Silorane-based resin composite

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Effects of different polishing systems on the surface roughness and microhardness of a silorane-based composite

Effects of different polishing systems on the surface roughness and microhardness of a silorane-based composite

Forty disks were fabricated using a silorane-based resin composite (Filtek P90, 3 M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA) (Table 1). The internal mold of a metal matrix (ø = 12 mm, h = 2.5 mm) was filled with the composite in one increment. A mylar strip was placed on top of the uncured composite. A glass slide (1.1 mm thick) was applied on top of the mylar strip and pressure applied to remove excess resin. The composite was light-cured on both sides of the disks according to the manufacturer's instructions, using an LED light-curing unit (Translux Blue - Heraeus Kulzer, South Bend, USA) with a light intensity of 876 mW/cm 2 . The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h, and divided into four groups (n = 10) according to the polishing system used. In group G1, no polishing was performed (control). In groups G2, G3 and G4, the specimens were individually coupled to a metallic circular matrix and polished with SiC sandpaper (#1200) for 5 s to remove the outer resin layer, obtain a standardized and stable surface. Then, the
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Clinical Evaluation of Class I Restorations Made with Composite with Low Degree of Polymerization Shrinkage

Clinical Evaluation of Class I Restorations Made with Composite with Low Degree of Polymerization Shrinkage

Nevertheless, some studies have shown that the reduction in polymerization shrinkage alone was not the only factor capable of improving marginal adaptation. Schmidt et al. [23] in an analysis of marginal adaptation exclusively, by means of a clinical study, related that methacrylate-based resin composite presented statistically better results in comparison with silorane-based resin composite, in agreement with the findings of the present study. Different results were found by Burke et al. [24] and Malhotra et al. [25] in which the resin with silorane presented good results for all the clinical evaluation criteria by the USPHS method. This may have occurred due to the fact that the authors used only the resin composite with silorane, without comparing it with another type of resin composite.
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Effect of Lactic Acid on Microleakage of Class V Low-Shrinkage Composite Restorations

Effect of Lactic Acid on Microleakage of Class V Low-Shrinkage Composite Restorations

Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared in 120 extracted human teeth, divided into four groups and restored as follows: 1. Silorane-based composite+P90 adhesive system (P90); 2. Filtek Z250+SE Bond (Z250SE); 3. Filtek Z350+SE Bond (Z350SE) and 4. Filtek Z250+Single Bond (Z250SB). Half of the samples in each group were immersed in LA and the other half in distilled water (DW) for seven days. Degree of microleakage was determined by dye penetration. Data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney-U tests (type 1 error was considered 0.05 for primary and 0.017 for post-hoc tests). Results: No significant difference was found in microleakage between LA and DW groups. The difference among groups in gingival margin microleakage was significant (P<0.05). The highest degree of microleakage was seen in Z250SB; which was significantly higher than Z250SE (DW: P=0.012 and LA: P=0.002) and Z350SE (DW: P=0.002 and LA: P=0.014). Microleakage was not significantly different between Z250SE and Z350SE (DW: P=0.683 and LA: P=0.533). The degree of microleakage of P90 in both media was lower than Z250SB and higher than that of Z250SE and Z350SE; but these differences were not significant. Conclusions: Immersion in LA has no effect on microleakage of class V composite restorations regardless of the type of composite and adhesive system. At gingival margins, the highest microleakage occurred in Z250SB followed by P90 and self-etch groups. Keywords: Silorane Composite Resin; Dental Leakage; Lactic Acid
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Effect of a Combined Bleaching Regimen on the Microhardness of a Sealed Methacrylate-based and a Silorane-based Composite

Effect of a Combined Bleaching Regimen on the Microhardness of a Sealed Methacrylate-based and a Silorane-based Composite

The softening effect of the carbamide peroxide restricted to the surface layer of composite restorations was supported by Lima et al. [44]. These authors sug- gested re-polishing of the softened composite surface after bleaching with 16% carbamide peroxide. More et al. [45] recommended to polish composite restoration after bleaching to eliminate the roughened outer surface, preventing the adherence of the microorganisms. How- ever, Hanning et al. study [46] demonstrated a decreased microhardness of deep layers in the resin restorations treated by different bleaching techniques. They con- cluded that polishing may not be able to re-establish the surface hardness of the filling after the bleaching [46]. Further studies are needed to confirm our results and to assess these experimental conditions for different brands of composite materials. Furthermore, other factors may influence the results in clinical situation. Water or saliva may dilute or buffer the bleaching agents. Formation of a protective salivary layer, particularly its protein con- tent, might modify or decrease the effects of bleaching agents on the restoration in the intraoral situation [4, 25]. On the other hand, it was reported that absorp- tion of salivary proteins by the composite surface de- creased after bleaching [47]. Therefore, the impact of bleaching procedures on the existing restorations of different patients can be influenced by a complex phe- nomenon.
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The Effect of Titanium Tetrafluoride and Sodium Hypochlorite on the Shear Bond Strength of Methacrylate and Silorane Based Composite Resins: an In-Vitro Study

The Effect of Titanium Tetrafluoride and Sodium Hypochlorite on the Shear Bond Strength of Methacrylate and Silorane Based Composite Resins: an In-Vitro Study

Materials and Method: Middle dentin of 60 intact extracted maxillary premolar teeth were exposed by sectioning the crowns at a depth of 2mm from central groove and parallel to the occlusal surface. Standardized smear layer was created using a 600-grit silicon carbide paper and then samples were embedded in acrylic resin blocks. Then the samples were randomly divided into 6 \groups summarized as Group I: Z350, Group II: Z350+ NaOCl, Group III: Z350+ TiF4, Group IV: P90, Group V: P90+ NaOCl, Group VI: P90+ TiF4 according to manufacturer’s instruction. Then samples were subjected to shear bond strength (SBS) test using universal testing machine and data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests (p< 0.05).
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Effect of Accelerated Artificial Aging on Translucency of Methacrylate and Silorane-Based Composite Resins

Effect of Accelerated Artificial Aging on Translucency of Methacrylate and Silorane-Based Composite Resins

and maintain them for a long time. Translucency is the characteristic of allowing the passage of light while scattering it in such a way that the complete image cannot be clearly seen. Thus, translucency stands somewhere between complete opacity and transparency [9]. When composite resin is immersed in water, relatively large changes occur in its translucency; these changes should be taken into account in clinical shade matching [10]. The translucency of dental composite resins depends on their thickness and the refractive index and absorption index of resin, filler particles, pigments and opacifiers [9]. The translucency of a material is usually determined by translucency parameter (TP), which is defined as the color difference between samples of a material with uniform thickness against white and black backgrounds [9]. If a material is completely opaque, its TP would be zero. The higher the TP, the greater the translucency of a material. When a material’s color has optimal translucency, the restoration will highly resemble the tooth structure and meet the esthetic requirements. Instable translucency and change in optical characteristics of composite resin depend on intrinsic factors namely the composition of resin matrix [11], filler particles [12], chemical initiator and inhibitor [13], degree of polymerization [14] and the amount of opacifier [15] as well as the extrinsic factors namely the coloring agents [12], UV light radiation [16] and thermal changes [17]. Optical properties of methacrylate-based composite resins have been the subject of numerous investigations. Lee and Lee [17] showed that the translucency of composite restorations increased after polishing. Also, TP of composite resins changed after polymerization and thermocycling. However, this change was related to the shade of composite resin. Diamantopoulou et al, [18] demonstrated that aging in water changed the color and translucency of composites. However, the magnitude of change depended on the brand and
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A Comparative Evaluation of Microleakage of Two Low-Shrinkage Composites with a Conventional Resin Composite: an In Vitro Assessment

A Comparative Evaluation of Microleakage of Two Low-Shrinkage Composites with a Conventional Resin Composite: an In Vitro Assessment

Other studies reported the silorane-containing composites to have slower initial polymerization reac- tion. [2, 4, 6, 13-14]After the beginning of the radiation, polymerization process may last up to 20 minutes and this means that silorane circles continue to open until the conformation of three-dimensional polymer network to occur. [6] This factor may help release of stress from polymerization process and decrease the microleakage. Studies done by Gao et al., [15] Al-Boni and Raja, [1] Bagis et al., [16] and Umer et al., [3]showed that Filtek P90 composite had comparable microleakage score with other tested brands of resin composites. These results were in contrast with other studies in which different resin composites were tested. [4-6, 8, 17-19] The high viscosity feature of low-shrinkage composites provides better adaptation of this material to cavity walls. Tanno et al. studied the silorane-based composites and found larger marginal gaps in some of the samples which were incorporated with bubbles. [7] However, they observed no significant difference between the gaps generated in GC Kalore and those in conventional methacrylate composites. [7]
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Effect of Energy Drinks on Discoloration of Silorane- and Dimethacrylate-Based Composite Resins

Effect of Energy Drinks on Discoloration of Silorane- and Dimethacrylate-Based Composite Resins

who showed higher color change in Z250 than Filtek Z350XT immersed in different energy drinks. The staining susceptibility of a composite resin might be attributed to its filler type. Inorganic fillers might debond from the matrix, leaving a void, and thus increasing the surface roughness and making the surface susceptible to extrinsic discoloration. The nanofilled composite resin used in our study contained silica fillers with a particle size of 20nm and clusters of zirconia/silica particles with sizes ranging from 0.6 to 1.4μm. It seems that the smaller filler size of Filtek Z350XT nanofilled composite resin might have allowed a smoother surface after polishing, which was less susceptible to exterior staining. Another reason for higher staining of Filtek Z250 could be a high proportion of silane present in the structure of this composite resin. It has been suggested that silanization of filler particles plays an important role in discoloration due to the fact that silane has high water sorption [25,26]. In this study, immersion in artificial saliva induced the lowest discoloration in all tested composite resins, which is consistent with other investigations. Artificial saliva has no pigments; thus the color change might be due to water sorption of the matrix, which results in swelling and plasticizing of the polymer along with interfacial gaps created between the filler and resin matrix that allow stain penetration and discoloration [4,11]. Discoloration of materials also depends on duration of exposure to coloring agents in the oral cavity [27]. As observed in the present study, in all the study groups there was a significant increase in ∆E of composite resins with an increase in the immersion time. Increased interaction between the chemical agent and resin, in addition to enhanced penetration of staining substances into resin, might be possible reasons for this finding [2].
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Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Methacrylate- and Silorane-based Composite Resin Bonded to Resin-Modified Glass-ionomer Containing Micro- and Nano-hydroxyapatite

Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Methacrylate- and Silorane-based Composite Resin Bonded to Resin-Modified Glass-ionomer Containing Micro- and Nano-hydroxyapatite

A few studies investigated the bonding of si- lorane-based composite resin to RMGI. Boushell et al. reported no significant difference in the shear bond strength of silorane-based composite resin (Filtek LS) to RMGI versus Z250/Adper Scotch Bond SE. [33] It has been reported that the silorane composite resin had sig- nificantly lower bond strength to RMGI compared to methacrylate composite resin. [34] But in the current study, silorane composite resin exhibited higher bond strength to RMGI in comparison to Z350. The differ- ence observed in this study might be related to the use of self-etch adhesive system with methacrylate compo- site resin in the above-mentioned studies; whereas, in this study no etching system was used with Z350 spec- imens and Adper Single Bond was applied alone. Si- lorane adhesive system is considered a mild self-etching adhesive due to its high pH value (2.7). It can create mechanical interlocking between the bonding agent and the porosity caused through mildly etching of the RMGI surface. [35] Consequently, silorane adhesive system can increase the bond strength in comparison with the Adper Single Bond which includes no etching proce- dure. In this regard, Kasraie et al. showed that applica- tion of the self-etch system resulted in greater increase in micro shear bond strength between the RMGI and composite resin compared with the use of etch-and-rinse system. [26]
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Effect of Preheating and Precooling on the Flexural Strength and Modulus of Elasticity of Nanohybrid and Silorane-based Composite

Effect of Preheating and Precooling on the Flexural Strength and Modulus of Elasticity of Nanohybrid and Silorane-based Composite

(4˚C) and preheat (45˚C). The total insertion time from the material removal from the syringe to the insertion of the composite resin in the mold in one increment was approximately 40 seconds. Then Mylar strip was posi- tioned over the composite and pressed against with a glass slide, so the excess of material in the corner was carefully removed before polymerization. Then, the specimens were cured with LED (Demetron; Kerr, Switzerland) with 1200mW/cm 2 intensity for 20 seconds at four points because the diameter of the tip of light guide was 8mm and the length of mold was 25mm. All the specimens were stored in water for 24 hours in the room temperature. After the removal of the specimens from the split molds, a three-point bending test was per- formed using a universal testing machine (ZWICK/ ROELL ZO20, Germany) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The maximum loads were obtained and flex- ural strength (σ) was calculated in mega Pascal (MPa) by using the following equation: σ= 3FL/ 2BH 2 where
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Evaluation of the flexural resistance and stress contraction of a silorane-based composite submitted to different protocols of polymerization

Evaluation of the flexural resistance and stress contraction of a silorane-based composite submitted to different protocols of polymerization

Recently, some “ low-shrinkage ” dental composite materials have been developed and marketed. Some of these materials use Bis-GMA as the base monomer, but resort to greater filler loadings or absence of low-molecular weight (MW) diluents to achieve lower shrinkage [6]. Other materials use a prepolymerized resin fillers to reduce the shrinkage. In another approach, high-MW monomers are used, such as methacrylate derivatives of dimer acid. The reduction in polymerization shrinkage is thought to be due not only to the higher MW of the monomer, but also to the formation of a hetero- geneous network during polymerization through a polymerization-induced phase- separation mechanism [6]. Nanosized domain structures are formed at different rates, which allows flow in the viscous phase and accommodates shrinkage within the bulk of the material [1,7]. These conditions reduce the polymerization stress, in spite of the higher DC achieved by this material due to its more chemically reactive components.
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In vitro evaluation of the shear bond strength between fiber posts and methacrylate or silorane based composite resins

In vitro evaluation of the shear bond strength between fiber posts and methacrylate or silorane based composite resins

Several studies have evaluated the shear bond strength between customized FP and dentin [24–27]. However the fracture patterns are usually about failures in adhesion between post and resin material, either composite or resin cement [3, 28]. In that mat- ter, different surface treatments have been described, such as silanization and application of an adhesive system [3, 4, 28–32], to ensure the bond between the resin-based materi- als and FP. However, for the customized-post technique there are not enough studies to determine if the adhesive use in the preparation of FP surface is actually required [33, 34].
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Bond strength between silorane-based composite resin and dentin substrate

Bond strength between silorane-based composite resin and dentin substrate

! SiloraneKbased! composite! bond! system! is! characterized! by! an! acidic! primer! with! pH! about! 2.7,! which!promote! a! moderate! etching! in! dental! structure! when! compared! to! the! phosphoric! acid;! its! depth! of! penetration! can! be! smaller! and,! sometimes,! inefLicient! to! the! substrate!hybridization.! In!this!way,!this!study! aims! evaluate! the! bond! strength! between! composite! resin! and! dentin! using! different! bond! systems.! The! research! hypotheses! are:! there! is! a! signiLicant! difference! between! the! bond! strength! of! composite! and! the! different! adhesive!systems.
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Comparison of the Effects of Two Different Drinks on Microhardness of a Silorane-based Composite Resin

Comparison of the Effects of Two Different Drinks on Microhardness of a Silorane-based Composite Resin

parameters such as the acidic and alcoholic beverages. [1] Acid exposure affects the wear of composite resins. [2] Composite restorative materials might undergo de- struction at the matrix/filler interface by acid attack. [3] Organic matrix of composite materials makes them more susceptible to chemical change compared with ceramic and metal restorative materials. [4] Silorane- based composite resins were recently introduced to make up for the drawback of methacrylate-based com- posites namely their polymerization shrinkage. Silorane- based composites undergo ring-opening polymerization through cationic mechanism. [3] The monomer of si- lorane-based composite is produced from the reaction of oxirane and siloxane molecules and the name is derived from the name of those two molecules. The two main advantages of these composites are low polymerization shrinkage and higher hydrophobicity. [5-9] These com- posite resins also benefit from less than 1.5% polymeri- zation shrinkage, [8-9] low water sorption, [6, 10] opti- mal biocompatibility, [11] adequate color stability, [12] better marginal fit, and less microleakage. [13] Due to the extensive use of resin-based restorative materials and their exposure to oral environment, their clinical survival and longevity is of utmost importance. The effect of acidic and alcoholic beverages such as Coca Cola, various alcoholic beverages and juices [3, 14-16] on methacrylate-based composites has been the subject of numerous investigations. The impact of acids in the composition of these beverages on methacrylate-based composite resins has also been very well investigated. [17-18] However, studies evaluating the effect of these beverages on silorane-based composite resins are scarce. [18] On the other hand, due to the health benefits of pure juices and higher popularity of non-alcoholic beverages among the Iranian population, this study sought to assess and compare the effect of orange juice, non-alcoholic beer, and distilled water on one silorane- based and two methacrylate-based composite resins by using the microhardness test.
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Evaluation of Enamel and Dentinal Microleakage in Class II Silorane-Based and Methacrylate-Based Resin Composite Restorations Using Specific and Nonspecific Adhesives

Evaluation of Enamel and Dentinal Microleakage in Class II Silorane-Based and Methacrylate-Based Resin Composite Restorations Using Specific and Nonspecific Adhesives

In addition to the compatibility between methacrylate composite and silorane adhesive, it seems that the higher viscosity of the phosphate- methacrylate silorane resin, compared to dimethacrylate-based resins, acts as an elastic layer and, to some extent, compensates for the contraction stress generated at the interface, which is the result of polymerization of free radicals in methacrylate-based composite. Thus, the contraction stresses in methacrylate-based composites can partially be absorbed by this intermediate layer with a low modulus [27]. The SEM images of group 3 show the bonding area of silorane adhesive to methacrylate composite, although there is a discontinuity between these two layers in some areas. The bonding areas partly showed the bond between these two layers, which is due to their methacrylate structure.
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Effect of an Extra Hydrophobic Resin Layer on Repair Shear Bond Strength of a Silorane-Based Composite Resin

Effect of an Extra Hydrophobic Resin Layer on Repair Shear Bond Strength of a Silorane-Based Composite Resin

structure lost and prevention of further stimulation of dental pulp [1-4]. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to increase the bond strength and promote the longevity of these repairs. Several techniques have been proposed to improve the bond strength of composite resins, including air abrasion with aluminum oxide particles measuring 50 µm in diameter, etching with hydrofluoric acid and phosphoric acid, use of silanes and roughening of composite resin surfaces with diamond burs [5- 12]. Preparation of the composite resin surface plays an important role in the longevity of repaired composite resin. In order to achieve complete adaptation between the old and the new composite, an intermediate adhesive substance should be used because the composite resin itself cannot completely wet the surface of the old composite resin [4,13-15]. The flowability and hydrophobic nature of the intermediate material are important factors involved in selection of such materials. According to Papacchini et al, use of a flowable hydrophobic composite resin as an intermediate substance increased the repair bond strength of methacrylate-based composite resins [16]. Hydrophilicity of the intermediate material can compromise the longevity of the repair bond because hydrophilic adhesives absorb more water over time and undergo hydrolytic degradation [17]. One of the major disadvantages of methacrylate-based composite resins is polymerization shrinkage, which results in accumulation of stress within the composite resin and at the composite resin- adhesive interface; one of the possible complications of such a shrinkage is the cuspal deflection and loss of marginal adaptation, resulting in failure of the restorative material, staining of restoration margins and microleakage [18,19]. To overcome such difficulties, silorane-based composite resins were introduced in 2007, which consist of a new matrix composed of siloxane and oxirane [20]. The aim behind their production was to produce a material with less polymerization
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Bond strength of a universal bonding agent and other contemporary dental adhesives applied on enamel, dentin, composite, and porcelain

Bond strength of a universal bonding agent and other contemporary dental adhesives applied on enamel, dentin, composite, and porcelain

Enamel and dentin specimens were obtained from fifty bovine incisors, which were properly cleaned, disinfected in 0.5% chloramine-T solution for seven days, and cut to remove the roots. All teeth specimens were randomly allocated into two groups accord- ing to the substrate to be tested: enamel or dentin. Enamel specimens were prepared for shear bond strength/SBS testing, i.e., the specimens were embedded in acrylic resin and then wet-ground at the buccal face using 600-grit silicon carbide (SiC) paper in order to standardize the smear layer [1]. Dentin specimens were prepared for microten- sile bond strength/ μ TBS testing, i.e., the specimens were wet-ground using 600-grit SiC paper until exposure of medium dentin. Both enamel and dentin were acid etched with 37% phosphoric acid (Condac 37; FGM, Joinville, SC, Brazil) for 30 s and 15 s, respectively and rinsed with water for the same period of the acid-etching. Enamel was completely dried with compressed air, while dentin was kept moist (i.e., neither dry nor wet).
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EFFECT OF GLASS FIBER LENGTH AND THEIR CONTENT ON MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF FRP-FASTENERS

EFFECT OF GLASS FIBER LENGTH AND THEIR CONTENT ON MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF FRP-FASTENERS

long glass fibers were used as reinforce material. FRP-composite fasteners were prepared by first forming dough of polyester resin (UPR), fillers and internal and external lubricants with short and long glass fiberfollowed by compression molding and thermal curing ofpolyester resin. The FRP-composite fasteners were characterized by differential scanning calorimeter, thermo gravimetric analysis, universal testing machine and scanning electron microscopy. FRP-composite fasteners consists of 50 wt% of short length (3 mm) glass fiber and 50 wt% of long length (50 mm) glass fiberexhibited higher tensile strength (5.78 kN) than that of neat 100 wt% of short length glass fiber. Variation of glass fiber length in the FRP-composite fasteners did not affect much in the thermal properties. Mechanical properties of the composites mostly depended on the length of glass fibersand their contentin the composite. The FRP composite fastenerexhibited better mechanical properties as well as enhanced thermal stability.
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An in Vitro Comparison of Bonding Effectiveness of Different Adhesive Strategies on Erbium:Yttrium Alluminum Garnet Laser Irradiated Dentin

An in Vitro Comparison of Bonding Effectiveness of Different Adhesive Strategies on Erbium:Yttrium Alluminum Garnet Laser Irradiated Dentin

Specimens were subjected to micro shear bond strength test using a mechanical testing machine (LMT-100, LAM Technologies). Both jigs of the testing machine had one pin. Dentin slabs were positioned onto the mov- ing jig so that pin passed through one of the holes previously made in the acrylic resin frame. A thin steel wire (ø = 0.23 mm) (Leone S.p.a., Firenze, Italy) was looped around the pin of the other jig and around each resin build-up, making contact through half its circumference. The geometric shape of build-ups (inverted conical frustum) allowed the wire to be gently held flush against the dentin at the resin/dentin interface throughout the test. The dentine slab could freely rotate around the pin. Consequently, the composite build-up and the centre of the load cell were in perfect alignment whereas the wire loop was kept parallel to the load cell movement direc- tion and to the bonded surface in order to maintain stress orientation as shear at the bonding interface (Figure 2). Shear force was applied to the resin/dentin interface at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min until failure occurred. This procedure was performed at 23 ˚C ± 2˚C and 50% ± 5% relative humidity. The µSBS was expressed in MPa, as derived from dividing the imposed force (N) at the time of fracture by the bond area (0.71 mm 2 ).
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Clinical Evaluation Of Direct Composite Resin And Indirect Micro Ceramic Composite Resin Restorations In Class-I Cavity Of Permanent Posterior Teeth

Clinical Evaluation Of Direct Composite Resin And Indirect Micro Ceramic Composite Resin Restorations In Class-I Cavity Of Permanent Posterior Teeth

composites showed poor clinical performance. Deficient bonding between organic matrix and inorganic fillers was the main problem leading to unsatisfactory wear resistance, high incidence of bulk fracture, marginal gap, microleakage, and adhesive failure in the first attempts to restore posterior teeth. Measures to solve these problems included increasing of inorganic filler content, reduction of filler size, and modification of the polymerization system. The second-generation composites have micro hybrid filler. By increasing the filler load, mechanical properties and wear resistance is improved, and by reducing the organic resin matrix, the polymerization shrinkage is reduced. 9 The new composite resins contain
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