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The effect of sleep quality and sleep quantity on concussion assessment

The effect of sleep quality and sleep quantity on concussion assessment

Similar results were found in a study comparing the cognitive performance of residents after varying levels of sleep deprivation. Cognitive performance was tested after a night off duty, when subjects slept an average of 7 hours, a night on call, when they averaged 5 hours of sleep, and a night spent admitting new patients when the average sleep quantity was 1.5 hours. A total of five different tests were given to 12 medical residents to assess, memory, information processing, basic math skills, and concentration. A sixth test was given that is used to measure intelligence. After a night spent admitting new patients, short term memory was significantly impaired compared to a night spent off duty. The other tests, which were designed to mimic clinical diagnostic skills, were not significantly affected by the lack of sleep. The authors concluded that sleep loss may have a greater effect on basic psychological processes like memory, than on specific diagnostic skills (Deary & Tait, 1987).
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Eveningness and cognition/behavior in school-aged children: What is the role of sleep quantity and sleep quality?

Eveningness and cognition/behavior in school-aged children: What is the role of sleep quantity and sleep quality?

associated, aspects of sleep: quantity and quality. We hypothesized that evening types experience less sleep during weekdays. Moreover, we also expected sleep quality to be affected, since for instance evening types are thought to experience more variability in their sleep pattern. Both these hypotheses were confirmed by the results of this study. Eveningness significantly predicted sleep duration during weekdays, but not during weekends. This is in line with results from previous studies regarding this area of interest (Taillard et al., 1999; Russo et al., 2007). During weekdays, evening types go to sleep later in the evening and still have to get up at approximately the same time as morning types due to the school schedule. Wittmann, Dinich, Merrow and Roenneberg (2006) described this misalignment of biological rhythm and social rhythm as a „social jet-lag‟. During the weekend persons showing an eveningness preference try to reduce the sleep debt they developed during weekdays, by extending their sleep duration. Eveningness significantly correlated with midsleep point both during weekdays and the weekend. Midsleep point is considered a reliable measure of circadian phase (Werner et al., 2009), and showed a strong correlation with sleep duration during weekdays, but not during weekends. This confirms the idea that during weekdays a late sleep-wake rhythm might lead to shorter sleep, but not in the weekend, since people can choose their own time to wake up.
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Feasibility and acceptability of wrist actigraph in  assessing sleep quality and sleep quantity: A home based pilot study in healthy volunteers

Feasibility and acceptability of wrist actigraph in assessing sleep quality and sleep quantity: A home based pilot study in healthy volunteers

normal and healthy adult populations, and also in pa- tients suspected of certain sleep disorders [21,22] which are related to disturbances of the circadian rhythm [23]. Actigraphy can conveniently record sleep-wake activities 24-hour/day over a period of one week or longer, and can generate automated sleep-wake scores based on validated scoring algorithms [24]. An actigraph is usually worn on the non-dominant wrist. An accelerometer in the acti- graph has the ability to detect movement; therefore, it can be used as a proxy measure of activity levels [21,25]. Hence, certain sleep parameters such as percentage of sleep efficiency (SE%), total sleep time (TST), number of nocturnal awakenings (NWAK), wake after sleep on- set (WASO), and sleep onset latency (SOL) [26,27] can be calculated from the actigraphy data to generate indices of sleep quality, sleep quantity and sleep-wake timing.
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Cross sectional study of sleep quantity and quality and amnestic and non amnestic cognitive function in an ageing population : the English longitudinal study of ageing (ELSA)

Cross sectional study of sleep quantity and quality and amnestic and non amnestic cognitive function in an ageing population : the English longitudinal study of ageing (ELSA)

The suggestion that cognitive function increases with increasing sleep disturbance in older individuals appears to be counterintu- itive. There are a number of possible reasons for this that need to be explored. Higher cognitive scores in older individuals could be due to practice effects – i.e. the older group may have more experience with the cognitive function tests in ELSA [37]. It may reflect the fact that those individuals who are more cognitively able are better at recording sleep disturbance data. Alternatively, it may indicate that in an elderly population, individuals who are more cognitively active may process the day’s events and/or experience more worry or anxiety than those who are less cognitively active, and hence this may lead to an associated increase in self-reported frequency of sleep disturbance. Further, previous research has Figure 3. Mean amnestic T scores by sleep categories adjusted for sleep quality. Adjusted mean amnestic T Score by sleep quantity categories, per sleep quality tertile, in younger and older age groups.
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The Effect of Sleep Quantity and Quality on Adults' Blood Pressure: Yazd, 2014-2015

The Effect of Sleep Quantity and Quality on Adults' Blood Pressure: Yazd, 2014-2015

The current study estimated the hypertension prevalence of the control group at 29%; different provinces had different prevalence rates. Azizi et al. estimated a prevalence of 2% among urban people of over 30 years (19) ; other studies estimated the general prevalence of hypertension at 15% among Iranians (20) . The lesser rate of hypertension prevalence of other studies in comparison with the current study can be attributed to different methodologies, e.g., age difference and different definitions of hypertension. This study also showed that over 5% of the examined people (control group) had less than 8 hours of sleep on average which, in turn, represents the severe defect in sleep quantity of the studied people. In a study on bus drivers, Effatpanah calculated this figure at 45% (1) ; other Iranian studies reached figures in the range of 35-39% (8) . The high rate of sleep quantity disorders in this study was indicative of severe conditions of sleep in the examined population; which in the case of paying inadequate attention can raise dangerous behaviors such as belligerence, quarrel, smoking, and risky sexual activities (21) .
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Adolescent technology usage during sleep-time: does it influence their quality of sleep, attention difficulties and academic performance?

Adolescent technology usage during sleep-time: does it influence their quality of sleep, attention difficulties and academic performance?

measure adolescents’ age and gender, general and nocturnal technology usage, sleep quantity and quality, reported attention difficulties and academic achievement (see Appendix B). The majority of the questions were designed by the researcher, except for the items inquiring about attention difficulties. Fifteen items were based on the Working Memory scale from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) (Gioia et al., 2005). The technical data on the BRIEF, and specifically the Working Memory scale indicates that it is a reliable and valid measure of attention difficulty. The internal consistency of the Working Memory scale is reported to be between .89 and .93 and test-retest reliability between .82 and .86. Three of the questions about attention difficulties were based on the Attention Problems scale on the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Edelbrock, 2001). The Chronbach’s alpha (.86) for the attention items included in the current research survey indicated that the items measure a single, uni- dimensional latent construct.
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Contribution of sound in the Intensive Care Unit environment to sleep disruption

Contribution of sound in the Intensive Care Unit environment to sleep disruption

In all ICUs sound levels are much higher than recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO) for hospitals, as is shown in many studies (13–18). However, the relative contribution of this environmental factor to sleep disturbance in ICU patients is difficult to assess. In patients, researchers have only been able to correlate 10-40% of arousals and awakenings to sudden peaks in sound (19,20). Additionally, patients in critical care settings have limited or nonexistent exposure to circadian rhythm stimuli such as bright light (21). Artificial lighting is of insufficient intensity and the timing of light exposure is often counterproductive because exposure at night, even at lower intensities, has an adverse effect on sleep timing (21). Further, studies examining the effectiveness of sleep promoting interventions show various results ranging between deterioration and relative improvements of 10% to 68% (22), using various approaches such as behaviour modification, earplugs, eye masks, sound masking by adding other sounds and improving absorption using acoustic materials. In one study sleep quantity and quality even seemed to be less after implementation of behaviour modifications (23). The causes of non-response to these interventions observed in some patients remains unclear (23,24).
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Lovgren_unc_0153M_19292.pdf

Lovgren_unc_0153M_19292.pdf

Each participant’s daily questionnaire answers to the quantity and practice participation questionnaire were automatically linked to that participant via Qualtrics. Answers to the questionnaire were exported into an excel sheet. In excel, this was organized with columns representing subject ID, cohort assignment, date, reported time to bed, reported wake time, total sleep quantity, occurrence of nap, total time napping, subjective sleep quality, occurrence of practice, and participation in practice. There were multiple rows per subject, with each row containing data from one day of collection. Total sleep quantity was calculated by finding the difference between time to bed and time awake. Practice participation data was used to exclude participants based on not participating in ≥50% practice sessions. Participants who answered “no” to the question “Did you participate in this practice?” ≥50% of days that this question is answered (this question will only be asked following a “yes” answer to the question “Was there a team practice yesterday?”) were excluded from data analysis.
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Perceived sleep quality is related to subjective well being, whereas sleep duration is not

Perceived sleep quality is related to subjective well being, whereas sleep duration is not

Common sense already dictates that sleep is of major importance for our health and overall well-being. In fact, sleep is essential for optimal cognitive performance, the regulation of emotions, and quality of life (O’Leary, Small, Panaite, Bylsma, & Rottenberg, 2017) as well as an integral part of a healthy lifestyle (Becker, Santos Martins, De Neves Jesus, Chiodelli, & Rieber, 2018). Previous studies found a relationship between sleep and well- being in college students (Ridner, Newton, Staten, Crawford, & Hall, 2016); however, it remains unclear what exactly constitutes this relationship. Is it more about sleep quantity or sleep quality (Pilcher, Ginter, & Sadowski, 1996)? Finding out which of the two (or both) might be the largest contributor is important due to recent technical and societal
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Clinical review: Sleep measurement in critical care patients: research and clinical implications

Clinical review: Sleep measurement in critical care patients: research and clinical implications

emphasised by our missing data, there are occasions when the nursing staff experience difficulties in judging the patients’ sleep status. Compared to polysomnography, nurses have been shown to correctly assess patients’ sleep status 82% of the time [22]. However, this study also found that nurses were too busy or could not tell in almost 20% of the observations even over the relatively short period of the study (4 hours) [22]. Having the nursing staff use a sleep assessment tool such as the RCSQ may well be a better indicator of sleep parameters than purely relying on approximations of sleep quantity. In a study in which RCSQ was used by both patients and nurses, nurses have been shown to rate the RCSQ slightly higher than patients do, but the difference was not statistically significant, although comparison was made in only 13 patients [44]. The coefficient for reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) for nurses using the RCSQ has been reported to be between 0.83 and 0.95 [44,75]. Use of the RCSQ by nurses may avoid the common limitations that critical care patients have in undertaking the scale accurately and may improve nurse assessment, but further validation is necessary.
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Temperamental profiles predicting sleep quality and quantity in 9- to 11-year-old children

Temperamental profiles predicting sleep quality and quantity in 9- to 11-year-old children

Previous studies suggest that there might be a relationship between sleep and temperament in school-aged children. However, surprisingly little is known about the relation between temperament and sleep quantity and quality. The current study addressed this relationship between sleep and temperament in school-aged children, following the multi-dimensional model by Rothbart and Bates (1998). A second aim of the study was to extend the knowledge so far by examining a profile of temperamental characteristics predicting sleep disturbances and sleep quantity and quality. A wide range of temperamental characteristics were examined, including effortful control, shyness, affiliation, fear, frustration, high intensity pleasure, pleasure sensitivity, and perceptual sensitivity. To our knowledge, this study was one of the first to examine such an extensive profile of temperamental traits in school-aged children. Previous studies suggested that higher-sleep problem scores were associated with higher adolescent- reported affiliativeness/sociability and negative affectivity and lower effortful control (Moore et al., 2010). In addition, the relationship between sleep and temperament is extensively studied in infants and toddlers, but few studies focused on school-aged children in a non-clinical setting and on different sleep disturbances instead of one sleep problem score.
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Objective Sleep Characteristics and Cardiometabolic Health in Young Adolescents

Objective Sleep Characteristics and Cardiometabolic Health in Young Adolescents

Among its strengths, this study was used to objectively measure sleep quantity as well as sleep quality in relation to a composite metabolic risk score and its components. The use of data from a well-established cohort of adolescents managed since birth allowed us to address the limitations of previous studies through control for sociodemographic confounders and obesity-related behaviors. However, our study was cross- sectional, a key limitation that complicates its interpretation; longitudinal studies with repeated, objective measures are needed to establish the temporal order of inadequate sleep and metabolic risk. In addition, although actigraphy is a practical method used to measure sleep over multiple days with minimal participant burden, 98
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Assessment of the Effects of Sleep Hours and Academic Performance on Psychological Distress in University Students

Assessment of the Effects of Sleep Hours and Academic Performance on Psychological Distress in University Students

Among university students, inadequate sleep is a pervasive problem for many and may have serious consequences on health and affect overall well-being. In one study, Victor and Abdulwahid [13] found that over 87% of undergraduate students in a Nigerian university reported not having adequate sleep at night and of this number, 29% majorly students within age range 23-38 reported below average academic performance. Aside academic performance, lack of sleep may additionally exacerbate psychiatric concerns, such as symptoms of psychological distress [14,15]. In fact, a change in sleep pattern is a key identifier of many mood disorders. Research has shown that around 90% of adults with symptoms of psychological distress complain of impaired sleep, and it is the second most frequently reported consequence. Research has also revealed that individuals who report severe psychological distress is more likely to have sleep problems than an individual are with mild distress [16]. Of note, the relationship between sleep quantity and psychological distress appears to be bidirectional, as psychological distress results in disturbed sleep and sleep loss escalate the severity of psychological distress.
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Barnes-et-al-Abusive-Supervision-AMJ-2015-1063.final_.pdf

Barnes-et-al-Abusive-Supervision-AMJ-2015-1063.final_.pdf

Barnes (2012) further noted that sleep quantity and quality have parallel additive effects on self- regulation. Although we predicted such parallel effects, the effects for sleep quantity were generally not supported. It is possible that this is simply the result of sampling error, but this is difficult to as- sess. The p values for sleep quantity were not close to conventional cutoffs, indicating that there would have had to be considerable levels of such sampling error to create a Type II error. An alternative pos- sibility is that supervisors are more aware of their sleep quantity than quality, and are more carefully monitoring their behavior after low sleep quantity but not poor sleep quality. Another possibility is that chronic sleep deprivation may be more pow- erful than acute sleep deprivation in predicting abusive supervision. Although we do not have any measures of chronic sleep deprivation, future re- search may do well to examine this question. Moreover, there is some evidence in the extant lit- erature of a possible threshold effect with quantity. Christian and Ellis (2011) found a difference be- tween those above and below 6 hours of sleep, and, in our sample, we found that only 13% of the ob- servations of supervisor sleep quantity achieved this level of deprivation. This may have limited our ability to explain variance in abusive supervision by restricting the range of the independent variable. Further, sleep quality is a variable that might be subject to more variation than quantity.
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Incidence of sleep deprivation and its relation with academic performance of undergraduate students of Karachi.

Incidence of sleep deprivation and its relation with academic performance of undergraduate students of Karachi.

Almost all students were found to have day sleepiness which means that they do not get enough sleep during the night. Groningen scale showed that almost all students were experiencing poor quality sleep at the time of survey which was independent of academic performance. However sleep quantity was an important factor related with academic performance which showed less sleep was associated with poor academic performance. Although there were few students with less sleep and good academic performance so there may be other factors and behaviours relating to academic performance.Bulk of the students had decreased amount of sleep in exam days and its reason was found to be
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Factors affecting the sleep of one year olds : a pilot study using objective monitoring of New Zealand infants : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University, Wellington

Factors affecting the sleep of one year olds : a pilot study using objective monitoring of New Zealand infants : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

Normative Data Concerning the Sleep Quantity and Quality of Infants Average and SD or range where available.. Example for Calculating the Actiware® Definition for the 1 Minute Epoch of 1[r]

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Sleep disturbance in older ICU patients

Sleep disturbance in older ICU patients

Abstract: Maintaining a stable and adequate sleeping pattern is associated with good health and disease prevention. As a restorative process, sleep is important for supporting immune function and aiding the body in healing and recovery. Aging is associated with characteristic changes to sleep quantity and quality, which make it more difficult to adjust sleep–wake rhythms to changing environmental conditions. Sleep disturbance and abnormal sleep–wake cycles are commonly reported in seriously ill older patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors appears to contribute to these disruptions. Little is known regarding the effect that sleep disturbance has on health status in the oldest of old (80+), a group, who with diminishing physiological reserve and increasing prevalence of frailty, is at a greater risk of adverse health outcomes, such as cognitive decline and mortality. Here we review how sleep is altered in the ICU, with particular attention to older patients, especially those aged 80 years. Further work is required to understand what impact sleep disturbance has on frailty levels and poor outcomes in older critically ill patients.
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Daily touchscreen use in infants and toddlers is associated with reduced sleep and delayed sleep onset

Daily touchscreen use in infants and toddlers is associated with reduced sleep and delayed sleep onset

heritable traits in a child such as sensation seeking or hyperactivity, which correlate highly with his/her family environment, may also lead to both irregular sleep patterns and increased tablet use. As infants and toddlers have less control over their bedtime schedule, the displacement account is less likely to explain shorter sleep duration than in older children or adolescents, unless parents are, themselves inconsistent and irregular in their night-time routine. However, the portability of touchscreens does allow more flexibility in terms of where such devices are used. As such, some young children who have a touchscreen device in their bedroom may delay falling asleep in favor of playing on a touchscreen or even seek the device when restless in the night. Our finding of increased sleep latency could be due to increased physiological arousal from the media content or from the bright light. However, in the current study we are unable to confirm these hypotheses, as information on the time or nature of exposure is not available. Future research is needed to clarify this relationship by carefully documenting the time and con- tent of use, and, if possible, also measure melatonin levels, physiological arousal and specific temperament traits. In addition to shorter night-time sleep, increased touchscreen use was also associated with increased daytime sleep. Similarly, increased background TV exposure (not necessarily TV that the child is watching) was also inde- pendently associated with reduced daytime sleep. Recent studies in toddlers suggest that daytime nap duration is negatively correlated with night-time sleep duration and sleep onset 31 . As such, touchscreen use may indirectly
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<div>Among substance-abusing traffic offenders, poor sleep and poor general health predict lower driving skills but not slower reaction times</div>

<div>Among substance-abusing traffic offenders, poor sleep and poor general health predict lower driving skills but not slower reaction times</div>

although we believe that these results add to previous find- ings in that the associations were found among young Iranian males guilty of traffic offences related to substance abuse. A further novelty of this study is that the triad of trait (aggres- sion), state (depression and anxiety), and sleep were found to contribute to the explanation of poor subjective driving behavior (Table 3). Moreover, more negative scores on all dimensions of the PSQI (overall score, sleep duration, sleep quality, sleep onset latency, sleep efficiency, sleep medica- tion, and daytime functioning) were associated with poorer driving (MDBQ), higher aggression scores, and poorer general health (Table 3). These patterns of results suggest that it is not a single facet of sleep such as duration, efficacy, or sleep onset latency, but sleep as an overarching phenom- enon that is related to poor driving behavior. Consequently, we believe that interventions to treat sleep problems might have a positive impact on driving performance, along with benefits for general health and aggression (as a proxy for impulse control).
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Sleep Disturbances in Children With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

Sleep Disturbances in Children With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

Sample characteristics were analyzed using descriptive statis- tics. The mean values for the actigraph sleep parameters and fatigue scale were calculated for the total number of days com- pleted by each child. The first night actigraph data were not used in the analysis to control for the possible first night effects of the child adapting to wearing the wrist device. Mean values for the study period for each child were used in the analyses. Compari- sons between the HIV-infected and noninfected groups were an- alyzed using x 2 analysis and the Student’s t test. Associations

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