– Design Theories - although it is not emphasized here, a key to practical support for softwaredevelopment from speciﬁcations is the reuse of abstract design knowledge. If the ultimate language for communication with com- puters is a requirements language, then the means must exist to supply the design information that allows the generated system to carry out those re- quirements (e.g. architectures, algorithms, data structures). Current interest in design patterns, O-O frameworks, and various approaches to generic pro- gramming begin to get at this capture of reusable design knowledge, but typically in a way that doesn’t relate requirements to code.
In Western Ukraine, Lviv is the only, but very interesting centre for computer technology and softwaredevelopment. This region is especially interesting because it has a large, relatively cheap, and easy assessable human resource potential. Lviv is the economical, cultural, and intellectual capital of Western Ukraine; it has Universities and other educational institutions with specific focus on computer science and software. Lviv has the region’s largest and best-consolidated software houses, it has a sufficient and available human resource base for softwaredevelopment and it has the best communication infrastructure in the region. Furthermore, Western Ukraine is known to be culturally closer related to Western Europe than the Eastern part of Ukraine or even Russia, which is likewise very important when managing development projects. Finally, the cultural affinity to Western Europe has proven to be an important factor when achieving efficiency through management. To sum up, Lviv is an interesting target for Western software companies because it still has an unused and available resource of software competencies.
Over the last decade, introduction of agile softwaredevelopment has brought considerable changes to software engineering field. Nowadays many organizations and software developers are using agile methods to deliver the efficient and high-quality product in the shortest time. The various types of agile methodologies being used by these organizations are extreme programming (XP), scrum, lean softwaredevelopment, feature-driven development (FDD), DSDM and crystal methodologies. The characteristics of Agile softwaredevelopment processes can be summarized as iterative and incremental development, people-oriented development, customer collaboration, light and fast development cycles, adaptability throughout softwaredevelopment life cycle, time- bound, parsimony and fast delivery. In year 2001, several practitioners met to discuss if there was anything in common among the various agile methods and then they created agile manifesto, in which the items which were considered valuable by Agile SoftwareDevelopment were revealed and great attention has been provided by research community to Agile SoftwareDevelopment. Agile SoftwareDevelopment methods focuses on agile manifesto given by four values:
Bachelor of SoftwareDevelopment is a top-up programme of the Computer Science diploma (AP Degree) programme, which gives direct admission to the programme. Other applicants may be accepted based on a concrete assessment of their actual competencies, cf. “Bekendtgørelse nr. 8 af 10. januar 2008 om individual kompetencevurdering i videregående voksenuddannelse (VVU) og diplomuddannelse i videreuddannelsessystemet for voksne”: an individual competency
Traditional softwaredevelopment technology could not catch up with the speed of the many existing and proposed techniques for softwaredevelopment, it seems clear that component-based softwaredevelopment (CBSD) will be at the vanguard of new approaches to the production of software systems and holds the guarantee of substantially enhancing the software production and maintenance process. But the fundamental problem with CBSD is the Selection and Customization of components to meet the requirements of the proposed software. In this paper we are proposing a Selection and Customization Framework for CBSD. In CBSE, selection and composition of components require their interface without showing their idiosyncrasies. This methodology is very similar to the concepts of Object Oriented methods, but the Object Oriented approaches focus on inheritance rather than reusability. We have categorized and prioritized components according to their participation in the softwaredevelopment.
ing excellence. The people on the front line combine the knowledge of the minute details with the power of many minds. When equipped with necessary ex- pertise and guided by a leader, they will make better technical decisions and bet- ter process decisions than anyone can make for them. Because decisions are made late and execution is fast, it is not possible for a central authority to orches- trate activities of workers. Thus, lean practices use pull techniques to schedule work and contain local signaling mechanisms so workers can let each other know what needs to be done. In lean softwaredevelopment, the pull mechanism is an agreement to deliver increasingly reﬁned versions of working software at regular intervals. Local signaling occurs through visible charts, daily meetings, frequent integration, and comprehensive testing.
Once components of the product have been decided and their functionality defined, inter- faces are designed for these components to work together. In most cases, no component works in isolation; each one has to coordinate with other components of the product. Interfaces are the rules and regulations that define how these components will interact with each other. There may be major problems down the road if these interfaces are not designed properly and in a detailed way. Different people will work on different components of any large softwaredevelopment project and if they don’t fully understand how a particular component will communicate with others, integration becomes a major problem.
Some of these projects called me to bail them out. Based on my consulting work, I have established a set of tech- niques and rules to handle a high rate of change requests. Reflecting my work I realised that these techniques sounded familiar to me. They reminded me of my work running a manufacturing control station for assembling printed circuit boards years ago. These similarities were not accidental - from my point of view many of these softwaredevelopment “projects” had more in common with managing a flexible small lot production than with a project.
It is realistic to assume and also more interesting to focus on the case where M > N . Programmers can move freely among three di®erent jobs: being employed by the SDs, being employed by the v-¯rms, or entering into contracts with the c-¯rms. Let us ¯rst examine the demand for programmers in customized softwaredevelopment. So long as w < u, all ¯rms strictly bene¯t from using their respective customized software, regardless of the modes of organization adopted. Therefore, demand for programmers is equal to N . At w = u, since the only viable mode of organization is a type-H contract and the ¯rms are indi®erent between using and not using customized software, demand for programmers is between 0 and N . Obviously, there is no demand for programmers when w > u. Such a demand curve (formed by three straight lines) is depicted on the left panel of Figure 3.
Softwaredevelopment projects are endeavors which involve interaction of several human and non-human factors leading to complex inter-dependencies and making them susceptible to failures. It is also observed that despite growing levels of project management maturity and evolution of varied project management models, a software project’s predictability remains elusive and impacted by certain events that can change the course of project execution and its outcome. As a result several software projects suffer multiple points of failures such as schedule slippages, cost overruns or failures to meet their project goals. Chaos Report of 2009 (The Standish Group 2009), finds that only 32% of the software projects are successful (i.e., delivered on time, within budget & with quality) and the trend remains the same throughout the decade from Year 2000 to 2009.
For the past several years it has become common for US companies to staff softwaredevelopment projects offshore. A recent study reports that more than 70% of US firms have outsourced some kind of business process. But, cross-site communication and coordination issues can cause substantial delay and increase the amount of time for individual work [26, 27]. Distributed work items can take more than twice as long as collocated work items to complete, in part because time zone differences reduce opportunities for real-time collaboration, and response time increases considerably when working hours at remote locations do not overlap . Distance reduces the communication richness when people experience problems that they try and resolve with communication tools rather than face-to- face . As a result, members of distributed teams are less likely than members of co-located teams to perceive themselves as part of the same team .
Time is the biggest constraint in the process of softwaredevelopment. A software with extraordinary functionalities, best coding, and proper design can be of no use to customer if it is not delivered on desired time. Testing is the part of softwaredevelopment lifecycle (SDLC), hence, early testing must be done at each and every phase of SDLC to prevent delay in software delivery process. For this, testers must be able to manage time in such a way that desired testing results can be achieved and at the same time, software can be delivered on time.
They explained the importance of documentation stating that, System documentation (SD) is undoubtedly vital as one of the sources in software understanding. Despite its importance, practitioners are often confronted with the problems related to SD. A number of tools have been introduced in order to assist documenting activities. However such tools are still not widely used because they generally fail to meet users' needs. Hence we have conducted a survey in Malaysia with the main goal to study software engineers' current practice during softwaredevelopment and maintenance in relation with SD based on four types of data elements: characteristic, behaviour, belief and attitude. At the very outset, we need to establish what kind of tools should be introduced, why is it introduced and when or how should it be introduced to meet their needs in documenting activities. The findings of the study will argue whether it is relevant to introduce reverse engineering or a document generator tool to serve required information early in the development stage.
Main goal of component-based development is to build and maintain software systems by using existing software components, e.g. [5, 9, 2,]. They must interact with each other in system architecture [6, 9, 8,].Question arises Why should we adopt CBSE? The answer lies in the definition itself. Moreover CBSE aims to improve the Quality (Flexibility, Maintainability, Reliability) of software systems and productivity & Time-to-market of softwaredevelopment through enabling the easy assembly of software from existing building blocks. Other reasons can be seen by comparing the conventional design and development with Component Based SoftwareDevelopment. Table 1 below gives these comparisons:
There are many kinds of SDLC models and each of these mod-els makes use of testing phase. Hence, this makes testing a very important part in any softwaredevelopment life cycle. With unit testing, integration tests, system testing, regression tests and user acceptance testing and major types of testing, helps any developer to come up with a reliable and trusted web application that can be useful. Testing also follows its own lifecycle like test analysis, test plan, test design and test execution
leanRoom Software engineering is a theory based, team oriented discipline intended to create software with high level of reliability and under high statistical quality control. By using formal methods and rigorous inspections, the aim is to have zero defects and failures in the software. So the life cycle, designing methods, formal approaches and statistical testing principles are all different from the traditional way of softwaredevelopment. Here mathematical based methods, statistical verifications, usage based testing are used to certify the software. This paper introduces the CleanRoom softwaredevelopment approach, how box specifications are used, the processes and the models used in the CleanRoom approach are also discussed. At the end, this paper shows the strength and weakness of CleanRoom softwaredevelopment approach and ends with a conclusion and future work.
The softwaredevelopment lifecycle begins with the identification of a requirement for software and ends with the formal verification of the developed software against that requirement. Traditionally, the models used for the softwaredevelopment lifecycle have been sequential, with the development progressing through a number of well defined phases. The sequential phases are usually represented by a V or waterfall diagram. These models are respectively called a V lifecycle model and a waterfall lifecycle model.