colonial history and the imperial present, and belie any calls for a facile global sisterhood. Indeed, one of the ways that I was able to keep listening to sex tourists was by thinking of myself as one of the ‘women’s libbers’ they so deride; I was comfortable and empowered by identifying with independence and feminism, which sometimes seemed to function as a ‘secret’ identity. However, though men’s criticisms of feminism and changing gender roles have been cited by other researchers (Jeffreys 2009, O’Connell Davidson 2001, Ryan 2000), what has not been noted explicitly is the way in which this particular trope contributes to a vision of southern women as the passive and backward victims of sex tourists. In a sense, this is strikingly similar to the ways that sex tourists used Costa Rican men to imagine themselves as enlightened and modern. A civilizing discourse is at work here as well, in that my ability as a researcher to take on an unproblematized notion of North American feminism and independence is only possible if I rely on an equally unproblematized version of Latin American womanhood that is dependant, traditional, non-feminist, and ultimately backward. From this perspective, northern women can potentially become the saviours of Costa Rican women, a deeply neo- colonial notion that points to the problematic connection between white womanhood, feminism, and imperialism (Burton 1994; Grewal 1996). In this particular case, the women to be civilized are Costa Rican sex workers, which is based on a profoundly patronizing, racist, and ultimately colonial understanding of these women as voiceless victims that can be rescued by northern feminists (Agustín 2005; Doezema 2001). Silence about the role of white womanhood simplifies and reduces sex tourism to a static encounter between tourists and sex workers. This silence also fails to implicate northern women, including researchers, fully and necessarily in the global power inequalities that are enacted in the sex industry, and in research, on a daily basis.
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Under the broad canvas of descriptive survey method of research, the design of the study consisted in taking a representative sample of 300 students from randomly selected four schools of Shimla city.The power motive scale by Dr. T.S. Dhapola and Dr. Gopal Singh has been used as the tool for the study.The main techniques that have been employed are Mean,S.D. „t ‟ values, ANOVA etc.The result shows that female senior secondary school students have high power motives than male students.The students having Arts. Science and Commerce streams, differ significantly from each other on power motives. There is significant interactional effect of sex and stream on power motives of Senior Secondary School Students.
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Overall – and again with many others, including as part of the germinal ESRC seminar series ‘Pornified? Complicating the sexualisation of culture’ - we have sought to fashion a position that is ‘sex positive but anti-sexism’, whilst also attending to the differences in the way that bodies may be ‘sexualized’. Many of us have chosen to use the term ‘sexualized’ in scare quotes to distance from its assumed meanings. We have also sought to interrogate the fear and shame that sometimes animates discussions of ‘sexualization’ (Ringrose et al, 2013), arguing that this feeds into the difficulty for girls and young women to explore their own desires (Fine, 1988). Above all, we have emphasised the need to challenge sexism (and racism, classism, disablism, heterosexism, etc) rather than ‘sexualisation’ per se. This means having a political rather than a moral sensibility about sex. It is to be concerned with power, consent and justice rather than exposure of flesh.
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unemployment, and adoption of neoliberal policies, which effectively encouraged women’s entry into the paid labor market. Appreciating and acknowledging this extensive socio- economic context is an important feature in understanding the stalled feminist revolution (e.g., England 2010), which has clear implications for gains in female structural power. Researchers point out that work behaviors, including “decisions” to enter the paid labor market and which jobs to occupy, are largely shaped by macro-structural forces and the persons that enforce them (e.g. see Gender & Society 2011 symposium). As such, gendered distributions of work are likely the result of various elements not limited to the sex ratio. Second, the lack of support could be due to the crude measure of female structural power. Although Guttentag and Secord (1983) identify paid employment as one of the primary dimensions of structural power, the theorists clearly conceptualize structural power as a complex phenomenon that should take into account multiple legal, political and economic factors. Unfortunately, the data limit my ability to create a more complete measure, but researchers should seek to construct a comprehensive measure of structural independence, including education, earnings and political representation in future analyses.
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The second quote used to introduce this chapter (p 135) is taken from a scene in the same episode of Friends. It further illuminates one of the theoretically drawn criticisms of harassment knowledge made by academics working within a post-structural and/or Foucauldian tradition (e.g. Bauman, 1998; Brewis, 2001; Taylor, 2011). This hinges on its limitations as a vehicle for constraint by highlighting how vigilance towards F-S sex imbues pedagogical relationships with sexual connotations. Thus it may end up producing more, rather than fewer, F-S relationships. Although Foucault appears to link this paradoxical consequence primarily to disciplinary mechanisms, such as constant surveillance, his assertion that the ‘scandalizing’ (1978b: 45) nature of confrontation and resistance may kindle pleasure, much as attempts to evade surveillance fan the flames of desire, suggests that both sovereign and disciplinary power relations are productive as well as repressive. As we see from the dialogue set out on p 135, Elizabeth’s response to Ross’s announcement that there is a written rule in the university’s handbook forbidding relationships is that this discovery is ‘hot’ or sexy.
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have sought to influence individual behaviour targeting knowledge, attitude and practices (Rao Gupta, Parkhurst et al. 2008). These have included interventions that have promoted condom use and education on sexual health as well as education to injecting drug users (Rao Gupta, Parkhurst et al. 2008). In sub- Saharan Africa the behavioural intervention that has received the most focus has been education on three key messages Abstinence, Be Faithful and use Condoms (or as it has been frequently referred to as ABC) (Dworkin and Ehrhardt 2007). The underlying assumption made by behavioural interventions is that once individuals have sufficient knowledge about what causes ill health, they will change their behaviour to prevent them from becoming sick (Bates, Fenton et al. 2004). From a gender perspective however, there are broader structural factors that can prevent women from changing behaviour and within sub-Saharan Africa gender power relations and economic vulnerabilities seem to intersect in ways that place women at an increased risk of HIV.
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Simpkins’ initial parliamentary words here on the subject of sexing alert us to the multiple and often conflicting dimension of sexting involving young people, and attempts to suppress and regulate it. First, he clearly notes that, at least in most instances, the initial act of ‘sending’ the image is not child pornography: there is a ‘distinction’ between the criminal act of child pornography and ‘unhealthy behaviour’ of sexting. That is, young people sexting one another is not generally the same as the exploitation of children by adults for the purposes of some kind of sexual gratification. By assessing such behavior as ‘unhealthy’, Simpkins suggests it is deviant rather than criminal behaviour. Second, he highlights the capacity for images to be reproduced and distributed in the largely ungoverned and unregulated realm of cyber-space, and the subsequent future harm this might cause. That is, left unregulated, children who sext can damage their own future as well as whet the appetites and satisfy the desires of other parties further down the digital distribution track. Third, he laments that this ‘unhealthy’ expression of childhood sexuality requires ‘penalties’ to suppress it. The suggestion is that, even if this might not be an offence in the first instance or in its ‘original sending’, it is still morally wrong and as such should be subject to legal censure. Indeed, the perceived moral status of the act should, does, and will affect its legal status. Fourth, he argues that sexting is about power relations where the young participants either ‘win favour’ or have ‘pressure’ applied to them which leads to the initiation of the sexting activity. The suggestion here is that it is not an activity that positively empowers participants in any way; nor is it an act involving agency or choice.
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Although this study provides some insight into the role of a reconceptualised form of hegemonic masculinity on the sexual risk-taking behaviours of Western MSTs to Thailand, there are a number of limitations. When providing data, discussion board posters were engaging with each other as peers and they could opt in or out of discussions as they wished. Conversely, the men interviewed in Thailand were aware that they were participating in a research study, and although they were free to withdraw at any time, to do so would have been socially awkward and so none did. Because of these differences, it would be unrealistic to argue that these two sets of data are directly comparable. Even the data collected from Pattaya cannot necessarily be considered representative of Western MSTs elsewhere in Thailand, where the transient tourist in Bangkok may harbour very different motivations to the retired electrician who may be resident in Pattaya for a month or more. It is also important to acknowledge that all of the data within this study, both online and from interviews, represents only a performance as men shared what they wished to share and presented themselves in ways in which they wanted to be perceived. However, each provides a window into the social world of these men as sex tourists, small and somewhat opaque, and yet still potentially important to understanding their motivations for taking serious sexual risks.
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Whenever my girlfriend and I have sex, I end up with a back full of scratches, and a few very obvious bites around the shoulders. Is biting and scratching a normal part of the body language of sex? What does it mean? No one can set any standards for what is and isn't normal in sexual relations. The only guideline most people agree on is that anything is acceptable if you and your partner both enjoy it and it hurts neither of you—nor anyone else. Scratching can be a sign of the intensity of your love- making or the expression of a sadistic impulse. But almost all men respond to being scratched by their sexual partner and interpret it positively. To them it's a signal that they're turning a woman on, that they are doing all the right things. Many women are very negative about being scratched during sex, but a few welcome it as a sign of healthy masculine aggression. It turns them on, too.
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In contrast to traditional methods that require a complete longitudinal data set, both the number of observations per individual and the temporal spacing of the observations may vary within a multilevel analysis. This enables data across 5 years to be collected over a 3-year period. In the present study, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between those who were unable to attend a test occasion and the rest of their sex-specific group in body mass, skinfold thicknesses, or STP. The models were founded on 301 (138 from girls) measurements of PP and MP on each ergom- eter supported by age, body mass, skinfold thicknesses, estimated FFM and maturity status and where effects are included in models they are significant (p < 0.05).
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To contextualise the unique process of gender and developmanin Vanuatu, it is important to briefly consider the broader encompassment of gender in Vanuatu as not merely comprising social constructions of individual sexed bodies, but also objects of wealth and ceremonial events. Historically, the accumulation and ceremonial exchange of wealth (such as pigs, woven mats, and yams) has been an important part of Melanesian „big man‟ societies for male attainment of higher ranks within socio-political hierarchies (Jolly, 1994). However, as Strathern (1988) explains, exchange processes or transactions in Melanesia are not „gender neutral‟, but rather „men‟s and women‟s ability to transact with this or that item stems from the power this gendering [of the „gift‟ or valuable for exchange] gives some persons at the expense of others, as does the necessity and burden of carrying through transactions‟ (pp. xii). In other words, where a valuable for exchange is gendered male, often in the sense that it is believed to have originated from the body of a man, this entails male ownership and control over these goods as they are „not only embodied male labour but transformations of male bodies.‟ (Jolly, 1994, pp. 85).
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For visualization and analysis of spontaneous LFP events, traces were exported to MATLAB format. The analysis of each recorded trace was performed with MATLAB scripts that automatically detected the deflec- tions in the LFP trace. The data was first low-pass fil- tered at 200 Hz (3rd order Butterworth filter), and the DC offset was subtracted. Detection of individual LFP bursts was performed with the following automated method: (a) the signal was transformed using the Hilbert transform in order to estimate its envelope , and (b) a threshold was applied so as to detect signal segments with fluctuation values larger than 40% of the standard deviation of the entire signal. This threshold was calcu- lated for each trace (data-driven threshold) in order to ensure that the detection procedure is adjusted to the corresponding signal-to-noise ratio of each recording and to the specific properties of each time series (e.g., size and frequency of events). Subsequently, the auto- matically detected LFP events were visually inspected in order to reject artifacts caused by electrical and/or mechanical noise. Up state duration was calculated as the time interval between the onset and offset of individ- ual events, while Up state occurrence was defined as the number of events divided by the duration of the record- ing session. The power spectrum of each Up state event was calculated using Fourier transform coefficients and is presented in the conventionally described frequency bands: delta (1–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (8–12 Hz), beta (12–30 Hz), and gamma (30–100 Hz) range, normalized to the total power of each event in the 1– 200 Hz range. Sex and age for each analyzed recording were only revealed after its analysis had been completed.
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Perhaps the most comprehensive source on calculating SIC for a power system is provided by an Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) report . This report provides much information, ranging from the need for simultaneous interchange capability calculations todetailed descriptions of various optimal SIC methods. Discussions of these methods, such as linear programming, interior point methods, and Monte Carlo simulation methods, are discussed in depth with details on the advantages and disadvantages of each method, along with which methods are preferred and the reasons for the preference. Detailed appendices give complet problem formulation, including the formats of cost functions and constraint equations, and detailed descriptions of the variables necessary to perform the optimization of the SIC. This source also contains a comprehensive bibliography on the topic of SIC and the solution method snecessary for calculating the SIC of a power system, up to the publication of the report. This thesis will explore the usefulness of a SIC calculation to determine possibilities of market power in a congested power system. Specifically, it will explore the use of a linear programming algorithm, together with defining congestion in a power system, to determine ameasure of market concentration based on the optimal SIC of an area of the power system.
marginal costs (World Bank, 1984:20). 2 Such utilities are inevitably faced with the temptation to expand markets to improve their financial position, yet may not be able to satisfy the demands the future without increases in the price for electricity. This leaves the utilities with an option to restrict their sights mainly to necessary uses by restrict market expansion to high priority uses or to those uses that could pay the higher tariffs (Ramsay, 1979:105). Power system exists in order to provide, as economically and as reliably as possible, electrical energy to the customer (Billington et al., 1984:34). It is implicit in this philosophy that it is not justifiable to increase reliability for its own sake but by increased investment. Some part of this investment comes from consumers in terms of charges and taxes. The electricity available or supplied to the consumers includes the production costs, which include transmission, distribution costs and operational costs. It also includes the losses. In theory to determine the optimum tariff, or rate for a customer, it is often necessary to determine the value of transformer losses (Seevers, 1983:83). Many consumers are paying less than the production costs because of the subsidised policies by the national and regional governments. This production costs generally ignore a collection of environmental and social costs resulting gap in production costs and income.
Exercise can cause changes in sex steroid hormone concentrations in the serum of non-athletes as well as ath- letes [19, 24], including levels of testosterone and cortisol [25, 26]. One interesting finding in this study is the ele- vated levels of various metabolites involved in sex steroid hormone biosynthesis in the high-endurance athletes. Some of these metabolites were conjugated with one or more sulfate group(s) which renders them inactive. How- ever, these can be reactivated through the activity of enzyme steroid sulfatase . The list of elevated steroids included pregnenolone that mediates biosynthesis of corti- costeroids and progesterone and 21-hydroxypregnenolone disulfate that mediates biosynthesis of corticosteroids, corticoids (cortisol and cortisone), various metabolites of progesterone (pregnanediol, 5alpha-pregnane- 3beta,20alpha-diol, 5alpha-pregnane-3beta,20beta-diol), testosterone precursor (androstenediol (3beta,17beta)), and testosterone metabolites (etiocholanoloneglucuro- nide, androstenediol (3alpha, 17alpha)) (Fig. 4). Elevated cortisol-related metabolites in response to sus- tained aerobic exercise were shown to correlate positively with intensity of exercise as measured by oxy- gen uptake . However, exercise-induced alterations in sex steroid hormone levels are usually short lived (1–3 h) . The habitual exercise regiments of the elite endurance athletes may have accounted for this maintained systemic increase. Sex steroid hormones play a crucial role in glucose metabolism and protein
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Abstract: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a pathology that affects 50% of men over 50 years of age and 90% of men develop BPH in their eighth decade of life. In 2018, more than 1 billion men will be affected by this disease worldwide. However, the progression of BPH is highly complex and has been debated and studied for approximately four decades. Recent studies indicate that BPH can originate from the alteration of different hormone synthesis pathways, and that it is also linked to the function of hormone receptors. There is a close relationship between the progression of BPH and sexual hormones, such as progesterone, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estrogen. The focus of this study was to characterize the interactions of these hormones and investigate the direct or indirect role of each sex hormone receptor in the progression of BPH. Although several studies have described the effects of these hormones on BPH, no conclusions have been drawn regarding their role in disease progression. Here, we present a literature review on the sexual receptors possibly involved in the progression of BPH. Keywords: benign prostatic hyperplasia, testosterone, progesterone, estrogen, dihydrotestosterone
Abstract: Sex workers are considered a high-risk group for sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and are often targeted by prevention interventions with safer sex messages. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which knowledge of HIV and perception of risk influence safer sex practices among female sex workers (FSWs) in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. FSWs (n = 174) were recruited from 19 sites to participate in the study. Qualitative data were collected using semistructured interviews with FSWs (n = 142) through focus group discussions and (n = 32) individual interviews. In addition, quantitative data were collected from all FSWs using a short structured, demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using recurring themes and calculations of confidence intervals. Despite some common misperceptions, overall, most FSWs were basically aware of the risks of HIV and informed about transmission and prevention modalities but used condoms inconsistently. Most reported using condoms ‘sometimes’, almost one-sixth ‘never’ used condoms, only a fraction used condoms ‘always’ with clients, and none used condoms ‘always’ with regular sexual partners (RSPs). Among these FSWs, being knowledgeable about the risks, transmission, and prevention of HIV did not translate into safe sex. The findings suggest that certain contextual barriers to safer sex practices exist. These barriers could heighten HIV vulnerability and possibly may be responsible for infection in FSWs. Specific interventions that focus on improving condom self-efficacy in FSWs and simultaneously target clients and RSPs with safer sex messages are recommended.
In several decades, the electric power industry has been structured as vertically integrated utilities which can generate, transmit and distribute power to the consumers. These utilities operate according to the policies, guidelines and regulations framed by the government and are responsible for the development, expansion and standardization of electric power industry. These state
Sex: yesterday, good; today, other priorities: In this category are included participants B, E, I and J. It refers to the participants who were happy in their past sexual experiences, but today they live without partners because they have other priorities such as physical activities, traveling, interacting with their family, living happily. As inclusion criteria were used sentences such as "I have no interest in having a partner, I just want to be happy and engage in my dances and I feel happy" (Participant B), "sex was important in my youth. Today I do not have sex life, I do not miss it! I'm good without a partner "(Participant E)," It was good and I was happy, I felt really bad about the divorce, but today I'm good without partners, I live my life "(Participant I) and"I live well with my children. When he was alive we liked to dance we had talks, today I do not have a partner, but I'm fine "(Participant J). As a culmination of the actions, a closing moment was organized with the participants, launching the following question: "What contributed most to the clarification about sexuality?".
tennae and mouthparts, but can be elsewhere, including on the tarsi (legs and feet). Olfactory organs responsible for detecting sex pheromones are predominantly sensillae situated on the antennae (e.g. Figure 5). Superfi cially, these sensillae comprise horn-like or plaquoid structures into which the pheromone enters through pores in the cuticle (Figure 6a). On reaching the aqueous lumen beneath, the pheromone then binds to a pheromone-binding protein (PBP) of around 14 kDa mass present at an extremely high concentration, e.g. up to 10 mM. Th ree-dimensional structures of some PBPs have been determined (Figure 6b). Th ere is an expectation that at least some molecular recognition takes place at this stage, and the main function of the PBP appears to be transport across the aqueous lumen for co-recognition with the bound pheromonal ligand at the pheromone receptor protein 8 . Th is is embedded in a dendritic extension