found that parents of children with ASDs were 3 times more likely to re- port difﬁculties accessing community and school health services their chil- dren needed, compared with parents of other CSHCN. This result was ob- tained after adjusting for demo- graphic variables. It is interesting to note that, although the majority of par- ents of CSHCN, including parents of children with ASDs, reported serious informational and communication bar- riers to accessing services, parents of children with ASDs were more likely to identify lack of supply of qualiﬁed pro- viders and available services as a problem (services not available or no skilled provider).
While both the school and community-based interventions utilized over the past decade have individually shown significant impacts on changing dietary behaviors in children, the results of this review reveal that community members and organizations can serve as supplementary approaches and partner with schools to design even more successful interventions based on these combined resources. Multicomponent school-based interventions have had a great deal of success in impacting self-efficacy levels as well as actual eating behaviors in children through classroom and cafeteria components, while multicomponent community- based interventions have noted significant effects from utilizing hands-on gardening programs and environmen- tal and policy changes. However, both the school and community-based interventions reviewed noted the lack of resources (space, time, financial, and personnel) as a limitation, specifically with multicomponent interventions. Therefore, combining these resources by creating multi- component school-based programs that include community components, such as farmers market visits, master gardener classes, and concurrent environmental and policy changes, has the potential to help generate more high-quality studies from which to draw evidence-based conclusions regarding the most effective means of impacting health behaviors among minority children in the school and community settings.
The assessment of community management (together with members and leaders of school communities) to promote healthy eating and skills to assess the problem, revealed a serious impairment in several dimensions. Both in parents and in education professionals, there are very high knowledge deficits about adequate nutrition and children's health surveillance (over 70% in all dimensions evaluated and in some cases over 90% of members and leaders assessed). The behavioral dimension was also identified as being impaired to a very high degree, both in the children's parents and in education professionals, with inadequate eating behaviors and equally inadequate monitoring of eating habits.
Often, the most daunting school turnaround leadership challenges school leaders have to confront on their campuses are persistent, long-term dilemma challenges that have been festering for a number of years in their school and district communities as a result of entrenched educator and community stakeholder beliefs about tea- ching, students’ learning potential, the limitations of traditional schooling, etc., as well as because of lax and/or insufficiently funded school improvement practices. These educational stakeholder beliefs can become signifi- cant roadblocks or barriers to enacting meaningful organizational and cultural change in schools—particularly for school leaders focused on trying to work collaboratively with education stakeholder colleagues to create, nurture, and sustain high-quality distributed leadership environments in their school communities to address their substantive learning improvement dilemma challenges. These kinds of pervasive, system-wide dilemma challenges plaguing today’s elementary and secondary school communities are well known to K-12 school lea- ders, and can include perplexing leadership and decision making challenges such as: 1) standing behind and sup- porting the really good teachers in your school in the face of district demands to get immediate learning im- provement results; 2) making difficult choices on allocating limited resources to various school programs; 3) do- ing what is really “best for each and every child” when funded programs often do not provide the needed re- sources to make doing this a practical reality; 4) executing “Reduction-In-Force” (RIF) administrative decisions to reduce or eliminate programs and/or personnel because of budget constraints; 5) providing professional learn- ing and development support to individual teachers or teacher teams who may have fallen into a “rut” in terms of their individual or group professional learning development; 6) motivating teachers who have not yet
Local businesses also provide monetary assistance, educational materials and basic necessitates to Sagebrush Elementary. The local Montessori School does a Christmas coat and glove drive which provides every student at Sagebrush Elementary with a coat and a pair of gloves at Christmas. The Methodist church provides a weekly meal for the community and does a lot of clothing drives for the students. They also donate school supplies and Operation School Bell provides one-third of the most needy families at this school with clothing vouchers. This year the school was fortunate enough to have been adopted by Farmers Insurance, which provided every student with a fully equipped backpack full of pens, pencils, paper, binders and many other items. Many of the teachers responded with elation as they reported the following information to me:
The ECD programme is a comprehensive one. It incorporates other departments and ministries, other than the Ministry of Primary and Secondary education. These departments and ministries contribute towards the School Readiness programme. These include local authorities who have to provide suitable sites and other necessities such as water and health facilities. The Ministry of Health and Child welfare has immunisation programmes that promote the health of children at ECD level. This is important as postulated by the Maturationist perspective; young children will acquire knowledge naturally and automatically as they grow physically and become older, provided that they are healthy (Scott, 2003). The Ministry of Higher and Tertiary Education trains teachers for the ECD programme, through teachers colleges and universities. These teachers are involved in the implementation of the School Readiness programme. Other ministries involved as a community initiative are the Ministry of Justice and Legal Affairs, the Ministry of Gender and Women’s Affairs and the Ministry of Home Affairs. The Ministry of Justice and Legal Affairs provides child friendly courts and lawyers for abused children. It also provides counselling services. The Ministry of Gender and Women’s Affairs helps the community to be gender sensitive, so as not to discriminate on the basis of gender on issues related to education for example. On the other hand for children to attend school they should have birth certificates, which are important for the organisation of age appropriate activities at school. These are provided by the Ministry of Home Affairs. However, the involvement of parents and the community goes beyond preparing children for entering mainstream school.
The intent of this paper has been to describe the impetus for change and the processes influencing change for a northern Canadian Aboriginal school. In particular, the role of the principal, a local Aboriginal, as a leader in initiating and facilitating the transformative change is examined. The school’s change has been examined with reference to the tenets of culture- and placed-based education which subscribe to the provision of a secure, nurturing environment that reflects the culture of the community and promotes the participation of educational staff, students, families and the community in making decisions about learning. As well, the processes leading to the attainment of this end have been examined through the lens of Kaupapa Maori Theory, a framework that has been applied to school development in Maori kura in New Zealand. Although Kaupapa Maori Theory does not presuppose that all school reform initiatives are generalizable to the Kaupapa experience, the school described in this paper and its move to becoming a community-based school exemplifies, to a greater extent, the principles of Kaupapa Maori Theory. In the change from school in community to a community-based school there is clear evidence of the principal facilitating change according to the principles of (1) self-determination or relative autonomy; (2) validating and
resource materials and human power allocation, child placement, providing health care services, counselors, sociologist, physicians, etc. in addition to the school teachers and parents. The questions of coordinated effort of professionals in assisting education of SwD took longer period without any decision since concerned educational personnel from MoE to local level didn’t give due attention to the area. Education of these children was politicized when occupied mind of the authorities as consumption of reporting than supporting. Because, every walk of special needs education, now inclusive education was/is at a standstill since its commencement of 1994 when it was flourished throughout the country. Many things were deteriorating, specifically when one considers material resources and furniture to be fulfilled for the students. The top-up allocated for SNE teachers during these periods were still the same after 20 years of move and in many areas/regions teachers were devoid of the incentives that made the support system and involvement of professionals more intricate. Since the areas of work in assisting education of children with disabilities were not motivating and didn’t show progress, many professionals refrain from joining the group. This is due to the poor attention and insignificant concern of higher officials at Ministry of Education, Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, NGOs and municipalities who should take leading position to organize, invite and bring together all the teams of professionals from different disciplines work collectively to support education of students with disabilities.
In Educational Leadership, content knowledge and the standards-based knowledge, skills and dispositions necessary for competent professional practice are practically indistinguishable. Analysis of data from Assessments 3, 4, 7, and 8 again indicated that more emphasis on using data to drive decisions and formulating specific and detailed plans of action would be helpful to program candidates. Therefore, during the 2006-07 year, faculty will increase the amount of instruction, in-class practice and real-life application during internships in using data to solve problems, make decisions and plan improvements. Additional opportunities for candidates to develop and improve these skills will be included across all three program anchor areas: teaching and learning, organizational effectiveness and school and community relations. While the overall results of the Intern Performance Assessment were extremely positive for our candidates, more emphasis on managing financial resources was included during the 2005-06 year based on feedback from internship site mentors and this emphasis will be continued and improved during the 2006-07 year. Additionally, based on the data generated by the Intern Performance
The school grounds were extensive given the number of students. Areas of the grounds were set aside for a bird garden (image 1) with native shrubs and trees to encourage indigenous bird species, a vegetable garden (image 2) used by the infants class, and an area used for making cubbies amongst the pine trees in the „school woodlot‟. In addition, there were garden beds around each of the buildings (image 3) and a small orchard behind the primary classroom. There was a large concreted area, where students lined up for notices at the beginning of each day, ate morning tea and lunch, played handball and soccer amongst other school yard games, and used for physical education activities. At the front of the school grounds was the infants‟ playground. Adjacent to the school was an Environmental Education Centre and town nature reserve. School and community partnerships saw the regeneration of this four-hectare block of land from a degraded and disused stock reserve 3 and public watering place to extensive use in environmental learning by the school, community, and visiting schools in the region.
The Girls in Sport intervention was part of an initiative in the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia called the Premier’s Sporting Challenge . This Challenge aimed to promote participation in sport and physical ac- tivity among children and young people attending gov- ernment schools (approx. 70% of students). As part of the Challenge, the NSW Department of Education and Communities (DEC) commissioned a consortium of re- searchers to work with the Department’s School Sport Unit and selected school communities to design, imple- ment, and evaluate a multi-component school-based ini- tiative to promote physical activity among adolescent girls. Girls in Sport incorporated components of previ- ously successful school-based interventions among ado- lescent girls [10–12] such as enhanced school sport, changes to the school ethos and strengthening community-based links, along with extensive formative research, to create school and community environments that promoted physical activity among adolescent girls through school sport, physical education, recreation, and leisure time activities. The primary aim of Girls in Sport was to determine if an 18-month school-based interven- tion targeting school sport, the school environment, and links with the local community could slow the decline in physical activity among adolescent girls compared with matched control schools that did not receive the intervention.
teams is high as they can reach unmet needs that school teams such as a SPED IEP team cannot address. Wraparound teams historically meet more frequently (e.g., monthly), are constructed to be malleable to changing needs, and can react to time sensitive problems quicker than unilateral teams that are designed for a specific domain, such as an IEP team whom are only convened for school related matters (Anderson, 2011). By adopting this approach within education, school effectiveness in serving students with EB problems increases and the flexibility to serve such youth in community-based programs is strengthened (Eber & Nelson, 1997). Examples of flexible supports include youth mentorship programs that are linked to community, sporting, or extracurricular hobbies (Eber & Nelson, 1997). Although the literature documents that the coordination of mental and behavioral services are related to positive outcomes in children, evaluations of such coordination of care efforts appears sparse (Puddy, Roberts, Vernberg, & Hambrick, 2012; Painter, 2012; Strompolis et al, 2012; Vishnevsky, Strompolis, Reeve, Kilmer, & Cook, 2012).Within its design, SOC’s are designed to provide coordinated,
Abstract School committees in public primary schools have several issues such as the selection and appointment of administrators, partnerships and political will of the principal, procedures for school committee involvement, and increased participation of school committees in carrying out their main duties and functions to improve the quality of education services. The purpose of this study is to build community and school mind-set to work together to improve the quality of education, to establish an inclusive school for school committees, to find strategies to increase the participation of school committees in improving the quality of education services in schools, to find strategies to increase external stakeholder’s participation in improving the quality of education service contributions; and to create standard procedure of synergy of school and school committee in improving quality of Public Primary School education service in Parepare City. The research methods used are mixed research (a combination of quantitative and qualitative) and field research. Objects studied are as many as 75 school committees and Public Primary School managers in Parepare City. This research was conducted by collecting data through questionnaire, observation, interview, document study, triangulation, FGD, and workshop. The result of this research is the selection strategy which refers to Permendikbud Number 75 of 2016 and is undertaken democratically; the principal establishes a joint commitment with the school committee to advance the quality, designs the respective authorities and responsibilities, develops a transparent, accountable, and ICT-based administration system, and develops quality standards and operational standards of quality education service procedures.
Our school is unique in that we have students from transitional kindergarten through eighth grade. This allows us to keep that personal touch throughout nine to ten years of school. We are committed to providing quality educational programs that enable each individual student to reach his/her fullest potential. We stress the importance of a rigorous curriculum, careful selection of instructional materials, and effective assessment. We take pride in holding high standards for student achievement and designing programs to meet the special needs of individual students. Shared decision making within the entire schoolcommunity and ongoing professional development allow us to do this successfully.
Successful mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns have brought several countries near the point of Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) elimination. A diagnostic tool is needed to determine when the prevalence levels have decreased to a point that MDA campaigns can be discontinued without the threat of recrudescence. A six-country study was conducted assessing the performance of seven diagnostic tests, including tests for microfilariae (blood smear, PCR), parasite antigen (ICT, Og4C3) and antifilarial antibody (Bm14, PanLF, Urine SXP). One community survey and one school survey were performed in each country. A total of 8,513 people from the six countries participated in the study, 6,443 through community surveys and 2,070 through school surveys. Specimens from these participants were used to conduct 49,585 diagnostic tests. Each test was seen to have both positive and negative attributes, but overall, the ICT test was found to be 76% sensitive at detecting microfilaremia and 93% specific at identifying individuals negative for both microfilariae and antifilarial antibody; the Og4C3 test was 87% sensitive and 95% specific. We conclude, however, that the ICT should be the primary tool recommended for decision-making about stopping MDAs. As a point-of-care diagnostic, the ICT is relatively inexpensive, requires no laboratory equipment, has satisfactory sensitivity and specificity and can be processed in 10 minutes—qualities consistent with programmatic use. Og4C3 provides a satisfactory laboratory-based diagnostic alternative.
This research was conducted at Valley Middle School, 1 a 6 th – 8 th grade school located in a medium-sized community (population 55,000) in an agricultural area of the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The community’s two largest employers are a state university and a large computer technology corporation. There were approximately 620 students enrolled at Valley Middle School at the time of the study, and the ethnic make-up of the student body was 78% Caucasian, 18% Latino/a, 3% Asian American, and 1% other. Twenty-seven percent of the students at Valley Middle School were eligible for free and reduced lunches (low income students). The faculty of the school was 95% Caucasian of European descent, while multiple office personnel and instructional aides were Hispanic and native Spanish speakers. The school provides an English Language Learner program for the Latino/a students, and the school has been designated within the district as the magnet middle school for English learners of Hispanic descent. There are two middle schools in the community. Because of the magnet school designation, all of the Mexican immigrant children in the town attend Valley Middle School. Two counselors are employed by the school; both understand Spanish, and one is a native speaker.
In order to incorporate career pathways within a high school setting, a school-to-work or school-to-career system would already need to be in place within the school. A well designed school-to-career system could essentially function as a career pathway, but school officials would likely have to overcome a number of barriers to implement such a system. These barriers, as described by Goldberger and Kazis, include educators fearing the difficulty of their jobs increasing with more intensive academic components incorporated into vocational education and fear from both administrators and the larger community that an increased focus on vocational skills will weaken academic standards and performance. Another major barrier is the high degree of risk that intensive training in occupational skills would never be used by students and would result in a waste of resources (Goldberger and Kazis). Additionally, a fully articulated school-to- career program that could function to prepare students equally for employment and further education would require students to dedicate themselves to a specific career at an early age. This dedication to a career at such an early age with little to no time for career exploration could potentially trap a young adult into a career path to which he or she is not fully dedicated. If administrators, the community, and educators could realize that the risk of losing interest in career training is outweighed by the value of the training provided, school-to-work training could be quite successful and provide great locations for career pathways to be implemented.