Ramírez-Rico E, Fernández E, Blández J. Levels of physical activity in spanish adolescents (aged 12 to 14) measured by accelerometry. J. Hum. Sport Exerc. Vol.8, No. 2, pp. 401-411, 2013. The purpose of this study is to determine whether Spanish adolescents studied attain a level of physical activity, which complies with current guidelines for this age group. 90 adolescents (54 girls and 36 boys) aged 12 to 14 took part in the study. Information was gathered on their activity for a week, using accelerometry. The results show that these young people do not attain the levels of physical activity currently recommended, the results for girls being lower. The results are somewhat better if we include other less demanding patterns of activity. The findings suggest that boys and girls of this age exhibit a level of physical activity, which is closer to the recommendations of the early 1990s than the levels currently recommended for the age group. Key words: PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, GENDER, ADOLESCENTS, ACCELEROMETRY.
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Although results from several samples of 12 to 16-year-old adolescents in Catalonia (region of N.E. Spain), obtained and published between 1999 and 2012, suggesting a constant decrease in adolescents’ subjective well-being (SWB) with age, until now no such data have been available for the general Spanish adolescent population. In this article we present results for a representative Spanish sample (N=5934), limited to students in the year of ESO (Educación Secundaria Obligatoria or Compulsory Secondary Education) (mean age = 12.09). aims of this article are twofold: (a) to validate an adaptation of the PWI for Spanish adolescents of around 12-years-old, which we will call PWI8adp; and (b) to identify variables which show rences in children’s subjective well-being (SWB) – using the PWI8adp as an indicator of SWB – when dichotomically comparing groups or categories of children. With this sample, among other we observe that Spanish adolescents scoring highest in subjective well-being tend to live in semi-urban environments, were born in Spain, have not repeated a school year, live in only one family household, have two adults at home with paid employment, have parents with secondary education or higher and have more material and cultural belongings at home compared to children with lower SWB. Furthermore, the adolescents with higher subjective well-being are those that never worry about money, think other people treat them well, feel greater personal safety, feel they are listened to, report doing daily activities together with their family, do physical exercise or sport every day, have been told children have rights, have experienced fewer important recent changes in their lives and feel their time is well organized.
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Abstract. The principal aims of this study are to describe breakfast consumption patterns of south-eastern Spanish adolescents, examine the relationship between breakfast consumption and feelings of well-being and fitness and compare breakfast behaviour between men and women to identify if there is a gender gap. Design: A cross-sectional research with cluster sampling in two primary schools and seven secondary schools. The instrument used was a modified version of the Kidscreen-27 questionnaire. Sample: 2,125 students aged between 10 and 19 years old from different nationalities, mainly Romanian, Moroccan and Spanish. Results: The study identifies some youngsters who skip breakfast and no have no food intake over the course of the morning. About 35% of the teenagers skip daily breakfast before they leave for school, and a worrying 1,8% do not eat any food during the whole morning. Questionnaire outcomes also expresses that the amount of biscuits ingested increased as the number of times that adolescents have breakfast at home decreases. There are significant gender differences, women it less foods than men. Differences are especially significant in case of milk, bread or cereals and butter or oil. Finally, chi- square contrast analysis show students that have breakfast before leaving to school perceive better feelings about how well and fit they are than those student who do not have breakfast daily. Conclusions. Findings supports the need for further enhance health education programs focused on breakfast habits, especially with women. This study is part of the project “Education for Cross-cultural Health in Immigrant and Native Adolescents from Almeria: Analysis and intervention for optimization and improvement” supported by the National R+D Plan of the Ministry of Economy and Finance (Ref: EDU2011-26887)
DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104546 3 Open Access Library Journal current research examines whether the presence of psychopathology could be a risk factor for a positive view to the future. The study aims to: 1) analyze wheth- er the future expectations of adolescents with psychopathological problems dif- fer from those of others without problems (categorical model of mental disorder: clinical vs. normative group); 2) analyze the predictive capacity of psychopatho- logical problems on adolescents’ future expectations (dimensional model).
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The results show that adolescents have a much greater margin for improving their knowledge about doping and its impact on health, making them more vulnerable to these practices (Boulu 2002; Ozdemir et al. 2005; Reardon and Creado 2014). Therefore, measures should be aimed at both adolescent athletes and non- athletes (Ozdemir et al. 2005; Dunn et al. 2010; Morente and Zabala 2013; Barkoukis et al. 2016). This type of school-based measure has proved to be feasible and effective, to a greater or lesser extent, in increasing knowledge about doping (Elliot et al. 2008; Fritz et al. 2005; Goldbert et al. 1996, 2000). In this respect, we consider that these aspects should be integrated into the content of the school curriculum. In Spain, the Education Bill LOMCE (2014) makes no specifications as regards doping. However, it could be incorporated into content blocks which have been included, for example “management of active life and values” in Primary Education or “acquisition of healthy lifestyles” in Secondary Education.
The elaboration of typologies is a previous step to improve the analysis of occupation of leisure-time and the establishment of collective measures that they affect in the development of healthy lifestyle among the young people. The sample of this study been has constituted by 1829 adolescents of three provinces. We use the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire and the cluster analysis. These instruments have shown the existence of two different groups in regard to the leisure-time. These groups are related with sociodemographic variables like educational level and place of residence. Group of adolescents which accomplish physical activities organized did not show differences with the other groups of young people in relation to the consumption of television, time of study and use of computer. On the contrary, accomplish more physical activity in a workday than the other adolescents.
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A calculation of sample size for a prevalence of 50%, with a 5% accuracy level and 95% confidence level was carried out, resulting in a total of 700 adolescents; in order to avoid any possible losses, calculation of the sam- ple size was increased by 15%. The sample was selected by equiprobability single-stage cluster sampling. From among 42 secondary education schools providing post- compulsory schooling in Granada (Spain), nine were selected by simple random sampling, subsequently all the pupils attending the selected school were included.
We used the Spanish version of this general psychopathol- ogy screening instrument, which shows an adequate dis- criminative power (psychiatric case–no case) and is easily administered. The questionnaire was designed to detect the presence of psychiatric cases in community and nonpsychiat- ric clinical settings, and comprises four seven-item scales, ie, somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction, and depression. Each item consists of four possible answers, which are evaluated as 0 (the first two options) or 1 (the last two options). Those evaluated with 0 points indicate absence of psychopathological problems, and those evaluated with 1 point indicate problems. By means of this scale of 0, 0, 1, 1, the results are utilized to identify psychiatric cases. A higher final score indicates greater psychopathology. The instrument has shown a sensitivity of 76.9%–84.6% and specificity of 82%–90.2%, depending on the cutoff points used. Because different cutoff points have been used, only the total score and the scores on the four subscales were considered in the present study. The General Health Questionnaire has been suggested as a tool for identifying emerging as well as chronic problems (C-GHQ), scored in the latter case on the scale of 0, 1, 1, 1. For this study, we used both the General Health Questionnaire and C-GHQ. 27
and PA, while the males’ results were higher for self- esteem and NA. This gender discrepancy in the affects themes has already been pointed out by some authors (Salavera, Usán, Antoñanzas, Teruel and Lucha, 2017). The multiple regression results showed that happiness, self-esteem, and satisfaction with life did not seem to influence the mind-wandering phenomenon. These three constructs have a lot to do with a person’s disposition and with the subjective evaluation of his or her well-being. So up to a point, it would be logical to understand that with a phenomenon like mind wandering, the variables that require greater awareness about the subject’s conscience state do not act as predictors, which was the case of the present research. Only PA had a significant and positive effect with the MWQ as high values for PA were associ- ated with high MWQ values. There is an explanation for this as positive affect includes mood states and various emotions with pleasant, almost agreeable, subjective con- tent, and with conditions or events that positively inform about how life is going (Luna, 2012), which falls in line with mind wandering. In the same way, dispositional mindfulness and NA predicted a negative and significant effect with the MWQ as high values for these variables were associated with low MWQ scores, which indicates that despite an increase in emotional regulation skills taking place in adolescence, an increase in negative affect states has also been detected during this life period (Larson, Moneta, Richards and Wilson, 2002). Thus the self-assessments that adolescents make can activate negative emotions, like fear, sadness, or rejection, which would explain why the mind-wandering process correlates inversely with negative affects.
Background: Since the 2008 economic crisis in Spain, overall fertility has continued to decrease, while urban inequalities have increased. There is a general lack of studies of fertility patterns in small-areas of Spanish cities. We explored the effects of the economic crisis on fertility during three time periods in urban settings in Spain. Methods: We studied the distribution of fertility rates among women (15 – 49 years) from Spain and low-middle income countries (LIC) who were living in 13 Spanish cities. We mapped fertility and the MEDEA socioeconomic deprivation index in small-areas, and analyzed age-related trends in fertility rates. We performed an ecological regression analysis of fertility and the deprivation index in two pre-crisis periods (1999 – 2003 and 2004 – 2008) and one crisis period (2009 – 2013). Fertility rates were calculated and smoothed using the hierarchical Bayesian model (BYM). Results: Higher fertility was generally associated with socioeconomic deprivation, with adjustment for the mothers ’ age and nationality. While Spanish citizens tended to delay childbearing throughout the three study periods, fertility increased among Spanish adolescents from deprived urban areas during the economic crisis. There was a general decline in fertility among immigrants after the crisis, especially in southern cities. Overall, fertility appeared to be stable, with higher fertility in more deprived areas.
With a rapid shift the the Hispanic population in the United States, the importance of understanding how consumers communicate, and the preferred language medium is more important than ever. With an estimated 1 in 6 U.S. residents currently being Hispanic or of Hispanic origin, while it is estimated that by 2050 1 in 3 will be Hispanic or of Hispanic origin, the ability of marketers to understand the language and verbal cues that appeal to this demographic is vital for success in the U.S. The finding that Hispanicness is significant in the viewer’s overall interpretation of Spanish and English advertisement is important because it shows the marketer that these are important demographic factors to consider in the construction of advertising and advertising campaigns, particularly for those products and services that are aimed towards a Hispanic population.
of the event, and (b) are readily encodable in the language” (Slobin, 1987, p. 435). Thus, the lack of availability of lexicalization patterns for the expression of manner of motion non-saliently makes Romance language speakers less sensitive to this conceptual component. Surprisingly, in the emotional domain, Spanish speakers use a pattern which blends figurative manner and path in a single construction, as in the Germanic typology, e.g., ‘llorar las penas’, weep one’s sorrows (Martínez-Vázquez, 2014a, 2016). This construction presents the manner component (weep) in the verb and codes the emotion, which flows out of the body, as an unsubcategorized resulting object. Given the availability of lexicalization patterns in English which pack manner and path (or result) in one construction, one might expect that speakers of English would be more inclined to use such constructions, as they do with other somatic processes (e.g., smile one’s delight/satisfaction). However, such patterns in English are rare.
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In recent years, there have been efforts to build cross-lingual resources, such as using sentiment analysis tools in English to score Spanish texts af- ter performing machine translation (Brooke et al., 2009) or to automatically derive sentiment lexicons in Spanish (P´erez-Rosas et al., 2012). The purpose of the present work is to create a manually anno- tated lexicon for the Spanish language, replicating Whissell’s DAL, aiming at alleviating the scarcity of resources for the Spanish language, and at deter- mining if the lexicon-based approach would work in Spanish as well as it does in English. We leave for future work the comparison of the different ap- proaches mentioned here. This paper describes the three steps performed to accomplish that goal: i) creating a knowledge base which is likely to have a good word coverage on arbitrary texts from any topic and genre (Section 2); ii) having a number of volunteers annotate each word for the three affective dimensions under study (Section 3); and iii) evaluat- ing the usefulness of our knowledge base on simple tasks (Section 4).
sents the first computational implementation of a lexical simplification algorithm for Spanish. Finally, we use a well-designed and viable evaluation methodology for lexical simplification. Based on the evaluation, we have found various aspects of the method which need to be taken into further consideration. First, we are facing the problem of out-of-dictionary words. One way to overcome this problem is by inducing possible word-substitutes with methods similar to the word vector model we use here, as well as larger datasets. Second, frequency computation in our procedure is not carried out considering word sense disambiguation, but by performing counts disregarding senses. It is possible that taking the word sense into consideration before computing its frequency could improve the results. Finally, in this work we only consider substitution of single lexical units – the identification of multi-word expressions and collocations, such as poco a poco (‘little by little’), substituted with its simpler synonym gradualmente (‘gradually’), will be addressed in future work.
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In brief, our study aims to identify the sources of CLI in the L2 and L3 acquisition of one morphosyntax-pragmatic interface phenomenon in particular on the part of L1 English speakers: grammatical mood alternations in French and Spanish. So as to have the opportunity to examine both internal and external factors, we have chosen to take a sociolinguistic approach. With regards to internal factors and cases where external factors apply to both NS and NNS (e.g. demographic traits), we carry out an analysis for both groups with the sole purpose of having as many points of reference as possible for the latter. Concerning cases where external factors apply only to our learner population, having points of reference is not an objective. Rather, we intend to answer Firth and Wagner’s (1997) call for a better balance between the cognitive and the social in SLA research. More recently, Tarrone (2007) provides further evidence supporting the view that social and linguistic contexts affect L2 linguistic use, choice, and development. However, the author laments that few SLA approaches that explore the relationship between social context, cognition, and L2 use have delved into the acquisition of specific linguistic forms, rules, or systems, which has subsequently become an aim of our study. Finally, our results will extend two SLA debates into the field of TLA: whether or not L2 and/or L3 adult learners can acquire interface phenomena, and the amount of UG
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The first phase of the process was to translate the NAQ into Spanish. This was carried out by a research team of experts in the subject. As some of the bullying behaviors have important cultural weight, we selected the items that seemed most suitable for the Spanish context. Thus, a reduced version of 14 items was created. Subsequently, a discussion group of three experts analyzed the formulation of the translated items and they redrafted some of them according to agreed- on criteria. Then, the instrument was back-translated into English and the equivalence of both versions was determined (Brislin, 1970). Once the instrument had been translated, it was administered to the above-mentioned groups, after obtaining the participants’ informed consent. The work was carried out within the framework of a more extensive research project about bullying and health, which was approved by the Ethics Committee for research in the Autonomous University of Madrid.
None of the instances coded in this chart as /lu/ were enclitics (if they had been, they would have been coded as l). Therefore, we find a proclitic /lu/, which does not occur in standard Catalan. Two assumptions can be made. The first one is that these participants are using the enclitic form of masculine l in a proclitic position. This seems unlikely, since this phenomenon is not observed in clitic en, where we could expect a similar behavior. A second, more plausible option, is that participants are transferring the Spanish l clitic lo and are using (Central) Catalan phonology (i.e. vowel reduction in the unstressed clitic, turning the /o/ in lo into /u/). Support for this second alternative comes from the fact that absolutely no instances of /lu/ were found in the CD group. More support is provided by the fact that no participant who produced an instance of /lu/ produced ho in accusative contexts. However, all of the participants who produced /lu/ also produced instances of masculine l. Therefore, it could be the case that, for these participants, /lu/ is (possibly temporarily) taking the place of ho. Since the participants who produce /lu/ never produce ho but do produce l, it is logical to assume that they have created a new clitic configuration that they need to fill. Instead of using Catalan ho, it seems as though they are recycling the lexical material of lo from Spanish. 32 The fact that
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In the case of Figure 3b, aggregation has been conducted along the n-gram orders and Spanish segmentations. In this case, the resulting scores have been normalized with respect to the average score value for each transliteration direction. While grow-diag-final-and is the best alignment strategy for the Spanish-to-Chinese case, source- to-target alignments also happen to be a good strategy in the Chinese-to-Spanish case. Notice, however, that relative variation of scores in Fig- ure 3b is actually very low (about 2%), which suggests that the alignment strategy has a low incidence on transliteration quality for the tasks under consideration.
In this paper, we analyze differences in the use of time between teenagers and young adults in Spain, with a focus on differences according to the nationality of individuals. Using the Spanish Time Use Survey for the years 2002/03 and 2009/10, we analyze the time devoted to the different time use categories by both teenagers and young adults. We find differences in time allocation decisions between the two groups, which also depend on the nationality of the respondents, pointing to cultural differences as a factor affecting time allocation decisions.
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Table 3 reports the results investigating how respond- ent characteristics are associated with basic needs. The total number of basic needs met was higher among male respondents than among females; differences in employ- ment and education opportunities and transportation access accounted for much of this difference. Married respondents reported more needs met than single re- spondents, with greater healthcare access and employ- ment opportunities contributing to the higher scores. Respondents under 30 years of age reported more needs met than older respondents for most (7 out of 10) basic needs. Similarly, smaller households reported significantly more needs met than larger households, with higher rates of needs met for food security, housing sufficiency, healthcare access, and freedom from discrimination. Respondents who had used more than 6 health and social services also reported more needs met. Respondents who had spent time in another city reported better healthcare access, while those who spoke Spanish reported lower housing sufficiency and healthcare access but better edu- cation opportunities and employer respect.