As universidades, por atribuição legal, tem como função principal a formação de mão de obra altamente qualificada, associando o ensino na graduação e Pós-graduação com pesquisa de alto nível. A pesquisa nas universidades, de acordo com os pressupostos da legislação (LDB/96, artigo 52, III), deve ser realizada por significativo percentual de professores mestres ou doutores com dedicação integral. Porém, na prática, nem sempre as universidades cumprem este papel, principalmente as da iniciativa privada, por darem preferência ao ensino da graduação, em detrimento da pesquisa, por razões de custos (FAPESP, 2011, p.11). Isso porque a realização de pesquisas, notadamente aquelas que resultam em inovação, demanda elevados investimentos em infraestrutura de laboratórios, máquinas, equipamentos e capital humano qualificado. Aliados à restrição dos altos custos das pesquisas, existe a questão da escassez de capital. Assim, no Brasil, ao contrário do papel especificado na legislação 7 , é reduzido o número de universidades privadas que oferecem ensino aliado à pesquisa sistemática. Esta fica a cargo, na maior parte dos casos, das universidades públicas, especialmente as federais, como é o caso, no RS, da Universidade Federal doRioGrandedoSul (UFRGS), uma das principais do país. Por outro lado, os centros universitários são instituições voltadas para o ensino de graduação, que, em caso de
ABSTRACT: Adjustments and rearrangements in social relationships and work, new configurations of meaning and reinventions of practices and techniques are constantly taking place in the daily lives of farmers, which leaves room in this scenario for the emergence of 'news'. Grounded in these ideas and in light of the Actor-Oriented Perspective, this article, which is based on a qualitative research study conducted in the municipalities of São Lourenço doSul and Pelotas, identifies the emergence of three 'news', which can be evidenced by the constitution South of the Cooperative Ecological, by building new markets, institutional (school meals) and local (fairs) and the establishment of the Agribusiness Figueira do Prado, and analyzes the history of emergence of these 'news', indicating that these 'news' that are largely related to the sharing of knowledge, local characteristics, heterogeneity and dynamism of social action, seem to indicate a change of development in rural areas in the southern region of RioGrandedoSul.
In the states of RioGrandedoSul and Santa Catarina, the indicated sowing date ranges from the beginning of October and the end of December (Embrapa, 2014). Despite the evident season cultivation has been performed in these states. Among other factors, this fact may be explained by the high risks of environmental hazards and relatively low prices of commercialization in wheat (Meotti et al., 2012). In order to obtain high quality soybean seeds, sowing date must allow for mild temperatures during the reproductive stage, preventing the occurrence of poorly formed seeds, and that are e for harvesting in a dry period (Peske et al., 2012). Despite the decrease of yield, off-season seed production might represent anviable option in years where environmental hazards or other risk factors during on-season cultivation are he state of RioGrandedoSul until now, there is paucity of studies evaluating soybean seed quality season. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate seed quality and initial performance of seedlings of INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH
Sul, 57 % comes from small-scale farms, where land property is less than 100 ha, family labour prevails over hired labour and work is supervised by the farmer (Wag- ner et al., 2004; MDA, 2009; MDA, 2013). Between 1996 and 2000, 26.8 % of these small-scale farmers abandoned milk production (Wagner et al., 2004). How- ever, this dropout was considered relatively moderate, partly explained by the fact that most small-scale farm- ers in RioGrandedoSul are organised in cooperatives which secure market access and milk commercialisation (DESER, 2009). Cooperatives guarantee that farmers can sell any amount of milk without a minimum quant- ity required, because they are able to deal with private companies and larger markets more e ﬀ ectively than a single farmer.
The conclusions of this thesis are drawn from the analysis of a varied set of data. The study of the evolution of the extent of state involvement in (or of the autonomy of the parties in) dispute resolutions is based on records of the regional tribunal of the Labour Courts and of the regional office of the Ministry of Labour. This is a comprehensive set of data that covers all negotiations held in RioGrandedoSul between 1978 and 1991. The study of the form of relationship between the parties to the negotiations is based on evidence collected in interviews carried out with leaders of management and workers’ interest associations in a segment of the engineering industry of the Greater Porto Alegre Region during the same time period. The study of the bargaining scope is based on a sample of collective agreements and arbitration awards established in the same micro-region. This area was chosen because it constitutes the most industrialised and urbanised area in the state. The selected industrial segment has the most powerful unions in RioGrandedoSul. The interviews are supplementary sources of evidence of the behaviour of the parties to the negotiations. The set of respondents include trade union and employers association directors, representatives of the regional tribunal of the Labour Courts and of the Ministry of Labour, as well as a representative of a private agency for assistance to trade unions.
So, considering the climatic changing evidences, especially those associated to the occurrence of extreme events, and that intense rains in the region (extreme rains) are responsible for much of the morphoscultural dynamics (sandization) in southwestern RioGrandedoSul, the purpose of this work is to analyze a long series of rainfall data, identifying the daily rainfall extremes, its frequency, its return time, its temporal tendency and the synoptic mechanisms which are re- sponsible for the genesis of these events.
Brazil is the world largest sugarcane producer with an estimated production of 658.7 million tons of sugarcane in the harvest 2015/16 . Sugarcane production in RioGrandedoSul represents a small fraction of the country production. One of the limitations of producing sugarcane in this state is the humid subtropical climate, once sugarcane develops better in tropical climates with lower chance of frost . In order to overcome the cold weather and drought usual in the state, more resistant varieties of sugarcane have been studied, such as RB cultivars. These cultivars are suitable for ethanol production and when tested in RioGrandedoSul achieved average to high agricultural productivity, regular condi- tions when exposed to cold stress, good plant health and fast growth .
Probably the most important environmental challenge of this century is to adapt to climate change and develop strategies to minimize its effects. This study aims to conduct an investigation to detect changes in temperature and precipitation in the northwest region of RioGrandedoSul with the use of different general and regional circulation models (GCMs and RCMs, respectively). Seven distinct locations in the region were considered, for which there were ten different climate projec- tions. Additionally, we investigated the frequency and intensity of extreme rainfall events using different extreme precipitation indices. These projections indicate an increase of mean annual temperature of almost 3˚C till the end of the century, as well as an increase in annual precipitation. The seasonal analysis has demonstrated that the largest increases of temperature are projected for winter and early spring and do not coincide with the summer months of the main crop cultiva- tion (soybean) in the region. Additionally, it is expected high amounts of rain during these same months. In general, trends in extreme precipitation indices were detected for the RCM projections in most of locations. It can also be concluded that it is possible that the spatial distribution of the impacts of climate change on agriculture will not be uniform.
mais elaboradas como proporções. O pleno implica o domínio e interpretação de textos complexos e de operações matemáticas mais sofisticadas. Se for tomado, individualmente, o conceito de alfabetismo pleno, a situação é ainda mais grave no Brasil: apenas 26% da população maior de 15 anos, tanto em 2001 como em 2009, poderia ser considerada plenamente alfabetizada. Portanto, mais de 70% da população brasileira, acima de 15 anos, tem uma alfabetização em nível insatisfatório, em algum grau. Esse é um índice bastante elevado quando comparado com as taxas de analfabetismo oficiais, adotadas pelos governos em seus três níveis (federal, estadual e municipal), divulgadas pelo IBGE, com base em dados obtidos em Censos Demográficos e na PNAD, e que são utilizadas como parâmetros na formulação, implementação, monitoramento e avaliação de políticas públicas. No RioGrandedoSul, a taxa de analfabetismo para pessoas com mais de 15 anos foi de 4,53%, relativa a 2010, com base em dados do IBGE. Já no caso do Brasil, a taxa de analfabetismo para pessoas acima de 10 anos, relativa a 2009, foi de 8,9%, segundo os dados da PNAD 2011.
We thank the researchers from Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado doRioGrandedoSul (FAPERGS), and other research institutions for performing these trials. Moreover, we appreciate Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for the productivity research grant and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) for granting scholarships.
Table 1 lists the hospital admissions frequency for the basic diagnosis of ICD-10 stroke (non-specified hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke), the total amounts paid by the Unified Health System (SUS) and the amount average per hospitalization, referring to all hospitalizations that occurred in the state of RioGrandedoSul, per year, in the period 2007-2017.
Recognizing weaknesses in the area of pharmaceutical care planning, the Brazilian Ministry of Health has proposed an instrument aimed at assessing the stage it is in, identifying changes to be made and a set of actions to implement them.  Specifically regarding the evaluation of the quality of pharmaceutical care developed in the municipalities, the use of a series of indicators makes it possible to compare the performance of programs, activities and services between regions over time. [17, 18] In this context, the purpose of this study is to describe how pharmaceutical care is structured in 12 municipalities belonging to the 8th Regional Health Coordination of the state of RioGrandedoSul, Brazil, in 2018.
The RioGrandedoSul-RS State, even with av- erage annual rainfall of 1.721 mm, has shown a lack of water in the soil for crop production. The study aimed to determine the variation of an- nual and seasonal precipitation over the time; determine the year seasons that can provide the recharge of water into the soil profile and esti- mate the time needed to fulfill the soil pore space with water from effective rainfall with dif- ferent scenarios of water infiltration. The soil uses were: oxisol; Red Yellow Podzolic and Pla- nosolo Hydromorphic Eutrophic respectively in the North, Centre and South of RS State. We determined the total variation of annual rainfall, mean annual potential evapotranspiration and the time required to refill the soil profile for three infiltration scenarios: with fractions 1/2, 2/3 and 3/4 of effective rainfall. In the regions of Passo Fundo, Santa Maria and Santa Vitóriado Palmar, from 1914 to 2004 there was no reduction in the annual volume of rainfall. Considering that 50% of soil volume and water storage are met and that the fraction 1/2, 2/3 and 3/4 of the effective rainfall infiltrates into the soil, the recharging time profile varies from 3.7 to 16.6 years, infil- trating 2/3 range from 1.8 to 6.6 years and infil- trating 3/4 of effective precipitation range from 1.2 to 5.1 years, the time required to refill the entire soil porous space. The recovery of water storage in the soil profile must occur mainly during winter, followed by spring and fall.
Abstract: This research aims at analyzing how sustainability is being incorporated by industrial focal companies on supply chain practices within RioGrandedoSul state, Brazil. An exploratory qualitative research was performed using a multiple case study strategy where four focal companies were inves- tigated. These focal companies actuate with their supply chains in the electric-electronic, energy and footwear industries. Findings concluded that the economic pillar is still the most important for the in- vestigated companies. It was also noted that the environmental pillar is becoming even more relevant, and the social one is still incipient within the practices of the industrial focal companies of the supply chains investigated.
ABSTRACT: The understanding of ecological relationships is fundamental to the implementation of strategies to aphids pest management in agroecosystems. The objective of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of aphids associates to the culture of the wheat and the level of natural parasitism in crops with different management plant. The study it was carried through in the district of Augusto Pestana, RioGrandedoSul, Brazil, in five experimental units (crops) of the 3500m2. The populations of aphids had been monitored by weekly sampling from the period of training of tiller until the period of physiological maturation of the culture. Four species of aphids had been diagnosised: Sitobion avenae (87%), Rhopalosiphum padi (8.3%), Schizaphis graminum (3.9%) and Metopolophium dirhodum (0.8%). The number of aphids found in crops did not reach 10 aphids/tiller during the study, possibly in result of the use of insecticides in these places. The natural parasitation were observed during study and the population growth followed the aphids population in crop. Records the occurrence of Aphidius uzbekistanicus and Aphidius sp.
This work studies the complementarity between hydro, wind and solar pho- tovoltaic energy in the Brazilian state of RioGrandedoSul. Brazil is a country highly dependent on hydro energy; however, the existent plants are not being able to cover the energy demand in recent years. In this context, the state of RioGrandedoSul becomes important because of its potential for wind and solar photovoltaic energy, having complementarity between water, wind and solar photovoltaic schemes when hydroelectric reservoirs are at their lowest levels. This study aims to survey the complementarity of various parts of RioGrandedoSul by proposing mathematical dimensionless ratios, focusing on intra-annual period to carry out a mapping of the entire state. It also analyses the ability to provide power supply throughout the year, through the stabiliza- tion of the energy supply, which depends on an adequate scale for photovol- taic, wind power and hydroelectric harnessing. According to the results ob- tained, the regions with the best complementarity indexes for deployment of a hybrid system in relation to water and wind power were the Metropolitan Re- gion of Porto Alegre and the Southeast region, and the same regions also pre- sented the best results for the complementarity between hydro and solar pho- tovoltaic. Regarding wind and solar photovoltaic energy, the state’s northeast region presented the best results. Finally, the Northeast region of the state also presented the best results for the three energies together.
An outbreak of cattle rabies occurred in a hilly area (<5 km radius) in the city of Nova Roma doSul in RioGrandedoSul State, southern Brazil (Fig. 1). This out- break occurred on a total of 19 cattle farms between February and March 2009, and ended spontaneously without any mitigation measures being implemented. Outbreaks of cattle rabies in this region had not been observed for at least 3 years before or after this outbreak. Brain specimens from these livestock were diagnosed as RABV-positive by an immunofluorescent antibody test and viral RNA was extracted from the brains of livestock using the QIAamp Viral RNA Mini Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). Nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences from the Brazilian RABV samples were amplified by RT-PCR and determined using applied biosystems 3130 genetic ana- lyzer (ABI) using primers described previously [8, 9]. Information of primers used for RT-PCR and sequencing are shown in Additional file 1: Table S1. Multiple align- ment for the datasets of N and G–L genes were made by MAFFT program . Neighbor-joining tree of N gene with 1000 bootstrap replicates was constructed with the p-distance using MEGA ver 6.10 . The nucleotide sequences retrieved from GenBank to construct the phy- logenetic tree are listed in Additional file 2: Table S2.
In RioGrandedoSul (RS), the southernmost state of Brazil, there is a city called Candido Godói whose pop- ulation presents a high rate of twinning, estimated at 15 per 1,000 births. Epidemiological data suggest a founder effect, dating from the late 19th century. Genetic analysis of TP53 and its regulators (MDM2, MDM4, and HAUSP) showed an association of polymorphism rs1042522 in TP53 and twinning in this population (Tagliani-Ribeiro et al., 2012). An additional study on twinning and TP53 was per- formed by Huang et al. (2015) in African Americans, but the association they found was with a different polymor- phism (rs8079544). So far, there is no data on the associa- tion of polymorphism rs1042522 in TP53 and twinning in other regions, and it is debatable whether this is an isolated factor.
Os dados meteorológicos empregados no presente estudo correspondem ao período entre 1979 e 2008, organizados na escala decêndial, contemplando precipitação pluvial, temperatura média do ar, insolação média diária, fotoperíodo médio e radiação solar global extraterrestre média, os quais foram obtidos junto às seguintes fontes: Agência Nacional de Águas; Fundação Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária doRioGrandedoSul; e Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, para as seguintes localidades do estado doRioGrandedoSul: Encruzilhada doSul (30º31’S, 52º31’W, 432m); Erechim (27º37’S, 52º14’W, 783m); Ijuí (28º23’S, 53º54’W, 328m); Júlio de Castilhos (29º13’S, 53º40’W, 513m); Passo Fundo (28º15’S, 52º24’W, 690m); Santa Maria (29º41’S, 53º31’W, 113m); Santa Rosa (27º52’S, 54º28’W, 227m); São Borja (28º40’S, 55º58’W, 75m); São Gabriel (30º20’S, 54º20W, 114m) e Veranópolis (28º54’S, 51º33’W, 705m), representando diferentes regiões produtoras de soja e trigo do estado gaúcho.