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Framing the Adoption of Serious Games in Formal Education

Framing the Adoption of Serious Games in Formal Education

161 ISSN 1479-4033 what is still considered established practice in much mainstream formal education, namely teacher- driven knowledge transmission of the “chalk and talk” kind. This set of “innovative” paradigms includes the likes of situated cognition/situated learning, learning-by-doing, discovery learning, problem-based learning, constructivist learning, among others. While the basis for such attributions can sometimes be sketchy, some serious efforts have been made to provide a systematic analysis. One such was carried out by Kebritchi and Hirumi (2008), who examined a broad set of Serious Games and sought to align these with recognized teaching/learning paradigms that the games are held to reify – or at least strongly resonate with. The basis for associating each game with a given paradigm was deduced from game designers’ declarations and standpoints regarding the “pedagogical foundations” underpinning design decisions and strategies. The study grouped the vast majority of the 50 games considered under the chief pedagogical headings of situated cognition, experiential learning, discovery learning and constructivist learning (some games remaining unclassified). These four main categories are further sub-divided into sub-categories. For example, experiential learning (the most prevalent paradigm) is considered to comprise learning-by-doing, guided experiential learning, case- method teaching and experiential/inquiry-based learning. A high-level theoretical framework of this kind is quite evidently open to (re)interpretation and alternative arrangements, nonetheless the attempt at a pedagogical analysis, and classification, of a substantial set of SG grounded on an empirical study represents a useful reference point for further investigation. Indeed, some of the authors of the present paper are currently seeking to extend and enrich this pedagogical survey by adding further paradigms and more examples from the literature; this effort is an undertaking of the GEL Theme Team (s initiative supported by the STELLAR Network of Excellence (s the EC under the Seventh Framework Programme.
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SERIOUS GAMES AND REHABILITATION FOR ELDERLY ADULTS

SERIOUS GAMES AND REHABILITATION FOR ELDERLY ADULTS

The utility and effectiveness of specific serious games in the medical field is always somewhat unclear. This is due to the lack of evidence on the validity of games, as well as the lack of information available to the public. In addition, the insufficient understanding of the design principles between the game developers and the institutions that use a serious game in the medical field compromises its use [37]. Serious games are digital games designed to improve the user's knowledge, skills or attitudes in the "real" world. Serious games applied to medical or health-related purposes are growing in number and types of applications. Serious games-based interventions have been used to support the rehabilitation of disabled patients, thus proving their efficiency as compared with conventional treatment programs [38].
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Serious Games for Talent Selection and Development

Serious Games for Talent Selection and Development

In the corporate world, the use of serious games has increased exponentially over the past decade, and additional applications are currently being developed (e.g., Dale, 2014). Like the military, the most prevalent use of serious games in corporate environ- ments is for training. Serious games used for corporate training purposes range from teamwork, leadership, time and project management, communication skills, stra- tegic planning, customer service, sales, onboarding, and of course job-specific skill development (Greco, Baldissin, & Nonino, 2013; Lopes, Fialho, Cunha, & Niveiros, 2013; Michael & Chen, 2006). In addition to training, serious games have also been used to attract and retain customers, launch new products, enhance job performance, and attract potential job candidates. One prom- ising new area for serious games in the corporate arena involves the use of serious games for personnel selection, which will be covered in the following section.
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Effect of debriefing with serious games on learning in an EFL classroom

Effect of debriefing with serious games on learning in an EFL classroom

The last decade has witnessed growing interest in the potential application of computer games for learning and instruction which often referred to serious games (Hays, 2005; Wouters, Van der Spek, & Van Oostendorp, 2009; Wouters, Van Nimwegen, Van Oostendorp, & Van Der Spek, 2013). Recent literature reviews have shown that regarding cognitive learning and retention, serious games have the same effect as traditional methods (Ebner & Holzinger, 2007) or even can be more effective than conventional instruction methods like lectures (Sitzmann, 2011; Wouters et al., 2013). Besides, serious games are also hypothesized to address affective learning issues and have potentials to provide motivation for learning (Malone, 1981; O'Neil, Wainess, & Baker, 2005). Researchers believed that serious games could be appealing and evoke learners’ intrinsic motivation because of the key characteristics of games, namely fantasy, goals/rules, sensory stimuli, challenge, mystery, and control (Garris, Ahlers, & Driskell, 2002; Malone, 1981). However, there are still many questions about how to use serious games in classroom and harness the motivational appeals to enhance learning (Garris et al., 2002; Hays, 2005).
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Measuring the commercial outcomes of serious games in companies: a review

Measuring the commercial outcomes of serious games in companies: a review

more than 2,670 available in full text. We also selected the ACM and IEEE XExplore digital libraries, since they have extensive coverage of the databases in computer sci- ence and information technology. The ACM Digital Library is the most comprehen- sive collection of full-text articles and bibliographic records covering the fields of computing and information technology, it also indexes the Springer collection. The full-text data-base currently consists of more than 44 high impact Journals as well as more than 275 Conference Proceedings. The IEEE XExplore digital library database provides full text access to more than 140 technical journals and approximately 900 annual conference proceedings published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the Institution of Engineering and Technology (formerly the Institution of Electrical Engineers). We also included the database of the Academy of Management, since it publishes leading journals in the business and management field and provides the highest quality papers. The reason for us to include this database is to identify if there are papers on serious games so that we can learn from their best research practice. The Academy publishes five journals: articles published in the Academy of Management Journal (AMJ) empirically examine theory-based knowledge; the Academy of Management Review (AMR) provides a forum to expli- cate theoretical insights and developments; The Academy of Management Learning and Education (AMLE) provides a forum to examine learning processes and man- agement education; the Academy of Management Perspectives (AMP) publishes accessible articles about important issues concerning management and business; and the Academy of Management Annals provides up-to-date, comprehensive examina- tions of the latest advances in various management fields. Each volume features criti- cal research reviews written by leading management scholars.
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Evaluation of serious games: a holistic approach

Evaluation of serious games: a holistic approach

Evaluation goals in the context of serious games are usually two-fold, aiming at the measurement of the software quality of the game, on the one hand, and at the assessment of its effectiveness in terms of reaching their goals of learning and engagement (in a wider sense), on the other hand. As a result, usability, learning effectiveness and game enjoyment are the evaluation criteria commonly addressed. Usability in the context of (serious) games is referred to as the degree to which a player is able to learn, control and understand a game [14]. Techniques applied for usability evaluation cover heuristics, think-aloud user testing (e.g. [15]) and observational methods (e.g. [16]). Learning, i.e. the educational effectiveness of games, is typically evaluated by applying a pre- and post-test design, i.e. the assessment of learning outcomes of a certain unit of study (e.g. [17]). Alternative approaches consist of the use of self-reports, where people are asked to indicate what they feel they have learned from undertaking an activity (e.g. [18]), or of built-in assessment procedures of the educational game simulation (e.g. [19]). User engagement, flow, satisfaction and motivation are aspects subsuming a range of attributes related to the subjective experience and enjoyment of games (e.g. [20], [21]). Common approaches to evaluate engagement, motivation and other aspects of user experience are questionnaires or interviews (e.g. [22]), attendance rates, measurement of (voluntary) time-on-task (e.g. [23]). More sophisticated techniques include observations [24] or non-intrusive assessment based on users’ interaction with the system (e.g.[25]).
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Adaptation of Rapid Prototyping Model for Serious Games Development

Adaptation of Rapid Prototyping Model for Serious Games Development

The strong points of video games are the influence and targeting of the large margin of young people, this is due to their interactive environment and the unforgettable experience that can offer to the players. The video games that have the educational purpose are known as serious games, such games can combine both educational and entertaining aspects to create the desire into the learner to play and learn during the game progression. The education can benefit from using serious games because they are an increasing popular and important part of the entertainment industry. The industry estimates range from $2 to $10 billion in revenue for the serious games space, depending on how much of the market for games, simulations and virtual worlds is included in the calculation [1]. Unfortunately the design process of serious games is a complex task; it needs a lot of resources, time, and money. Each phase of the process requires the intervention of experienced actors, and in addition, there is no specific protocol has yet been developed resulting in the use of methods designed for video games or educational systems that are patched up in an effort to adapt them to the needs of serious games [2]. For these reasons we propose in this paper a design methodology of serious games based on the rapid prototyping model [3, 4 and 5] often used in instructional design, this methodology will help game designers especially the beginners to create their own serious games easily.
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Investigating the use of Serious Games for teaching anatomy and physiology to higher education students: Research into Serious Games

Investigating the use of Serious Games for teaching anatomy and physiology to higher education students: Research into Serious Games

Results suggested mixed applicability of Prensky (2001) and Tapscott’s (2009) theories surrounding the presence of new types of learners in education – what they term ‘digital natives’ and the ‘net- generation respectively. The majority of participants did display digital native and digital learner qualities but in most cases it was irrespective of the age boundaries suggested by these individuals. The two applications that were developed can both be considered a success with students finding both types of software taught many aspects of the educational content better than traditional means, and results suggesting a much closer tailoring to the preferred learning styles of students. All participants stated they would like to see software such as the simulation used on their university course, with reasons given that it made information clear and concepts easier to visualise. 60% stated they would like to see the game for reasons such as it being a ‘fun way to learn’. A desire for serious games applications in higher education is apparent from this.
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Designing Engaging Serious Games

Designing Engaging Serious Games

The paper will describe how Alelo designs and develops serious games that teach foreign languages and intercultural communication skills. Immersive, interactive 3D video games simulate real-life communication, allowing users to role play with animated “socially intelligent virtual humans” that recognize the user’s speech, intent, gestures and behavior. These game experiences are combined with interactive multimedia learning materials to provide learners with immersive learning environments that enable them to rapidly progress from no knowledge of the language and culture to significant levels of job-related communicative proficiency.
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Gender-based Engagement Model for Serious Games

Gender-based Engagement Model for Serious Games

Abstract— Information and Communications Technology (ICT) improve learning quality and increases outcomes while allowing for more natural control of learning systems. It has a significant impact on the economy in many regions. However, there is a lack of female engagement in ICT fields in many countries. Serious Games are effective tools for learning, and it can be used to motivate women to study Computer Science. Gender preference factors affect engagement and motivation to play certain types of digital games, but few studies have designed digital games for females. Furthermore, most games with Computer Science content do not interest young adult females and fail to describe how the social and cultural content of the game explains the game experience of female players. As a solution, an extensive study of related literature on effective Serious Game elements, including motivational elements that influence a player to engage with digital games, effective educational game elements, female preference elements regarding digital games, and elements that impact the motivation of players to engage with the game was conducted. The result is a conceptual model for gender-based engagement in Serious Games. The proposed model will be implemented to increase the engagement of undergraduate females in Computer Science.
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Brief history of serious games

Brief history of serious games

What does this mean for the study of Serious Games? Firstly, like historical studies of games, Serious Games has not followed a consistent linear path of legitimi- sation, but instead moves in stops and starts. For instance, the Clark Abt introduced the term ‘Serious Games’ in 1970, however, according to Tarja Susi [69] and Damien Djaouti [38] it wasn’t until 2002 that ‘Serious Games’ came into wide usage. This dynamism is reflected in the shifting consensus on what constitutes ‘seriousSerious Games research – that is, which research should be prioritised in the field. Additionally, there is again historical precedent for the purposing of games – which will be explored here - amongst the broader shifting academic landscape.
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Application of serious games to sport, health and exercise

Application of serious games to sport, health and exercise

CCORDING to popular definition, Serious Games are “games that do not have entertainment, enjoyment or fun as their primary purpose” [1]. Serious games are designed to solve real life problems through the use of games. Although serious games can be entertaining, the main objective of a serious game is, but not limited to teach, train, investigate or advertise. These interactive products are currently been used by industries such as defense, education, scientific exploration, health, medicine, news, city planning, Engineering, Emergency management, business and politics, but not in elite sports. Typically, video game genres are categorized by game play, where serious games are not a game genre but a category of games with a different purpose [2].
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Quantifying the effectiveness of crowd-sourced serious games

Quantifying the effectiveness of crowd-sourced serious games

Crowd-sourced serious games (CSSGs) represent an emerging genre of games. Different from traditional games, the primary concern of the CSSGs is not player enjoyment, but contributing to difficult scientific problems or respectable social causes through incremental efforts embedded in parallel game plays by many non-specialists. CSSGs have a potential to support important tasks for humanity. Clearly, players’ contributions and the effectiveness of CSSGs is crucial for success. Further, players may have different motivations to play CSSGs than traditional games. Some players (called whales) produce more than other players possibly due to a stronger motivation. In addition, those contributions and their effectiveness must be measured and evaluated to improve CSSGs. In this thesis, we propose a methodology to quantify the effectiveness of CSSGs by analyzing mainly two VeriGames produced for DARPA’s Crowd Sourced Formal Verification project. The analyses show that low engagement rates (ERs) can be an obstacle to CSSGs and their ultimate purpose. The results also show this game genre to have a strong whale effect, and thus a strategy focusing on recruiting and retaining whales may be effective to counterbalance the low ERs.
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Evaluating the usability of authoring environments for serious games

Evaluating the usability of authoring environments for serious games

Besides the limited scope on certain usability aspects and software quality characteristics, our evaluation has other limitations. The data obtained are based on the development of only one game by only two authors who did not use all EMERGO components. However, we have strong indications that our findings are generic for the development of all EMERGO and similar complex learning games, because of following reasons. First, the developed game contains a didactical scenario that is representative of a typical EMERGO game. Second, we focused on the development process by eliciting knowledge from informants that were strongly connected to it. Third, the facts that these authors / informants had already developed and authored EMERGO games before, come from different backgrounds (different world views), and have used other components as well, make it very probable that their remarks are generic for other EMERGO games and components as well. Fourth, our findings are in line with more superficial findings we collected with other authors in two previous studies (Nadolski et al., 2007; Slootmaker, Kurvers, Hummel, & Koper, 2014). Fifth, all components are authored by one editor that uses common input controls, so components that are not evaluated are also indirectly partly evaluated. We do not claim that our findings are applicable to development of serious games in general, especially when these do not contain specific references to learning features.
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Serious games for health: three steps forwards

Serious games for health: three steps forwards

Executive control is the third attentional network. It allows one to concentrate on the task without being dis- tracted. The ability to maintain sustained attention on a task without being distracted by the environment or his own thoughts is essential for learning. In serious games, it was originally thought that the immersion experienced during the game would prevent users from being distracted. Indeed, immersion is defined as “the sensation of being surrounded by a completely other reality […] that takes over all of our attention, our whole perceptual apparatus” [23]. Jennet et al. explained that “immersion involves a lack of awareness of time, a loss of awareness of the real world, involvement and a sense of being in the task environment” [24]. However, if immersion allows learners to stay focused on the game, emerging evidence suggests that high levels of immersion may allow them to master the game, but not to achieve the learning outcomes [25]. An explanation may be that high levels of immersion are associated with episodic memory, corresponding to the memory of the context (times, places, associated emotions, etc.) whereas low levels of immersion allow an appropriate distance for the creation of declarative memory, which is the memory of facts and abstract con- cepts [26]. Thus, when the learning objectives are more
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Student-centred learning through serious games

Student-centred learning through serious games

personal interviews’ non-verbal cues have helped the interviewers to better understand the participants’ verbal responses. An effort has been made to induce the informants to talk freely and openly to gain a good understanding of their perspectives of serious games [5]. This allowed the researchers to refine their enquiry; follow-up interesting leads; and to investigate the students’ detailed responses. The interview with the students was conversational in nature, and have also encouraged the research participants to share their views and experiences about the issues being discussed. This qualitative research method has facilitated the exploration of complexities and has led to plausible interpretations of the findings. A degree of flexibility was necessary to fully exploit the emerging issues, especially when the participants themselves were keen to elaborate further.Therefore, a few questions were added during the interviewing process; as well as after the students’ intervention. Generally, the questions were planned well in advance and were formulated in such a way to adapt to the secondary school students’ context. Due credit was given to the informants as they allowed us to cover specific topics in depth and breadth.
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Argotario: Computational Argumentation Meets Serious Games

Argotario: Computational Argumentation Meets Serious Games

The lack of fallacy-annotated linguistic re- sources and thus the need for creating and label- ing a new dataset from scratch motivated us to investigate serious games (also games with a pur- pose)—a scenario in which a task is gamified and users (players) enjoy playing a game without think- ing much of the burden of annotations (von Ahn and Dabbish, 2008; Mayer et al., 2014). Serious games have been successful in NLP tasks that can be easily represented by images (Jurgens and Nav- igli, 2014; Kazemzadeh et al., 2014) or that can be simplified to assessing a single word or a pair of propositions (Nevˇeˇrilov´a, 2014; Poesio et al., 2013). More complex tasks such as argument un- derstanding, reasoning, or composing pose several
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Serious games in theology

Serious games in theology

Before discussing the implementation of serious games in theology, a few definitions are given to introduce the concepts being used in this essay. Firstly, the two concepts are ‘paper behind the glass’ and ‘online course’: when a course or module is just ‘dumped’ as is on the Internet, that is not a real online course, but rather ‘paper behind the glass’ (Ncube, Dube & Ngulube 2014:360). Sometimes, it serves a purpose to electronically supply a full course to students, especially in the current educational era that should already be ‘paperless’ (defined below). It is also most useful for subjects that really need much explication and explanation, like the three biblical languages, Greek, Hebrew and Latin. A ‘real online course’ is much different: the student is online supplied with a table of contents and just enough information to get started and to look up the rest of the information on the Internet (cf. Caplan & Graham 2004:178). The course is not only a summary of the study guide, but also is developed from scratch, where the content is not set but open (Davis 2004:98). When directing a student to the Internet, the educator should give them solid guidelines in order for them to be well informed on how to critically distinguish between ‘good’ and ‘bad’ information or sites, and between sites that can act as sources for academic information and ‘casual sites’ that just supply opinions or loose information. This will empower the students to start with research soon in their academic career and will optimistically act as motivation for them to become lifelong learners. 1
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Serious games for serious crises: reflections from an infectious disease outbreak matrix game

Serious games for serious crises: reflections from an infectious disease outbreak matrix game

The overwhelmingly positive response to our game from participants — ranging from graduate students to high- ranking public servants — suggests that serious games are suitable for a wide audience. While some games may re- quire expensive technology and specific expertise, most can be implemented with few resources and by those with basic knowledge of the game format and the topic being explored. Due to their flexibility, adaptability and accessi- bility, serious games offer a potentially powerful tool to promote innovation and learning amongst global health practitioners and policymakers. However, there is only a very limited literature on the use of serious games in gen- eral and none, to our knowledge, on their application to global health. This commentary has aimed to make a first step to rectifying this gap by documenting our experience in hopes of informing further development of games as a learning and research tool in global health.
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Serious Games: Games That Facilitate Learning : The effects of freedom and rewards in game based learning

Serious Games: Games That Facilitate Learning : The effects of freedom and rewards in game based learning

Serious games, however, have a different goal. Where computer games are created to entertain the users, serious games are created with the objective to teach, train, inform or persuade (Annetta, Minogue, Holmes, & Cheng, 2009; Susi, Johannesson, & Backlund, 2007). Serious games combine the game characteristics and features for entertainment with instructional elements for learning, to enable learners to adapt learning to their cognitive needs and interest and providing motivation for learning (Malone, 1981). In serious games learners are supported by multiple methods and techniques that help to develop the learnings cognitive activities during gameplay for example: solving puzzles or problems in the game (Wouters & van Oostendorp, 2012). However, learning support, in combination with the game feature of the player’s control of the gameplay, environment and or learning experience is somewhat conflicted. According to Black & Deci (2000), learning environments that allow for full control by the learner without explicit supports, can be more engaging and effective than learning environments without such freedom.
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