concentration. The prepared petri dishes were kept in the incubator at 15˚C for 15 days. At the end of the experimental period, the number of germination of the seeds of sterile wild oat plant was evaluated by measuring the length of seedling root and stem. As a result, as the concentration of allelopathic solutions increased in all experi- mental groups, the number of germination and root and stem lengths of ste- rile wild oats decreased. Although allelopathic effects in all three experimental groups were observed in terms of germination number and seedling lengths, How to cite this paper: Sisek, D., Turkseven,
O rabanete (RaphanussativusL.) é uma Brassicaceae, da mesma família da Brassica oleracea (couve, brócolis, repolho e couve-flor), só que diferente destas a parte consumida é uma raiz tuberosa. Planta de porte reduzido, originária da região do mediterrâneo, produz raízes globulares de variadas colorações, sendo a coloração escarlate-brilhante com polpa branca a mais aceita pelos consumidores (FILGUEIRA, 2007). Esta cultura se adapta melhor ao plantio em locais com incidência de temperaturas baixas, tolerando bem o frio e geadas leves, com desenvolvimento melhor em dias curtos (SOUZA; REZENDE, 2006). A cultura do R. sativus é intolerante ao transplante, por isso necessita ser semeada diretamente no canteiro definitivo, com um ciclo médio entre 20 a 30 dias é a hortaliça de ciclo mais rápido, comercializando-se as plantas inteiras atadas em maços (FILGUEIRA, 2007).
astringent. When crushed can be used as a poultice for burns, bruises and smelly feet . Raphanussativus root and seeds have been used for the alleviation of symptoms and treatment of diseases related to liver & Gall bladder . The leaves, seeds and old roots are used in the treatment of asthma and other chest complaints. The seeds are carminative, diuretic, expectorant, laxative and stomachic . Radishes are also an excellent food remedy for stone, gravel and scorbutic conditions . Glucosinolate is an important chemical constituent generally found in roots, leaves and seeds . Apart from this the leaves of Raphanussativus is found to be a good source of protein, having biological value of 76.6 and digestibility co- efficient as 73.5%. It shows presence of some biochemical substances like methins, sapogenins, levon; enzymes such as phosphatase, catalase; histaminergic component and a weak spasmolytic factor; amino acids such as lysine, methionin etc.; polyphenolics such as protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid; and antibacterial substances such as sulphoraphene and raphanin; are also present . Phytochemical screening of plant has shown the presence of triterpenes, alkaloids, saponins and coumarins . Ethnomedicinal claim strongly suggests the use of RaphanussativusL, in constipation. Traditionally it is suggested to take fresh juice of leaves internally in the treatment of indigestion, wind, acid regurgitation, diarrhoea. The juice of the fresh leaves is claimed to be an excellent diuretic and laxative .
Radish (RaphanussativusL.) is an important root vegetable crop both in the temperate and tropical regions of the world. It originated in the Mediterranean region and was an edible vegetable in ancient Egypt (approx. 2,700 - 2,200 BC). Radish has been cultivated in Europe from the thirteenth century (Kole, 2007). Today there are different varieties and types such as Daikon (e.g. Asia), Mooli (e.g. India and South Asia) and red radish (e.g. Europe) which are widely grown. Vegetable radish is an important food worldwide and is commonly consumed as a fresh food (e.g. in a salad, or as sprouting radish), in pickles or in processed food. The demand for edible radish is high, particularly in Asia. According to Gin and Lee (2006) radish is the one of major vegetables in South Korea, accounting for 24% of total vegetable production. People consume radish at a rate of 20-40 kg/capita/year. Also, edible radish is consumed as a traditional food in India, Nepal and Bhutan and demands for the supply of radish seed worldwide are constantly increasing (FAO, n.d.-a).
The experiment consisted of 7 treatments with 5 replicates each, including 6 different doses of Glyphosate (Roundup Transorb ® , isopropylamine salt at 480 g i.a. L −1 of the acid equivalent, Monsanto Agricultural São José dos Campos, SP): 0, 150, 300, 450, 600, 750 and 900 g i.a.ha −1 and a control. The herbicide doses were ap- plied 30 days after the seedling emerged using a backpack sprayer (Teejet) under constant pressure maintained by compressed CO 2 and equipped with a handle containing 4 XR11spray nozzles. A 2 kgf∙cm −2 pressure was
Perfus-Barbeoch et al. (2002) suggested that Cd phytotoxicity is associated with altered water status. Poschenrieder and Barcelo (2004) attrib- uted alteration of water relations as the second- ary effect, which further enhanced heavy metal induced growth reduction. One of the causative factors in structural changes in the cells of seedling of Raphanussativus induced by Cd were due to a decrease in water uptake (Vitoria et al. 2003). Earlier Vardhini and Rao (2003) reported the water stress alleviation in sorghum seedlings by brassinosteroids. Thus there exists a possibility of brassinosteroids reversing the heavy metal induced decline in water uptake by radish seedlings.
We have previously conducted antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive studies with methanolic extract of aerial parts of R. sativus var. hortensis (white variety of R. sativus, known in English as daikon) in Swiss albino mice.  In that study, at the highest dose of 400 mg/kg, the extract reduced blood glucose levels by 51.5% and abdominal constrictions by 55.6%, versus the 49.2% and 51.7%, respectively, as observed in the present study. Thus the results of both white and red varieties of R. sativus were nearly equivalent with the white variety demonstrating slightly more antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive/analgesic effect than the red variety. Both varieties are cultivated in Bangladesh. Since R. sativus is cultivated in rural areas of Bangladesh and the aerial parts more easily available and affordable (because urban affluent population mostly consumes the roots), the plant can serve as a viable alternative for reducing blood sugar and alleviating pain in diabetic patients and patients with painful injuries or diseases. Since the aerial parts can be eaten as salad, there is also no possibility of any bioactive constituents being destroyed through cooking processes. Also, the plant has no report, anecdotal or otherwise, of causing adverse effects in the body. As such, since the plant is widely cultivated throughout the world, the plant and any of its isolated bioactive constituents can become an effective source for controlling diabetic sugar and relieve painful conditions.
Phytochemical investigation of Iraqi RaphanussativusL seeds extracts was performed and the results exhibited the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, anthraquinoin and terpenoids in the both red and white varieties seeds and the absence of cardiac glycosides in this plant parts, also this study demonstrates that seeds extract have potent antioxidant and antimicrobial activity that proportionated with concentration of the sample used.