SCIENCE: OVERVIEW

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Computer science education teaching methods: An overview of the literature

Computer science education teaching methods: An overview of the literature

Educational neuroscience in computer science education - Educational neuroscience can be understood as an interdisciplinary approach with recommendations for mnemonic teaching and learning (cf. Herrmann, 2009; Howard-Jones, 2010; 2012; Cozolino, 2013; Grein, 2013) on the basis of neurobiological findings (cf. Thompson, 2010). In view of twelve educational teaching-learning principles (e.g. the brain is a living system, the brain/mind is designed for social conduct, the search for meaning takes place through the formation of neuronal patterns – (cf. Arnold, 2002, 2009) and additional neuro-educational principles (e.g. school pupils should structure material to be learned by themselves; teachers should provide an overview at the beginning of the teaching; demands should be reduced during the absorption of new content – (cf. Brand & Markowitsch, 2009), Sabitzer (2010, 2011) presents three teaching units (on hardware components, databases and spreadsheets, EDP in a small business) with methodological grounds and explicit neuro-educational references such as priming, activating prior knowledge, personal relation, relation to actual practice, learning through teaching, re-encoding, networking.
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The Science of Happiness for Policymakers:  An Overview

The Science of Happiness for Policymakers: An Overview

Given the limitations of traditional economic indicators, several national governments and multinational organisations are investigating new measures of progress and well-being to inform policymaking, with some researchers (e.g., Layard, 2005; Diener & Seligman, 2004; Marks & Shah, 2004; Frey & Stutzer, 2002) calling for scientific measures of happiness to be among those investigated (Diener et al., 2009; Dolan & White, 2007; Stiglitz, Sen & Fitoussi, 2009). In this article, we review the literature relevant to the questions of whether and how the science of happiness should be used to inform policymaking. First, we provide a brief overview of the history, methods, and rationale behind happiness science and its use in public policy, and identify the most promising scientific methods for measuring happiness. Following this, several criticisms of these measures are discussed. The main criticisms addressed here include: that survey measures of happiness are too insensitive, that we cannot know what measures of happiness are measuring, and that the wrong kind of happiness is being measured. Lastly we provide recommendations for the role that suitably-improved measures of happiness could play in policymaking, and what steps would need to be undertaken to suitably improve these measures. We conclude that it would be appropriate for governments to measure happiness, and for civil servants to use those data to inform policymaking. However, much complex interdisciplinary and international research is required before it would be appropriate for the science for happiness to play such a role in policymaking.
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Sports science in the Spanish National Research, Development and Innovation Plan: A historical overview

Sports science in the Spanish National Research, Development and Innovation Plan: A historical overview

Ferro-Sánchez A, Floría-Martin P. Sports Science in the Spanish National Research, Development and Innovation Plan. A historical overview. J. Hum. Sport Exerc. Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 554-572, 2011. The I Plan Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (I+D) (1989-1991) (I National Research and Development Plan) (R&D) created in 1988, included Sports Research as one of the 23 National Programmes of its Scientific Policy. However, from the II Plan Nacional I+D (1992-1995) (II National R&D Plan) to 2005, Sports Science was excluded from these Plans. Therefore, for a whole decade, Sports Science was not present in the National Programmes of Fundamental Research. Nevertheless, since 1995 different sectors sought to boost a scientific policy to back Sports Science and in 1998 published the Libro Blanco de la I+D en el Deporte (White Book on Sports R&D). In 2004, the Sports State Secretary of the Higher Sport Council (CSD), having analyzed the proposals of that book and other up-to-date proposals, suggested the Ministry of Education and Science to implement the call again. Then it was suggested a Strategic Action on Sports and Physical Activity (2005-2008) within the V Plan Nacional Investigación, Desarrollo e innovación (I+D+i) (2004-2007) (V National Research, Development and Innovation Plan) (R&D&i). Later on, in the VI Plan Nacional I+D+i (2008-2011) (VI National R&D&i Plan) the Health Institute Carlos III included a Sub- programme on Health, Sports and Physical Activity (2008-2011). The success of the Strategic Actions caused Sports Science to be incorporated into the VI Plan Nacional I+D+I, (2008-2011) supported by the Department Director of Social Sciences and Humanities, from the Sub-directorate General for Research Projects of the Ministry of Science and Innovation. A historical overview will allows us to better understand this achievement without overlooking developments in the past, and will help us appreciate the long way traveled in catching up with the rest of sciences. The participation of researchers in consecutive calls is essential in ensuring the ongoing presence of Sports Science in National Programmes for Fundamental Research. Key words: SPORTS SCIENCE, HISTORY, RESEARCH, SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMMES, SCIENTIFIC POLICY, PLAN NACIONAL I+D+I, NATIONAL R&D&I PLAN.
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Information Science Education in Ethiopia  - an overview -

Information Science Education in Ethiopia - an overview -

At present Information Science deals with its history, philosophical bases, concepts, theories and methodologies of the science. It emphasizes the definitions and properties of information, formal and informal information systems, information origination, transfer, classification, formatting and use. It also introduces basic issues in information science, including the nature of information, overview of information science, bibliometrics, information retrieval, communications and artificial intelligence, information policy, knowledge organization, information services, and the relationships between information technologies and society. Theories and concepts of information science are integrated with a variety of practical tools for the structured design and analysis of information systems. With this new areas are added with the emergence of multimedia, semantic web, metadata, data mining, digital libraries etc.
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An overview to the investigative approach to species testing in wildlife forensic science

An overview to the investigative approach to species testing in wildlife forensic science

The extent of wildlife crime is unknown but it is on the increase and has observable effects with the dramatic decline in many species of flora and fauna. The growing awareness of this area of criminal activity is reflected in the increase in research papers on animal DNA testing, either for the identification of species or for the genetic linkage of a sample to a particular organism. This review focuses on the use of species testing in wildlife crime investigations. Species identification relies primarily on genetic loci within the mitochondrial genome; focusing on the cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase 1 genes. The use of cytochrome b gained early prominence in species identification through its use in taxonomic and phylogenetic studies, while the gene sequence for cytochrome oxidase was adopted by the Barcode for Life research group. This review compares how these two loci are used in species identification with respect to wildlife crime investigations. As more forensic science laboratories undertake work in the wildlife area, it is important that the quality of work is of the highest standard and that the
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Cybersecurity Data Science: An Overview from Machine Learning Perspective

Cybersecurity Data Science: An Overview from Machine Learning Perspective

We are living in the age of data, advanced analytics, and data science, which are related to data-driven intelligent decision making. Although, the process of search- ing patterns or discovering hidden and interesting knowledge from data is known as data mining [47], in this paper, we use the broader term “data science” rather than data mining. The reason is that, data science, in its most fundamental form, is all about understanding of data. It involves studying, processing, and extract- ing valuable insights from a set of information. In addition to data mining, data analytics is also related to data science. The development of data mining, knowl- edge discovery, and machine learning that refers creating algorithms and program which learn on their own, together with the original data analysis and descriptive analytics from the statistical perspective, forms the general concept of “data ana- lytics” [47]. Nowadays, many researchers use the term “data science” to describe the interdisciplinary field of data collection, preprocessing, inferring, or making de- cisions by analyzing the data. To understand and analyze the actual phenomena with data, various scientific methods, machine learning techniques, processes, and systems are used, which is commonly known as data science. According to Cao et al. [47] “data science is a new interdisciplinary field that synthesizes and builds on statistics, informatics, computing, communication, management, and sociology to study data and its environments, to transform data to insights and decisions by fol- lowing a data-to-knowledge-to-wisdom thinking and methodology”. As a high-level statement in the context of cybersecurity, we can conclude that it is the study of security data to provide data-driven solutions for the given security problems, as known as “the science of cybersecurity data”. Figure 2 shows the typical data-to- insight-to-decision transfer at different periods and general analytic stages in data science, in terms of a variety of analytics goals (G) and approaches (A) to achieve the data-to-decision goal [47].
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Overview of the 21st International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

Overview of the 21st International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

interactions among participants. About 80% of the partici- pants lived in the nice dormitory rooms on campus. But, the campus is not near the center of Fort Collins. The co-loca- tion and relative isolation meant that the participants were close to each other for most of the conference. They needed a place to meet. So, the conference included a lounge in the same nearby building as the dining area from 7:00 to 11:00 p.m. daily. Beer, wine and snacks were provided in the lounge as part of the registration fee. The lounge served its intended purpose, with many of the participants spending their evenings there discussing science and other topics. Excursions: As has been usual for the ICCFs, Wednesday afternoon was devoted to going to some place interesting in the region. Normally, all of the conference participants would go to the same location. The difference for ICCF21 was having multiple destinations. The proximity of several attractions in the region around Fort Collins made that pos- sible. Hence, separate tours were arranged for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration and the National Center for Atmospheric Research, all in Boulder. Visiting those U.S. government facilities required prior approval, and the number of visitors permitted at each loca- tion was limited. About half of the conference attendees went to Rocky Mountain National Park.
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An Overview of Translation Science

An Overview of Translation Science

In the globalized world none of us can escape the necessity of a text being translated into a foreign or mother tongue. Translators and interpreters play a huge role in making this happen. However, it is of vital importance that the translation is of a good quality and that it is able to perform its function. Consequently, t he need of translation assessment has appeared and a new scientific branch was born, i. e. translation science. Translation science defines terms, sets criteria for assessment, educates translators and interpreters etc.
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Overview of Borophene as a Potential Candidate in 2D Materials Science for the Energy Applications

Overview of Borophene as a Potential Candidate in 2D Materials Science for the Energy Applications

In future hydrogen fuel will prominent source for energy, however, there are several challenges have been existing and researchers have been always fascinating to solve this obstacle. Suppose, if we are looking according to priorities safety is most important things in hydrogen storage, as we knew that energy density of hydrogen gas is excessive, hydrogen is very reactive with oxygen, it is an exothermic reaction. Moreover, solid-state hydrogen storage remains a major challenge. The metal hydrides [103,115] have extensively been used in hydrogen storage, however, unfortunately, stability and sluggish kinetics [104] are major drawbacks of this kind of materials. In the current situation, new families have been coming into hydrogen storage science, which has immense potential to overcome most of the problems that so far exists. The 2D materials are one of them have arrived in hydrogen storage and become useful in a great extent, there are numerous example such as graphene [105,106] has used majorly, however, nowadays, new family materials also been used such transition metal dichalcogenides [107,108] and alkali based 2D materials such as metal carbides and nitride [109]. The 2D materials are mechanically robust and it has a profoundly catalytical activity to enhance the kinetics for adsorption and desorption of hydrogen gas [110]. Moreover, it gives highly active sites that are high surface energy, that provides a large amount of adsorption of hydrogen gas. Recently, new material has been introduced in hydrogen storage, which as an analogue to graphene, that is borophene. In borophene found that has several steps ahead significant properties than graphene, and as we know that boron has extremely reactive with hydrogen, forms stable compounds. So far experimentally has not applied as expected, calculated storage capacity using first principle calculation, Chun-Sheng Liu et al. [111] have reported that reversible hydrogen storage in metallic hexagonal B 36 , explained the curvature and ionization.
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Recent Advances in Japanese Fisheries Science in the Kuroshio Oyashio Region through Development of the FRA ROMS Ocean Forecast System: Overview of the Reproducibility of Reanalysis Products

Recent Advances in Japanese Fisheries Science in the Kuroshio Oyashio Region through Development of the FRA ROMS Ocean Forecast System: Overview of the Reproducibility of Reanalysis Products

The mission of our organization, the Japan Fisheries Research and Education Agency (FRA), which is one of the National Research and Development Agencies of Japan, is to conduct a wide range of research and development activities related to fisheries and to address many fisheries problems through basic research and practical applications. To respond to the demands of multiple research projects on fisheries oceanography, man- agement, and economics, FRA oceanographers have had to prepare an operational ocean forecast system to create a basic and versatile oceanographic dataset. Such an ocean forecast system had been also expected to extensively enable Japanese prefectural fisheries institutes as well as FRA to systematically conduct many kinds of fishery re- searches and establish many practical applications, which contribute significantly to sustainable fishery and safety of fishery products around Japan. Although the Japanese Oceanographic Society has several operational ocean forecast systems, including MOVE (Multivariate Ocean Variational Estimation) [4], JCOPE2 [5], and DREAMS [40], none of these forecast systems is specialized to fisheries science. Therefore, the FRA has developed an ocean forecast system based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) [41] and specialized to fisheries science called FRA-ROMS. Here, some readers may question why and how FRA-ROMS is specialized for fisheries science. These ques- tions are addressed in Section 4, where ongoing community efforts of the FRA are in- troduced.
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An Overview On Association Of Women In The Field Of Science

An Overview On Association Of Women In The Field Of Science

Though women in all professions face some common difficulties in balancing their domestic responsibilities and job requirements but in case of women engaged in scientific professions the matter is a bit tricky because it is observed that if people are away from research in science particularly experimental work even for six months their work gets left behind and they become irrelevant soon. Since competition to remain and advance in Science careers begins at the earliest stage soon after PhD, it is important for women to establish themselves during their early 30s (a period that coincides for most Indian women with marriage and family commitments). Moreover for postdoctoral study there is the need to spend years in another city where scientists can work in advanced labs. Many women are reluctant to relocate their spouses and children. Thus, as a compromise a large number of qualified women opt for under-graduate or school level teaching while some completely drop out of science.
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Computer Science An Overview, 11e pdf

Computer Science An Overview, 11e pdf

It is by applying abstraction, then, that we are able to construct, analyze, and manage large, complex computer systems, which would be overwhelming if viewed in their entirety at a detailed level. At each level of abstraction, we view the system in terms of components, called abstract tools, whose internal com- position we ignore. This allows us to concentrate on how each component inter- acts with other components at the same level and how the collection as a whole forms a higher-level component. Thus we are able to comprehend the part of the system that is relevant to the task at hand rather than being lost in a sea of details. We emphasize that abstraction is not limited to science and technology. It is an important simplification technique with which our society has created a lifestyle that would otherwise be impossible. Few of us understand how the var- ious conveniences of daily life are actually implemented. We eat food and wear clothes that we cannot produce by ourselves. We use electrical devices and com- munication systems without understanding the underlying technology. We use the services of others without knowing the details of their professions. With each new advancement, a small part of society chooses to specialize in its implementation while the rest of us learn to use the results as abstract tools. In this manner, society’s warehouse of abstract tools expands, and society’s ability to progress increases.
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APPLICATIONS OF GRAPH THEORY IN COMPUTER SCIENCE AN OVERVIEW

APPLICATIONS OF GRAPH THEORY IN COMPUTER SCIENCE AN OVERVIEW

Graph theoretical concepts are widely used to study and model various applications, in different areas. They include, study of molecules, construction of bonds in chemistry and the study of atoms. Similarly, graph theory is used in sociology for example to measure actors prestige or to explore diffusion mechanisms. Graph theory is used in biology and conservation efforts where a vertex represents regions where certain species exist and the edges represent migration path or movement between the regions. This information is important when looking at breeding patterns or tracking the spread of disease, parasites and to study the impact of migration that affect other species. Graph theoretical concepts are widely used in Operations Research. For example, the traveling salesman problem, the shortest spanning tree in a weighted graph, obtaining an optimal match of jobs and men and locating the shortest path between two vertices in a graph. It is also used in modeling transport networks, activity networks and theory of games. The network activity is used to solve large number of combinatorial problems. The most popular and successful applications of networks in OR is the planning and scheduling of large complicated projects. The best well known problems are PERT(Project Evaluation Review Technique) and CPM (Critical Path Method). Next, Game theory is applied to the problems in engineering, economics and war science to find optimal way to perform certain tasks in competitive environments. To represent the method of finite game a digraph is used. Here, the vertices represent the positions and the edges represent the moves.
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Overview of distribution patterns of zooxanthellate Scleractinia

Overview of distribution patterns of zooxanthellate Scleractinia

Two points of general concern remain that seriously affect the data quality of all recent coral biogeographic publications. The first is that the thumbnail maps of Veron (2000) reflect coral biogeography and taxonomy of the late 1990s. Therefore, they do not include most studies relevant to the Coral Triangle, nor any species revealed by molecular techniques, nor any field- work undertaken during the past 15 years. The second is that of the spectrum of information offered by other websites, the maps of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) contain a high proportion of unsupported records from undis- closed sources and often do not include key records such as type locality. Coral Geographic does not give credence to a web- site production of the Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS) obtained from OBIS or to Hughes et al. (2013). The faunal provinces of Keith et al. (2013), derived from “detailed maps” of Hughes et al. (2013) are unrecognizable in this study.
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An overview of adverse effects of demonetisation on micro and small scale enterprises: with special reference to Pune City

An overview of adverse effects of demonetisation on micro and small scale enterprises: with special reference to Pune City

38 International Journal in Management and Social Science http://ijmr.net.in, Email: irjmss@gmail.com tremendous decrease in the credit flows from banks or financial institutions stated by 100% respondents. There was a decrease in industrial output or production capacity. Micro and small enterprises were badly hit by the cash crisis. This sector was also hit with significant wage implications for its casual employees, stated by 84% respondents. In the opinion of 78% respondents due to demonetisation, the daily earnings were totally hit; and there was a terrible setback in the production level. The demonetisation was made impossible for micro-small and the owners to adjust their production process/function as per the schedule. Due to inadequate cash in hand, 96% respondents had faced the problems in payments of wages or salaries to the workers. Since majority of the transactions in this sector are cash-based, and cash liquidity crunch had likely caused a shortage of cash in terms of working capital stated by 100% respondents. Due to lack of working capital, their daily functions badly affected and cause slowdown in production process. The event of demonetisation indicated different picture in terms of labour turnover which was caused to lack of production, and slowdown of production because of low demand for products, customers were purchased products only if it is necessarily required. Therefore, there was a tremendous decline in the conjunction power of people stated by 100% respondents. Table no. 2
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Editorial: Geoscience Communication – Building bridges, not walls

Editorial: Geoscience Communication – Building bridges, not walls

9. We expect that the majority of the publications in GC will be scholarly research articles. If you are consid- ering a review (systematic or otherwise) article, then please contact a member of the editorial board before beginning work on the manuscript. Review articles can be extremely useful publications for the wider commu- nity, and do not necessarily have to be written by a “known name” in the field. However, we would expect a thorough justification for why this review article needs to be published, and why you the proposed author(s) are the ideal person(s) to do so. An example of a genuinely excellent review article in the field of science commu- nication is Weigold (2001), which provides an overview of science communication, and contextualises the liter- ature to suggest ways of improving the practice of sci- ence communication, as well as an agenda for future research.
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Informing Science: The International Journal of an Emerging Transdiscipline

Informing Science: The International Journal of an Emerging Transdiscipline

The purpose of this introductory article is to provide an overview of the contributions that make up this Special Series of Informing Science on The Role of Case Studies in Informing Systems, summarizing the major findings and discussing the key issues. In the first two articles, the foun- der of a leading consultancy and a veteran Harvard Business School professor offer their unique insights on the multiple dimensions and complexities of the case method, the first highlighting the parallels between business leadership and case teaching as informing systems, and the second revealing the multiple pathways of informing through case research. The next two articles are examples of discussion cases that have opened new informing patterns among researchers, case protagonists, and members of society, having produced impacts that extend to small farmers in Central America and delinquent gangs in Venezuela. The next two articles involve innovations in case development and teaching that open still further informing pathways: the organization of undergraduate students as case writers, interacting with protagonists and leading CEO’s in Croa- tia, and the new informing patterns in case teaching that take place through the use of online technology. In the final article, four business school professors discuss their attempts to measure improvements in critical thinking skills among MBAs that have come about as a result of case method learning.
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Are farmers empowered? The role of empowerment in farmer decision making about weed and invertebrate management

Are farmers empowered? The role of empowerment in farmer decision making about weed and invertebrate management

The farmer sought the agronomist not just for their expertise, but as a sounding board, a learning opportunity, and as a trusted interpreter of complex science. They sometimes became friends, confidants and, as illustrated by Ag-S-8, a facilitator in family issues. For all farmers, the agronomist was a critical component in farmer decision making about weed and invertebrate management. Of these multiple agronomist roles, the main one concerned advice on the use and application of chemical (herbicide and insecticide). Table 4 outlines the key roles farmers identified for their agronomist. I define these roles below. The roles are recognised and discussed in the literature. For example, see Ingram (2008) and McGuckian (2006). My analysis goes a level deeper to try and understand the motivation for using the agronomist in this way and, as became apparent during analysis, to explore how these uses facilitate and function as a foundation for farmers' empowerment. Although my analysis focused on the use of agronomists
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Computational Thinking:  Need Of The Hour In Engineering Programs In India

Computational Thinking: Need Of The Hour In Engineering Programs In India

Thanks to technology and facilities, our lives are more comfortable. Advanced Technology has improvised and upgraded peoples’ knowledge tools and skills. Indian education system also is trying to reform and keep abreast with the western system. Facilities are growing and people have been contributing to the advancement of science and technology and making innovations. Indian graduates working in hardware and software industries are unable to produce good results. Only a small percentage of technologies developed by Indians are unique in the world due to various reasons.
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An evaluation of pharmacology curricula in Australian science and health-related degree programs

An evaluation of pharmacology curricula in Australian science and health-related degree programs

In 1996, the Education Sub-committee of the British Pharmacology Society (BPS) conducted a survey of the content of Bachelor of Science (BSc) pharmacology cour- ses [10]. Significant variation in pharmacology course con- tent was found across the universities surveyed, with only a limited number of topics being taught in depth. In a second survey conducted in that same year, 78% of tea- ching was found to be chalk and talk lectures, reflec- ting a traditional approach to pharmacology teaching [11]. Arising out of these findings was a call by the BPS for a pharmacology core curriculum for BSc degree programs to parallel the development of a core curriculum in clinical pharmacology for medical programs. One clear advantage of a core curriculum is that it can address the issue of content overload, where content is added ad hoc but nothing is removed; a phenomenon referred to as ‘coveritis’ [12,13].
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