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Impact of prenatal stress on mother-infant dyadic behavior during the still-face paradigm

Impact of prenatal stress on mother-infant dyadic behavior during the still-face paradigm

Conway and McDonough [8] employed the still-face paradigm during mother-infant interaction, and found that maternal sensitivity, but not infants’ negative affect, pre- dicted resilience in preschool children. Further, Müller and colleagues [40] reported an association between the latency of mismatching states in the mother-infant dyad during the still-face paradigm and the infants’ salivary cortisol re- sponses. Along with further studies on mother-infant synchrony, research findings on the impairing influence of disturbed mother-infant dyads on child development [41– 43] underlined the important role of “contingent reci- procity” in mother-child interaction [44]. For example, mother-infant dyads with depressive mothers, demon- strated less maternal positivity and increased negative affect, and infants showed increased negative, depressive- like affect compared to controls [45–47]. Interestingly, a study in mothers with borderline personality disorder (BPD) found that their three-month-old infants had gener- ally less positive vocalization and showed less nonauto- nomic self-regulation during the still-face paradigm compared to controls [48]. Moreover, the infants seemed especially troubled by the still-face episode resulting in de- creased infant gazing behavior. The mothers with BPD seemed to be more challenged during the reunion episode after the stressor when resuming the play, and showed less smiling and more intrusive behavior [48].
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Behavior of mothers and infants with and without Down syndrome during the still face procedure

Behavior of mothers and infants with and without Down syndrome during the still face procedure

Legerstee & Bowman (1989) examined the looking and smiling responses of eight infants with DS from 8 through to 48 weeks of age during episodes with mother, a stranger, and a puppet. From around four months of age (two months later than TD infants), infants with DS showed significantly less smiling (around 18-22 weeks) during episodes of adult passivity (but not for the contingent puppet), and from five months of age (22-24 weeks) infants with DS showed clear gaze aversion. So, at least from four months onwards, there is some evidence that maternal passivity has an effect on the looking behaviour of infants with DS and, although delayed in onset, infants with DS appear to develop expectations about contingent interactions with people despite their attentional problems. However there are also indications that the still-face procedure may have a lessened impact on the emotional state of infants with DS.
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Effects of Maternal Behavior on Infants' Regulatory Behaviors during the Still Face Paradigm

Effects of Maternal Behavior on Infants' Regulatory Behaviors during the Still Face Paradigm

maternal sensitivity during the Still Face Paradigm (SFP). It was investigated whether the SFP elicited the still face effect. Additionally, the effect of maternal sensitivity on infants’ regulatory behaviors during the SFP was examined. Infants’ stress reactivity during the SFP was explored using skin conductance levels. Maternal risk status and infants’ temperament has been taken into account. The sample consisted of 52 mother-infant dyads (mean age infants 5.96 months). Reflective functioning was measured with an interview around 27 weeks of pregnancy. During a home-visit the SFP was administered and mothers reported about the infants’ temperament using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire. Infant and maternal behaviors were coded based on the SFP. Results indicated that the still face effect was found for arching and squirming, while it was not found for self-soothing behavior. Preliminary results showed an increased skin conductance level, and thus stress reactivity, over the whole SFP. Furthermore, maternal reflective functioning was found as predictor of maternal sensitivity during the SFP. Higher levels of maternal sensitivity predicted more self- soothing behaviors during the first minute of the reunion and less arching and
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The role of maternal self-regulation on emotion regulation patterns of 6-month old infants during the Still Face Paradigm

The role of maternal self-regulation on emotion regulation patterns of 6-month old infants during the Still Face Paradigm

The still-face effect also emerges in infant’s physiological responses, indicating a reaction of the autonomic nervous system. One indicator of the autonomic nervous system is the cardiovascular reaction, specifically the heart rate, which can easily be measured in infants via non-invasive methods (Brownley, Hurwitz, & Scheiderman, 2000). Increases in heart rate have been used as a measure of sympathetic input to the heart, reflecting a reaction to fearful stimuli and contexts (Kagan, Reznick, & Snidman, 1994). During the still-face episode, heart rate increases, while during the reunion episode heart rate decreases, although the heart rate mostly does not return to baseline level (Mesman, Van IJzendoorn, & Bakermans- Kranenburg, 2009; Moore et al., 2009). Researchers have suggested that individual variation in heart rate during separate episode of the SFP is indicative of infant regulation skills (Haley & Stansbury, 2003). Moreover, baseline heart rate, heart rate reactivity and the recovery of heart rate following distress have been related to later cognitive and behavioral functioning in children and adults. (Fox, Schmidt & Henderson, 2000). Hence, infant cardiovascular reaction to distress makes an essential topic of interest in developmental psychopathology.
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Maternal reflective functioning as predictor of maternal and infant behavior during the Still-Face Paradigm

Maternal reflective functioning as predictor of maternal and infant behavior during the Still-Face Paradigm

The present study was the first to investigate the association between mothers’ ability to reflect upon the relationship with her (unborn) infant during pregnancy and maternal and infant behavior during the Still-Face Paradigm (SFP). The sample consisted of 52 mother- infant dyads, from both high (HR, N = 22)- and low (LR, N = 29) risk backgrounds, as defined by the presence/absence of unemployment, poverty or financial problems, housing problems, limited or instable social support network, being single or having changing partners, (subclinical) psychiatric problems (such as depression, anxiety, borderline, aggression), or substance abuse (smoking, alcohol, or drugs). High-risk (HR)-mothers had lower levels of reflective functioning than LR-mothers and showed less sensitive and more intrusive behavior in interaction with their infants. Infants from high risk backgrounds showed more negative affect during play and less gaze towards mother during the still-face episode of the SFP. Reflective functioning during pregnancy predicted maternal sensitive and intrusive behavior during play, but only for LR-mothers. In general, maternal reflective functioning predicted infant display of minimal positive affect during the still-face episode, an association that was not mediated by maternal behavior during the SFP. These results indicate that mothers’ reflective abilities predict later maternal sensitive and intrusive behavior, and even some infant behavior independently from maternal behavior. Future studies should further clarify the role of maternal reflective capacities in the development of children’s emotion regulation abilities, and its potential role in prenatal coaching and interventions.
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Effects of maternal depression in the Still-Face Paradigm: A meta-analysis

Effects of maternal depression in the Still-Face Paradigm: A meta-analysis

Attachment theorists have found that an infant’s response to their mother in any given situation is based upon previous experience and interactions with her (Ainsworth & Bowlby, 1991; Bretherton, 1992). Therefore, due to the infant’s prior experience with their mother’s disengaged behaviour, these infants may be employing coping strategies during the still-face episode in an effort to cope with their distress, such as amplifying positive attachment signals in an attempt to engage maternal attention and support (Out et al., 2009). This viewpoint is consistent with proposals by a number of authors who agree that infants of depressed mothers adopt coping strategies during the SFP (Field, 2002; Manian & Bornstein, 2009; Moore et al., 2001; Weinberg & Tronick, 1996). Alternatively, Field (2002), for example, has argued that infants of depressed mothers adopt passive coping strategies. However, the current results do not support this proposal. Infants did not produce a passive interaction style during the SFP and mirror their mother’s depressive behaviour as Field suggested. In addition, the current analyses did not produce evidence to suggest that infants of depressed mothers display an increase in GA or employ self-soothing techniques in order to cope with their distress, as other authors have suggested (Manian & Bornstein, 2009; Moore et al., 2001).
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The Effects of Maternal Depression on Maternal Behavior and Infant’s Emotion Regulation during the Still-Face Paradigm

The Effects of Maternal Depression on Maternal Behavior and Infant’s Emotion Regulation during the Still-Face Paradigm

This study investigated the effect of maternal depression on mother and infant behavior during the Still Face Paradigm (SFP). It was investigated whether the SFP elicited the still- face effect. In addition, the effect of maternal depression on infant’s emotion regulation and maternal behavior during the SFP was examined. Fifty-two mother-infant dyads participated in this study. Maternal depression was measured using a positive score on either the MINI- International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus) or Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI- II) during the first or second appointment. Additionally, the cognitive development of six- month old infants was measured using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-II). During a home-visit, the SFP was administered by trained PhD- or graduate students, and mother and infant behaviors were coded afterwards. Results indicated that the still face effect was found for negative affect, arching and/or squirming behavior, gaze toward mother, and additionally for maternal sensitivity and maternal positive affect. Infants of depressed mothers averted gaze during all episodes of the SFP compared to infants of non-depressed mothers. Combination of SFP episodes and maternal depression resulted in more arching and/or squirming behavior during the play and reunion episodes for infants of depressed mothers. Furthermore, mothers who feel depressed showed more internalizing or helpless behavior during the reunion. The findings of this study increase the knowledge of the effects of maternal depression on mother behavior and infant’s regulatory capacities during stress exposure.
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Still Face Image Object Detection using EV Jones Algorithm

Still Face Image Object Detection using EV Jones Algorithm

Many developments in the face detection algorithms has been done in past years. Multi resolution rule method was implemented by G. Yang[1]. This method used the structural nature of face for detection. Feature based method uses The color of skin[4], features of facial[2] and multiple combined features[6] of face to find effective accuracy at high speed. An uniform and steady image scaled method of template is used for matching. Some predefined templates was used[7] with a templates of deformable[8] which incorporated the complete template based on predefined structure based on learning. A method of appearance will speed the process of detection very fast and accurately with adaptive results which can distinguish face with non-face under environmental conditions.
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The two countries provide SMEs support through various agencies. Scholars have posited that Chinese SMEs are succeeding in their Business endeavours and as such it becomes important to understand what strategies they are using to be more successful. Comparatively, the South African SMEs appear to be struggling in pursuing their businesses. This study is important as it intended to investigate the effect of SME support as implemented with the understanding that they would contribute to growth and prosperity. Despite the support provided, some of the SMEs still face some challenges in running their businesses. Notably, the challenges faced by SMEs appear to be generic, however, there could be circumstances across the two countries that might be different, and as such a comparative study was imminent to understand the differences in order to learn the best practices per country. Based on the above, it was important to understand what support is being provided by small business agencies to ensure that SMEs prosper in the two countries.
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Challenges to Women Active Participation in Politics in Nigeria

Challenges to Women Active Participation in Politics in Nigeria

Abstract Poor participation of women in politics and governance has been a major concern at global level. In Nigeria, women participation in politics is not proportionate to the 50% of the nation’s population which they represent and has not translated into equal representation in political leadership positions. The global issue of goal 3 (to promote gender equality and empower women) of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other international clarion calls for bridging the gap created by long-term discriminations against women and making women visible in politics made Nigeria to recognize women in the political sphere, and include them in both appointive and elective positions. Yet, there persists poor participation of women in politics and the number of women in political positions in Nigeria is growing at a slow rate despite efforts to change such trend. Based on secondary sources of information, this paper, examined the challenges Nigerian women still face in active participation in politics such as discriminatory socio-cultural and religious practices; lack of finance; under-representation of women in governance; unhealthy political environment; political party discrimination; wrong perception of women in politics; lack of family, fellow women and media support; indigenization of women political aspirants; among others. This paper recommended measures to guarantee women active participation in politics in Nigeria such as review of discriminatory practices; economic empowerment; support from family, fellow women and media; equal representation in governance; healthy political environment; proper perception of women in politics, among others.
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PROMOTING YOUTH ENTREPRENUERSHIP IN THE SOUTH EAST, NIGERIA THROUGH CO-OPERATIVES

PROMOTING YOUTH ENTREPRENUERSHIP IN THE SOUTH EAST, NIGERIA THROUGH CO-OPERATIVES

This research is on the promotion of youth entrepreneurship in the South East Nigeria through co-operatives. The objectives of the research are to explain the concept of youth entrepreneurship, discuss the importance of co-operatives as a promotional tool youth entrepreneurship and determine the implication of co-operatives to youth entrepreneurship. It was highlighted in the work that entrepreneurs make things happen by transforming hazy ideas into reality. Entrepreneurs are key player in national development as they have in many instances led and will continue to lead the economic revolution that has proved repeatedly to improve the standard of living for people everywhere. These notwithstanding, entrepreneurship development in south east and in other parts of Nigeria still face some challenges such as lack of management know-how resulting in inability to apply appropriate managerial concepts and principles in running the affairs of the business, the dire shortage and inadequacy of infrastructure facilities etc.This research in conclusion asserts that cooperatives are autonomous association of people united voluntarily to meet their comm on economic, social and cultural needs and aspirations through jointly owned and democratically controlled businesses and that identifying with the co-operatives could bridge the gap which has served as a hindrance to youth entrepreneurship in the South Ea st Nigeria. The researcher among other things recommended that Youth entrepreneurs should identify and join co - operatives that are in line and can be of benefit to their entrepreneurial aspiration as this will enhance their chances of raising start-up capital for their businesses and that co-operatives should create more awareness to educate the youth on the availability of co -operatives for them to join and the benefits they stand to gain by becoming member of such co -operatives.
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5904.pdf

5904.pdf

Associations between Infant Behavior during the Face-to-Face Still Face Paradigm and Oppositional Defiant and Callous-Unemotional Behaviors in Early Childhood Both developmental and clinical fields of research have invested substantial resources in understanding the course, causes, and consequences of antisocial behaviors and psychopathic traits. The monetary and societal costs incurred by individuals exhibiting disruptive behavior problems has prompted an increase of research on the unique etiological pathways to these outcomes, including potential origins in early oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and elevated callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors (Frick et al., 2003; Frick & Viding, 2009; Hawes, Brennan, & Dadds, 2009). There is great variability in the behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and biological functioning of children who demonstrate disruptive behavior problems and this variability has implications for later functioning and response to treatment. Although the corpus of literature highlighting environmental (see Waller, Gardner, & Hyde, 2013), biological, and behavioral correlates of ODD and CU behaviors in childhood and adolescence is growing (see Frick, Ray, Thornton, & Kahn, 2014 for review), there is a dearth of prospective longitudinal research that has investigated if specific behavioral phenotypes associated with these outcomes precede the manifestation of these disruptive outcomes in infancy.
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Reconstructing the concept of face in cultural sociology: in Goffman’s footsteps, following the Chinese case

Reconstructing the concept of face in cultural sociology: in Goffman’s footsteps, following the Chinese case

Integration of Chinese concepts into mainstream sociological theory enhances the explanatory powers of the latter and enriches both the breadth and depth of its apprehension of social phenomena. In this way, the theories in question are trans- formed (Qi 2014, pp. 227). This paper has demonstrated by method and the example of the Chinese concept of face the means through which concepts drawn from Chinese cultural experience can be responsible for a reinvigoration of empirical research and theory construction. The examination of the notion of face in Chinese cultural experi- ences identifies previously neglected or less discussed dimensions of the mainstream sociological concept of face. An individual ’ s face generation and outcome may arise out of another individual ’ s status or behavior. An individual ’ s action may give rise to a collective face outcome and a collective ’ s circumstances may have impact on an individ- ual’s face state. Many face studies have paid attention to the mechanism associated with social approval and disapproval of the thing that gives rise to face or subtracts from it. This paper highlights the fact that face itself may become an object of self-conscious consideration. The range or scope of the theories brought into this endeavor can be amplified and their depth of analysis can be extended, depending on the format of re- search and exposition and also the intentions of the researcher. Conceptual innovation and refinement invigorate theories and enhance their competence and their capacity for identifying, understanding and explaining social and cultural phenomenon, relation- ships and characteristics. This paper may serve the purpose of stimulating and encour- aging subsequent research that draws on and integrates concepts from other cultures to lead to an improved, refined and reinvigorated approach to sociological analysis of cultural forms.
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The Extent to Which Servant-Leadership Philosophy Relates to Public Leadership Code of Ethics and Other Established Ideals for Public Leaders in Tanzania

The Extent to Which Servant-Leadership Philosophy Relates to Public Leadership Code of Ethics and Other Established Ideals for Public Leaders in Tanzania

Tanzania has its own code of ethics and other established ideals to control its public leaders. However, despite the efforts made by the Tanzania government through the enactment of PLCEA in 1995 and establishment of many other ideals to bind public leaders, there is a considerable number of leadership deficiencies still reported from the Tanzania public service especially from the political realm. Most political leaders particularly MPs instead of being servant-leaders of their electorates are accused of being unethical, corrupt and selfish abusing their entrusted powers for personal interests contrary to the code of ethics. They are also blamed for lacking moral obligations and alleged to betray their voters by giving them good promises during campaigns while doing nothing once elected and sometimes rarely seen in their constituencies [5]; for they really know that voters have no power to impeach them until the following election. Gasarasi [6] insists that although MPs have a major constitutional function of overseing the government in order to safeguard public interests, in reality this seems not likely to be the most priority to most of them. Also, as revealed by Liviga [7] most people in Tanzania contest for MPs seats not because they are committed and have inner feelings of serving their communities but it is because they want financial gains and other personal emoluments associated to the position.
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Adaptability to Settlement Pattern and Choice of Subsistence Activities: Emergence of Material Culture within the Saribas Malay in Betong, Sarawak

Adaptability to Settlement Pattern and Choice of Subsistence Activities: Emergence of Material Culture within the Saribas Malay in Betong, Sarawak

Abstract. Despite many job opportunities in the market and the challenges they have to face, some minority of the Saribas Malay community in Betong, Sarawak is still maintaining traditional subsistence activities in food production based on the nipah tree (locally known as apong) such as gula apong, garam apong cuka apong, jarik mayang, air sadap and the sago tree (locally known as mulong) produce, lemantak. This research examines the choice of subsistence strategies and settlement pattern of the Malay community who inhabit the Saribas region. Through the in-depth interview and participant observation, the finding suggested that reliance on a river as the main highway to connect them to the other parts of Sarawak and river as a source of marine resources determine the choice of linear settlement pattern along the river. The results also suggest that river terrestrial resources; apong and mulong accessibility and abundance availability that influence the community in continuing the traditional subsistence activities (apong and mulong based food production) related to those flora source. As such, the assemblage of material culture that exist within the Saribas Malay community is the representation and manifestation of their choice of settlement pattern and subsistence activities.
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The Development of Science Concept in Turkey and Effects of Constructivism on 2004 Primary Science Curriculum

The Development of Science Concept in Turkey and Effects of Constructivism on 2004 Primary Science Curriculum

In Phillips‟ (1995) words, the “quasireligious and ideological functions of these political aims constitute the ugly face of constructivism” (p. There still are debates on the possible [r]

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Proportionality Review: Still Inadequate,
But Still Necessary

Proportionality Review: Still Inadequate, But Still Necessary

This failure to use life cases in the proportionality review is one of the most significant problems with the proportionalityreview as it is currentlyconducted. Section 17.1-313 of t[r]

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Title: Real-Time Secure System for Detection and Recognition the Face of Criminals

Title: Real-Time Secure System for Detection and Recognition the Face of Criminals

The face in the image is usually in motion So When you are using video images you can use movement as a guide. Faces are usually moving in real-time videos, so one option is for the software to capture the moving area. Of course, other parts of videos also move, so the software needs to look for particular reference points to indicate that it is actually a face that is moving. One specific face movement is blinking. If the software can determine a regular blinking pattern (two eyes blinking together, symmetrically positioned) then this is a good indication that there is a face. From this regular blinking pattern the computer can determine the area of the video image that is actually the face, using one of a number of face models. There will be a number of face models in the software, containing the appearance, shape and motion of faces. There are actually a variety of different face shapes, roughly categorized as oval, rectangle, round, square, heart and triangle. As well as blinking, there are various other motions that signpost to the computer that the image may contain a face. These include raised eyebrows, flared nostrils, wrinkled foreheads and opened mouths. Once one of these actions is detected, the computer will pass their face models over the video image and try and determine a facial match. Once a face is detected, and a particular face model matched with a particular movement, the model is laid over the face, enabling face tracking to pick up further face movements [10] .
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Women in Veterinary Leadership Positions: Their Motivations and Enablers

Women in Veterinary Leadership Positions: Their Motivations and Enablers

All participants had a minimum of four years’ experience as a veterinary leader. In order to include a range of leadership-based roles, four participants were selected purposively from each of the following sector categories: academia, professional bodies, clinical practice and industry. Potential participants were found via internet searches of these categories (e.g. veterinary university’s staff details), as well as through suggestions from colleagues. They were approached through email or face-to-face; all agreed to take part in the study and none chose to withdraw.

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Orthogonal functionalisation of α-helix mimetics.

Orthogonal functionalisation of α-helix mimetics.

senting the α-carbon on the peptide. A root mean square deviation (RMSD) was calculated based on this degree of overlap. The combinations with the best overlap (lowest RMSD) are shown in Fig. 2. The modeling data show that by introducing functionality onto the non-binding face the side chain overlap is not significantly affected and these structures are still capable of effective mimicry of the p53 helix.

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