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Airway management in simulated restricted access to a patient - can manikin-based studies provide relevant data?

Airway management in simulated restricted access to a patient - can manikin-based studies provide relevant data?

Under ideal conditions, experienced physicians can per- form ETI prehospitally with similar success rates as when performed in the hospital [12-14]. Usually, the patient can be evacuated onto an ambulance stretcher with an adjustable height to improve the environmental conditions prior to definitive airway management. How- ever, entrapped patients and patients located in confined spaces may occasionally be in such respiratory distress that a secure airway and mechanical ventilation prior to extrication or transport are required. In a multi-center study from German HEMS, by Helm and co-workers, limited access to the patient was found in 20% of patients upon arrival and in almost 10% of patients at the time of the first intubation attempt [1]. This makes it relevant to study if supraglottic devices provide a safer way to secure the airway in cases of restricted access. Use of manikin studies
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Energy-delay aware Restricted Access Window with novel retransmission for IEEE 802.11ah networks

Energy-delay aware Restricted Access Window with novel retransmission for IEEE 802.11ah networks

One of the latest wireless communication technologies that been proposed for Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications is the Low Power Wi-Fi [1]. IEEE 802.11ah Wireless LAN standard group has put forward IEEE 802.11ah to support Low Power Wi-Fi (called ”Wi-Fi HaLow”) [2] [3]. IEEE 802.11ah operates at sub-1 GHz and it can support up to 6000 devices within a network with transmission range up to 1 km at the rate of more than 100 kbps [4]. Restricted Access Window (RAW) is a new MAC layer feature that used in Low Power Wi-Fi to decrease collision. It limits a set of devices that can access the channel at any time and spreads their attempts over a long period of time [2] [5]. RAW consists of multiple equal time slots, where each slot is selected by devices or assigned to a group of devices for transmission [6] [7]. Devices are in wake-up mode only when turning to their RAW, otherwise would be in doze mode.
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RESTRICTED ACCESS MEDIA   SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION pdf

RESTRICTED ACCESS MEDIA SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION pdf

For the determination of drugs and their metabolites in serum or plasma by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), tedious and time-consum- ing pretreatment procedures such as liquid } liquid ex- traction, solid-phase extraction (SPE) or membrane- based extraction are often required. Among those pretreatment procedures, SPE is the most widely used for extraction of target compounds in biological S uids. However, direct injection of serum or plasma samples onto HPLC or SPE materials causes protein denaturation with accumulation of materials on the sorbent, resulting in undesired loss in the capacity and selectivity of the sorbent. Thus, it is essential to remove serum or plasma proteins before loading the samples onto the HPLC or SPE sorbents. Recently, restricted access media (RAM) materials were intro- duced for direct injection of proteinaceous samples onto the HPLC or SPE materials. With RAM mate- rials large molecules such as proteins are eluted in the void volume without destructive accumulation be- cause of restricted access to some surfaces, while allowing small molecules such as drugs and their metabolities to reach the hydrophobic, ion-exchange or af R nity sites and be separated. One approach uses an internal-surface reversed-phase (ISRP) material, produced from porous silica gels, which has hydro- phobic interior and hydrophilic exterior surfaces, as shown in Figure 1. The ISRP } GFF material (GFF " glycine- L -phenylalanine- L -phenylalanine)
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Design and Fabrication of a Computer-Based Fingerprint Security System for Restricted Access Control

Design and Fabrication of a Computer-Based Fingerprint Security System for Restricted Access Control

Most systems for restricted access control lack authentication. In addressing this limitation, biometric verification systems have been considered as an alternative. However biometric systems currently in the market are expensive thus restricting their wide usage. This is because they are available as embedded units made of expensive sensors and hardware. A system that employs the use of rapid growth of computer technology, low cost sensors and the availability of numerous programming languages which enhances automation is required. This is the motivation for this research work.
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The economic feasibility of upgrading Moree’s light industrial area to legally cater for restricted access vehicles

The economic feasibility of upgrading Moree’s light industrial area to legally cater for restricted access vehicles

All construction works that have been planned in this study are not beyond the realms of possibility. Road rehabilitation, kerb and gutter construction and installation of new pipe culverts are all commonly occurring works carried out as part of MPSC maintenance and new projects. Power pole relocations and land acquisitions are far less common and in most cases attempts are made to avoid them however there are some instances that avoidance is not possible. Several options were considered in regards to changing the traffic flow of the area and these will be discussed in Section 6.2.2. These were deemed to be deficient in terms of providing RAV access to the Light Industrial Area so power pole relocations and land acquisitions became necessary.
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Selecting query terms to build a specialised corpus from a restricted access database

Selecting query terms to build a specialised corpus from a restricted access database

The compilation of corpora from the world wide web involves the use of an API (Application Programming Interface), that is, a service which allows third- party software access to a search engine’s index of web pages. The first step is to decide on an initial set of terms (or seeds) which are expected to return relevant texts, irrespective of whether relevance is defined in terms of genre, topic or lan- guage (e.g. Ghani et al. 2001; Baroni and Bernardini 2004; Baroni and Sharoff 2005). These initial terms are combined randomly in equal sets (e.g. pairs or triplets) to be used as queries (Baroni and Bernardini 2004: 1314). The docu- ments retrieved from each query (or a portion of them) are used to compile a pilot corpus. The corpus derived thus is compared to a reference corpus to estab- lish keywords in the pilot corpus – Baroni and Sharoff (2005) suggest using the 40 top keywords. A random sub-set of these keywords is used to form new sets of queries. This procedure is repeated as required, although Baroni and Bernar- dini (2004: 1314) report that they did not have to repeat the procedure more than two or three times. This technique seems to be an adaptation of relevance feed- back. Instead of users or experts reading (a sample of) the documents to assign a relevance score, the decision is largely reached through successive keyword comparisons. However, Baroni and Bernardini (2003: 4, 2004: 1314) acknowl- edge that the number of initial terms, the cut-off point for the use of key words as interim query terms, and the selection of documents for each pilot corpus are subjective decisions, sometimes based on trial and error. In sum, the procedure may not be entirely objective; it is, however, free from the decisions of human readers. Given the availability of a set of software tools (BootCaT) which would automate the procedure (Baroni and Bernardini 2003; Baroni et al. 2006), this technique would be considered promising for our purposes. However, the tools cannot be applied to the particular database.
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Restricted access : women's business ownership in profile

Restricted access : women's business ownership in profile

Access to finance is a critical issue and it appears that women are less happy than men about the availability and cost of overdraft or loan finance. They are less likely to use bank finance and rely proportionately more on personal savings and household income which, of course, impacts on the size and growth prospects of their businesses. T h e re is a clear opportunity for the banks here and we welcome the positive dialogue we are having with a range of financial institutions, particularly NatWest and the Royal Bank of Scotland which have supported the publication of this re p o r t .

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Latvian health care competitiveness in relation to its infrastructure and available resources

Latvian health care competitiveness in relation to its infrastructure and available resources

Abstract. Resources are one of the essential indicators for the functioning of the health care system. Better health care provision is an essential prerequisite for the export of services. Traditionally a competitive health care system is linked to a number of factors (price, quality, reliability, products and services) largely determined by the new technologies, innovations and implementation the new methods. The authors of this article analyzed and collected data from the European Commission Eurostat and OECD data. Current situation in health care in Latvia is characterized by populations’ restricted access to health care services, high out-of-pocket payments and poor health outcomes of the population. More than 10% of Latvian population can’t afford medical care. The ratio of public funding for healthcare in Latvia is among the lowest in EU countries. Latvia spends 5.3% (USD PPP 1217) of GDP on health, lower than the OCED country average of 8.9% (USD PPP 3453). Latvia is facing a dramatic gap between the availability of hospital beds and long term care beds and the lowest prevalence of general medical practitioners among all Baltic States 321.6 per 100 000. These mentioned factors may hinder the development of health care in Latvia and reduce the ability to participate in international health service market.
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Women Education: Another Gap to Bridge

Women Education: Another Gap to Bridge

The plight of women, in terms of education is further compounded by the negative attitude of parents toward female education. Some parents are usually reluctant to send their girl child for formal education especially to higher levels like their male counterpart. Restricted access to education by women in this country is profoundly rooted in history, religion, culture, the psychology of self, law, political institution and social attitudes which interact in several ways to limit women’s access to formal education when compared with their male counterparts.
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Obesity induced structural and neuronal plasticity in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex

Obesity induced structural and neuronal plasticity in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex

(Bocarsly et al , 2015; Dingess et al , 2016). Surprisingly, we did not observe an alteration in excitatory inputs to pyramidal neurons that would presumably be a functional representation of decreased spine density. However, the apical tuft of pyramidal neurons receives excitatory synaptic inputs that have different presynaptic origins to those that form synapses onto basal dendrites, which purportedly receive inputs from local excitatory input (Spruston, 2008). Thus, our whole cell recordings may reflect a different population of excitatory synapses on spines than that assessed with Golgi staining. While there was a decrease in spine density on basal dendrites of lateral OFC neurons from obese rats, we observed an increase in basilar, but not apical, dendritic complexity in rats with extended or restricted access to a cafeteria diet compared to controls. The distinct morphologies of basal and apical dendrites suggest that inputs to these domains might be integrated differently. However, it is unknown what the functional implications may be of enhanced basal dendritic complexity of lateral OFC neurons.
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 EFFECT OF FATIGUE ON SSVEP DURING VIRTUAL WHEELCHAIR NAVIGATION

 EFFECT OF FATIGUE ON SSVEP DURING VIRTUAL WHEELCHAIR NAVIGATION

In the field of swift usage of cloud, web server, application server, and database server, auditing is needed in every phases of cloud infrastructure due to maintenance of data confidentiality, privacy, integrity and availability. In the recent scenario, data is being stored, transferred and processed outside the company or organization. The raw data is not physically controlled by the organization and shared computing environments are also making it public. These kinds of loopholes need more security and privacy. In respect to data access, no controls have been implemented to restrict data modification and no logging events such as access, transmission, modification on data have not been monitored. Limited capabilities for change control and provider feasibility are also the drawbacks of cloud infrastructure. One more thing is that all the physical and logical accesses are managed and maintained by the Cloud Service Provider (CSP). Hence auditing is highly required to maintain the privacy of the sensitive data, restricted access of computing and physical resources and to check integrity.
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Assessment of oral health and cost of care for a group of refugees in Germany: a cross-sectional study

Assessment of oral health and cost of care for a group of refugees in Germany: a cross-sectional study

A dental care report by one statutory health insurance organization indicated that 8.9% of the insured adult population has had an extraction [23]. This is in contrast to our sample, where an extraction was recommended for 75.5% of the refugees. However, if the refugees were not experiencing pain, then no treatment was offered, accord- ing to the definition of restricted access in §4 AsylBLG [6]. This restricted access for refugees could have an impact on healthcare costs. The reimbursed costs for health in- surance will be lower due to the restricted access, as not all refugees need treatment, and therefore, they will not incur any cost. However, the direct and indirect costs can- not be estimated. In our sample, 50 refugees stated that they currently suffered from toothache. In these cases, §4 AsylBLG would grant them treatment, and it would be more expensive than if there was no access limitation regarding toothache. Postponing treatment until there is pain is not preventive action. Therefore, it can be assumed that restricted access may lead to discrimination of refu- gee ’ s healthcare, and it may also lead to higher costs [24]. Moreover, it is possible that persons who have poor oral health, such as missing teeth, might have problems obtain- ing employment, which is an important part of the inte- gration process for refugees in a foreign society [25].
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Having a closer look at the circumstances during Period 2 suggests explanations for the elephant´s behaviour. During this period, the group was constantly confined indoors for the night time and separated into two pairs. Separation and restricted access to indoor or outdoor areas have both been identified as risk factors for stereotypic behaviour in zoo elephants by Greco et al. (2016). Additionally, the elephant´s preferred location for leaning while indoors, a narrow walkway, became unavailable due to the progress of the construction site. An accumulation of these factors is supposed to be causal for the intense swaying during this period. It can be discussed whether her falling bouts had a cause or effect relation with the excessive stereotypic behaviour during these months. After transferring the elephants to the new indoor exhibit, the aforementioned risk factors were eliminated and social contact was no longer restricted. GLM analysis revealed the latter as a significantly correlating factor for the amount of stereotyping (Table 5), which is in accordance with previous reports suggesting social circumstances to have strongest impact on stereotypic behaviour in captive elephants (Greco et al. 2016; Kurt and Garai 2001; Vanitha et al. 2016). Kurt and Garai (2001) as well as Vanitha et al. (2016) investigated stereotypic behaviour in captive elephants in countries of origin and suggested it to be a symptom of social isolation. This is in accordance with Greco et al. (2016), whose models for North American zoo elephants revealed the social environment as the most influential factor in predicting stereotypic behaviour rates.
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Protecting intellectual property associated with Canadian academic clinical trials   approaches and impact

Protecting intellectual property associated with Canadian academic clinical trials approaches and impact

complete protocol. The main advantages of the open access approach are that the protocol is freely available to all stakeholders, permitting them to discuss the protocol widely with colleagues, assess the quality and rigour of the protocol, determine the feasibility of conducting the trial at their centre, and after trial completion, to evaluate the reported findings based on a full understanding of the protocol. The main potential disadvantage of this approach is the potential for plagiarism; however if that occurred, it should be easy to identify because of the open access to the original trial protocol, as well as ensure that appropriate sanctions are used to deal with plagiarism. The ‘ restricted access ’ approach involves the use of non-disclosure agreements, legal documents that must be signed between the trial lead centre and collaborative sites. Potential sites must guarantee they will not disclose any details of the study before they are permitted to access the protocol. The main advantages of the restricted access approach are for the lead institution and nominated principal investigator, who protect their intellectual property associated with the trial. The main disadvantages are that ownership of the protocol and intellectual property is assigned to the lead institution; defining who ‘ needs to know ’ about the study protocol is difficult; and the use of non-disclosure agreements involves review by lawyers and institutional representatives at each site before access is permitted to the protocol, significantly delaying study implementation and adding substantial indirect costs to research institutes. This extra step may discourage sites from joining a trial. It is possible that the restricted access approach may contribute to the failure of well-designed trials without any significant benefit in protecting intellectual property. Funding agencies should formalize rules around open versus restricted access to the study protocol just as they have around open access to results.
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Shared/Restricted Hybrid Access in Femtocells for Next Generation Wireless Networks

Shared/Restricted Hybrid Access in Femtocells for Next Generation Wireless Networks

The researchers are now working to provide access to both open and CSG users to the FAPs, known as hybrid access, for better capacity and coverage of the network. In hybrid access the open users are referred as non subscribers and CSG users as subscribers. As subscribes are the rightful owners of the FAP, so the main issue in the deployment of hybrid access is to keep the service quality of the subscribers unaffected by the non subscribers. Till now a number of studies have been done to improve the QoS of the femtocell users using hybrid access. In [10] the effect of the Mobile Stations (MS), that are within the range of the femtocell but are not communicating with it, is explored in terms of performance over a completely open or closed access. One of the strategies to improve QoS of the subscribers in hybrid access is to use orthogonal frequency division and multiple access (OFDMA) technique, as it reduces the cross-layer co-channel interference [5], [11]. In hybrid access, it is highly undesirable if the subscribers are denied access because of high congestion of non subscribers in the FAP area. To reduce the blocking probability of subscribers, in our work, we have extended the idea of shared and restricted access, presented in [5], in the form of two models; shared hybrid access (SHA) and restricted hybrid access (RHA).
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Solar powered oxygen delivery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Solar powered oxygen delivery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of childhood mortality globally. Oxygen therapy improves survival in children with pneumonia, yet its availability remains limited in many resource-constrained settings where most deaths occur. Solar-powered oxygen delivery could be a sustainable method to improve oxygen delivery in remote areas with restricted access to a supply chain of compressed oxygen cylinders and reliable electrical power. Methods/Design: This study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Solar-powered oxygen delivery systems will be compared to a conventional method (oxygen from cylinders) in patients with hypoxemic respiratory illness. Enrollment will occur at two sites in Uganda: Jinja Regional Referral Hospital and Kambuga District Hospital. The primary outcome will be the length of hospital stay. Secondary study endpoints will be mortality, duration of supplemental oxygen therapy (time to wean oxygen), proportion of patients successfully oxygenated, delivery system failure, cost, system maintenance and convenience.
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Let it grow—the open market solution to marijuana control

Let it grow—the open market solution to marijuana control

More importantly, a competitive market offers greater benefits with respect to public policy, especially the reduc- tion of teenage use through restricted access and the elim- ination of profit incentives for teen-to-teen sales. Teenagers will continue to use marijuana, but as Roffman points out, the overall social environment under legalization, with re- spect to public health, will be far better than it is under prohibition. A competitive market provides the opportunity to maximize those benefits. Most marijuana users, the majority of the subculture associated with marijuana use, are resistant to a corporate oligopoly taking over control of marijuana production and distribution in the United States. It is time to enlist this community in the pursuit of the public interest. To this end, it is recommended that the on- going discussion over an appropriate regulatory framework be expanded to include the issue of corporate social respon- sibility and the extent to which this can be augmented by many of the shared values of the existing subculture of marijuana users.
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Advanced Python programming

Advanced Python programming

rexec module - Restricted code execution Bastion - Restricted access to objects.. The rexec Module[r]

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MAXIMIZED RESULT RATE JOIN ALGORITHM

MAXIMIZED RESULT RATE JOIN ALGORITHM

The traffic analysis and classification are related to the fault classification and identification in the online access over web transaction. There are various techniques used for effective access of network, traffic and other resources which are suitable for accessing the web based application. None of these methods focus on the fault committed by the web user and retain the customer in the active state in order to improve the performance of the web application. The survey focuses on fault management and classification with user access policies rather than session sign out mechanism. A new technique has been proposed in this paper for identifying and classifying the faults over online transaction system. The rest of the paper organized as follows,
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Protecting Journalists in Foreign War Zones

Protecting Journalists in Foreign War Zones

and bullets on journalists…the battle for the truth will disappear into the fog of war” (Carr, 2012, p. 1). It can be supposed that for every journalist killed in a war zone, a public readership of thousands, if not more, goes without accurate knowledge of the events in a conflict. This stifled report- ing may physically harm a journalist, but it also causes irreparable damage in the public’s understanding of the truth. A United Nations Plan of Action draft argues that truth is invaluable in society: “Without…freedom of the press, an informed, active and engaged citizenry is impossible. In a climate where journalists are safe, citizens find it easier to access quality information” (UN Plan of Action, n.d., p. 1). Lies, propaganda, and inaccuracies will potentially fill the vacancy of truth without foreign correspondents at the scene to report—a dangerous replacement.
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