Abstract The relationships between soil physical and chemical properties play a key role in facilitating the measurement of soil properties, particularly Exchangeable Sodium percentage (ESP) measurement, which is often using laborious and time-consuming laboratory tests. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficiency of the United States Salinity Laboratory (USSL) model and the ESP-SAR model for prediction of exchangeable Sodium percentage (ESP) from SodiumAdsorptionRatio (SAR) on saline and non-saline soil samples. For this purpose, 23 soil samples were collected from the field of experiment, Jabal Awliya, south of Khartoum state, Sudan. Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (ESP) was estimated as a function of soil SAR in order to compare the predicted results with measured ESP using laboratory tests. The results show that on saline soil samples, the Standard Error of Mean (SEM) of predicted ESP obtained by USSL model and ESP-SAR model was (1.084) and (1.463) respectively. On non- saline soil samples, the Standard Error of Mean (SEM) of predicted ESP acquired by USSL model was (0.7034) and (0.6070) for ESP-SAR model. The statistical results indicated that USSL model has a good prediction on saline soil samples compared with ESP-SAR model. On non-saline soil samples, USSL model showed less prediction performance than ESP-SAR model. It can be concluded that the United States Salinity Laboratory model can be recommended on saline soil samples and ESP-SAR model is more reliable on non-saline soil samples.
Linear regression model based on soil SodiumAdsorptionRatio (SAR) was used to predict soil Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (ESP). The soil ESP values predicted using the model was compared to the soil ESP values measured by laboratory tests. The paired samples T-test results indicated that the difference between the soil ESP values predicted by the model and
Soil salinity and sodicity are two main factors limiting plant growth in irrigated agricultural land. Sodiumadsorptionratio (SAR) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) are two different criteria as an index of soil sodicity and salinity. Various approximate relationships between ESP and SAR have been reported for soils in different regions of the world. Since there is possibility that these relationships change substantially with clay content, mineralogy, salinity of equilibrium solution, and saturation percentage of soils, it seems essential doing specific studies for different regions. The purpose of this research was to i) find the relationship between ESP and SAR, and ii) estimate the ESP from SAR in alluvial soils of Sistan, the dry plain in east of Iran. Thus, 301 soil samples were collected from study area and analyzed. The best linear and logarithmic equations found between ESP and SAR using Datafit software were ESP = 8.89 × ln(SAR 1:1 ) + 14.04 and ESP = 8.73 × ln(SAR 1:5 ) + 14.59, that ESP variation was justified 78%
In this study, many assessing methods of groundwater using specific purposes were carried out for agricultural purposes, industrial usages and deduction of water-rock interactions. The assessment of groundwater for agricultural purpose was done by using SAR (SodiumAdsorptionRatio), Na(%), RSC (Residual So- dium Carbonate), PI (Permeability Index), SSP (Soluble Sodium Percent), MH (Magnesium Hazard), KR (Kelly’s Ratio) and PS (Potential soil Salinity). The Wilcox diagram based on Na (%) and electrical conductivity, as well as the U.S. salinity Laboratory’s Diagram based on SAR and electrical conductivity, is also used to evaluate water quality for agricultural usage -. And, secondly the water samples were assessed for the suitability of the industrial usage by applying the factors such as: LSI (Langelier Saturation Index), CR (Corrosivity Ratio) . And, the understanding of the water-rock interaction of groundwater in flow paths of groundwater weathering processes have studied by using of the chemical processes and adaptation of the chemical reaction equations for the relative correlations between ion groups such as: calcium and magnesium, so- dium and potassium, chloride and sulfate. And finally, Gibbs diagram and Cha- dah diagram were applied to assume the geochemical evolution of groundwater by plotting the concentration of major cations and anions, and the relationship of water quality composition and aquifer lithological characteristics.
Irrigation water quality refers to the kinds and amounts of salts present in the water and their effects on crop growth and development; high salt concentrations influence osmotic pressure of the soil solution and affect the ability of plants to absorb water through their roots (Glover, 1996). Groundwater is widely used for irrigation and its quality influences the growth of plant, fertility of soil. The suitability of groundwater for irrigation purpose depends upon various factors including the quality of water, soil structures, and climate drainage characterization. Groundwater utilized for irrigation is an essential aspect in productivity of crop, its yield and quality of irrigated crops. The quality of irrigation groundwater depends mostly on the occurrence of dissolved salts and their concentrations. The salt present in the water affect in soil structure, permeability and aeration this affects the plant growth. Sodiumadsorptionratio (SAR) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) are the mainly significant quality decisive factor, which persuade the groundwater quality moreover its fittingness for irrigation. The total salt concentration, sodium percentage (%Na), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), sodiumadsorptionratio (SAR) Magnesium adsorptionratio (MAR), Residual sodium bi-carbonate (RSBC), Permeability index (PI) and Kelley index (KI) are the important parameters used for assessing the suitability of water for irrigation uses (Ayers, and Westcot 1985). The computed values of these parameters calculated by the following equations are furnished in Table 2.
analyses, parameters like SodiumAdsorptionratio (SAR), Residual sodium carbonate (RSC), Kelly’s ratio (KR.), Magnesium AdsorptionRatio (MR), and Sodium percentage (Na%) were calculated. This study indicates that most of the water is suitable for irrigation purposes. On the basis of SAR, RSC, KR, and sodium percentage all the groundwater samples in the study area are good for irrigation. Whereas on the basis of Magnesium Adsorptionratio, 5 water samples are suitable, while 10 water samples are not suitable for irrigation. High values of MAR at some sites restrict the suitability of groundwater for agricultural purposes and demands special management plan for the area. Overall the groundwater quality of the study area is suitable for irrigational purpose.
Abstract: Rapid industrialization and growth of population put enormous pressure on water resources of the country. Because of inadequate surface water, the demand for ground water has increased. Eighteen ground water samples were collected in monsoon and post monsoon seasons respectively and were analysed for the various parameters like sodium, calcium, magnesium, carbonate and bicarbonate etc. The irrigation indices like sodiumadsorptionratio (SAR), permeability index (PI), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), sodium percentage (Na %) were determined to assess the suitability of ground water for irrigation purpose. The water was found to exceed the permissible limits in some of the indices
), Total Alkalinity (TA), Chloride (Cl - ), Sodium (Na + ), Potassium (K + ), Calcium (Ca 2+ ) and Magnesium (Mg 2+ ) were analyzed. To assess the suitability of lake water for irrigation, various indices like Hydrogen Ion Activity (pH), Salinity Hazard, SodiumAdsorptionRatio (SAR), Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP), Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC), Scott quality factor (alkali-metric coefficient or K), Permeability Index (PI) and Kelly's Index (KI) were calculated and found that lake waters falls under good quality.
ABATRACT: One of the main aims of water resource planners and managers is to estimate and predict the parameters of groundwater quality so that they can make managerial decisions. In this regard, there have many models developed, proposing better management in order to maintain water quality. Most of these models require input parameters that are either hardly available or time-consuming and expensive to measure. Among them, the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Models, inspired from human brain, are a better choice. The present study has simulated the groundwater quality parameters of Ramhormoz Plain, including SodiumAdsorptionRatio (SAR), Electrical Conductivity (EC), and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), via ANN and ANN+ Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) Models and at the end has compared their results with the measured data. The input data for TDS quality parameter is consisted of EC, SAR, pH, SO 4 , Ca, Mg, and Na, while for SAR, it includes TDS, pH, Na,
The Biochemical amelioration is one of appropriate applications for cultivation and rehabilitation of soils under salt stress conditions by combining the use of chemical amendments and planting some of plants such as sesbania and alfalfa and incorporate of the green residues in the surface soil layer [12,13, 14, 15, 16].  were found after three years of reclamation of alkaline soil using gypsum and planting of karnal grass to reduce the sodiumadsorptionratio (SAR) and pH value and increased organic carbon by 64% and available nitrogen by 38% compared to control treatment as well as improved biological soil properties. found that the addition of gypsum with levels at 50% and 75% and 100% of the gypsum requirements to saline sodic soil with incorporate sesbania residues led to improve of the physical and chemical soil properties and increase the uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus in the leaves and grains of rice and increase its yield.
In this experimental study, soil samples with large variations of texture showed that all the soils were acidic. EC was significantly higher and is beyond 4dS/m and can go up to 16.5 in irrigated schemes. The sodiumadsorptionratio (SAR), the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) and the cation exchange capacity (CEC) are also significantly higher in irrigated fields. Most farmer’s rice fields soils were saline. Organic matter was present in higher quantities in farmers fields when non-irrigated fields had more potassium. Soil ions content may have been brought about partly by irrigation. The study showed that a large amount of salt can be deposited in soil trough irrigation. This led to salinization that severely affects soil productivity. Hence, salt tolerance varieties should be bred to enhance rice production in Niger.
Abstract:- Soil collected from region of Sade. Parameters like bulk density, pH, electrical conductivity and sodiumadsorptionratio are selected. A pot experiment was conducted on saline soil to compare and assess the reclamation ability of different admixtures based on soil quality parameters. After collecting soil samples from Sade region of Ahmednagar district, admixtures like Coal powder, Wheat straw and Cow-dung are selected to reclaimed the land. Single and combination of admixtures are used for this study. Treatments prepare were; T1 - control (soil only), T2 - Soil + Cow-dung, T3 - Soil + Coal powder, T4 - Soil + Wheat straw, T5 - Soil + Cow-dung + Coal Powder, T6 - Soil + Cow-dung + Wheat Straw, T7 - Soil + Coal Powder + Wheat Straw based on depth varies from 0 - 10 cm, 10 - 20 cm, 20 - 30 cm for both regions Sade. Admixtures are provided at 2 cm depth. Leaching treatment was provided at a rate of 2 lit/day per pot and the application was completed through 4 irrigation cycles/treatment with 8 days interval. After leaching of soils, results obtained for both regions the leaching show significant differences in bulk density, electrical conductivity (EC), pH and sodiumAdsorptionRatio (SAR) among the treatments in comparison with the control. Therefore, incorporation of cow- dung increased the effectiveness of salt in reclaiming saline soils. Combination of admixtures gives better results for the removal of salts. The study has been given a mathematical approach by statistical analysis designed by Taguchi and the optimum combination was detected. The method included ANOVA table, S/N ratio with the smaller is better criteria for the maximum salt removal efficiency. Maximum Salinity was removed by combination of Coal powder with Cow-dung (T5) which gives more effective results.
The suitability of waters for irrigation purpose can be evaluated by using the USSL-Salinity Hazard diagram of U.S. Department of Agriculture . The ability of water to expel calcium and magnesium by sodium can be estimated with the aid of SodiumAdsorptionRatio, SAR . High SAR value indicates the risk of displacement of the alkaline earth. It will also adversely affect the soil structure. The adverse effect caused by high concentration of sodium in soil is known as sodium hazard. The index that is used for predicting the sodium hazard in water is SAR. There is a significant relationship between SAR values of irrigation water and the extent to which sodium is absorbed by the soil. If groundwater used for irrigation is high in sodium and low in calcium, the cation-exchange capacity may become saturated with sodium. SAR for the groundwater from the study area was estimated by the formula and all ions should be in epm value.
Responses offive genotypes (Varuna, CZM-2, Pusa Bold, PCR-7 and BIO-902) ofIndian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) grown under three levels of sodiumadsorptionratio (SAR) of irrigation water (0.7,15.0 and 30.0) were studied on plant growth, mineral composition, net photosynthetic rates and leaf metabolism at the flowering stage. Increasing SAR levels progressively reduced plant growth in terms of height, leaf area, shoot dry matter and seed yield in all the genotypes. However, cvs. Pusa Bold and BIO-902 displayed higher sodicity tolerance whereas genotypes CZM-2 and Varuna were most sensitive with 25% reduction in seed yield at SAR level of30. Genotype PCR-7 displayed an intermediate tolerance to sodicity. Concentrations of nitrogen and potassium in shoot declined while that of sodium increased with increasing SAR. Moreover sensitive genotypes CZM-2 and Varuna had higher concentration ofNa and consequently lower K:Na ratio at all levels ofSAR as compared to tolerant genotypes Pusa Bold and BIO-902. Increasing SAR, significantly decreased net photosynthetic rates and increased leaf diffusive resistance in all cultivars but genotypes BIO-902 and Pusa Bold experienced less alterations. Sodicity-induced changes in the levels of total chlorophyll, soluble protein, free amino acids, starch, total soluble sugars and nitrate reductase activity were consistently less in genotypes BIO-902 and Pusa Bold as compared to CZM-2 and Varuna. However, the response of cv. PCR-7 was variable and inconsistent. These differential genotypic responses have been discussed in the light of the present knowledge.
Geo-electrical survey data were adopted from , the data were utilized and used in determining the hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity of the study area. To establish the quality of the groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes, groundwater samples was obtained from ten (10) selected hand dug wells and fourteen (14) boreholes within the study areas during dry season (January, 2017) as shown in (Figure 1). The water samples were collected in 750ml rubber containers, sealed tightly to avoid contamination with atmospheric gases. Before the collection, the sample containers were rinsed three times in the field using the representative groundwater samples according. The physical parameters measured were total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), temperature and pH was measured in the field using TDS/conductivity meter (Milwaekee meter). The samples were analyzed chemically within 48 hours of collection using SMART Spectrophotometer (2000-01), and digital titration method at National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) Maiduguri area office Laboratory. Values obtained were compared with maximum permissible limit set by World Health Organization (WHO, 2011) to evaluate its suitability for drinking and domestic purpose (table 2). Sodiumadsorptionratio (SAR) and percentage sodium (Na%) were used to evaluate the suitability of water for irrigation purpose.
is of good domestic quality. Agro-industrial suitability of groundwater was determined using, sodiumadsorptionratio SAR, permeability index PI, Magnesium adsorptionratio MAR, percent sodium %Na, Kelly’s ratio KR and Residual sodium carbonate RSC and Wilcox diagram; From irrigational water suitability parameters, SAR values ranged from 0.01 - 0 05; %Na 3.69 - 15.50; KR 0.005 - 0.023; PI 1.04 - 67.98; MAR 2.89 - 55.27; RSC −5.22 to −0.44 and Wilcox diagram indicate that inorganic groundwater content in the study area is excellent-good for irrigation; this is of significance since Bafoussam a major agroindustrial zone in Cameroon and Central Africa is in the process of developing large scaled irrigation based agricultural projects dependent on How to cite this paper: Akoachere, R.A.,
The correlation between sodiumadsorptionratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) is plotted on the US salinity diagram (USSL, 1954) (Fig 2a, and 2b). The two most significant parameters of sodium and salinity hazards indicate usability for irrigation purposes. The pre and post-monsoon USSL classification of groundwater in the study area is given in Table 6. From the Fig 2a it is evident that during pre-monsoon 8 samples (42.10%) fall under category of C2-S1 indicating medium salinity and low alkalinity hazard, 5 samples (26.31%) fall in the field of C2-S2 indicating medium salinity and medium alkalinity hazard, 3 samples (15.78%) are in the field of C3-S1 indicating high salinity and low alkalinity, 2 samples (10.52%) are in the field of C3-S2 indicating high salinity and medium alkalinity, and 1 sample (5.26%) is in C3-S3 indicating high salinity and high alkalinity. In the study area during pre-monsoon 11 samples (57.89%) are good, and 8 samples (42.10%) are moderate for irrigation. From the Fig 2b it is evident that, during post-monsoon 12 samples (63.13%) fall in the field of C2-S1 indicating medium salinity and low alkalinity which is good for irrigation, 5 samples (26.3%) are in the field of C3-S1 indicating high salinity and low alkalinity which good of irrigation, and one sample each (5.26%) in the fields of C3-S2 and C3-S3 categories which indicates moderate for irrigation. In pre and post-monsoon the groundwater samples predominantly occurred with in C2-S1 and C3-S1 categories in the study area and is suitable for irrigation purposes and the groundwater is excellent to good category
assessed. The results were compared with the drinking water guidelines of Indian Standard (IS) and World Health Organization (WHO). The important constituents that influence the water quality for irrigation such as Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), SodiumAdsorptionRatio (SAR), Magnesium AdsorptionRatio (MAR), Kelly’s Ratio (KR) and Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP) were assessed and compared with standard limits.