“…compares effects of storytelling versus story reading on comprehension and vocabulary development of 32 British primary children. States one group listened to stories in
storytelling style, the other group listened to stories read by a studentteacher. Finds children who witnessed storytelling scored higher on comprehension/vocabulary measures than did children who listened to story reading.”
Vocabulary in the story is critical to the students’ understanding of the text although the amount of focus on each word should vary. Tier 2 words are more abstract, likely to be encountered in a variety of situations and could have different meanings depending on the context. These words deserve more attention in the context and in daily vocabulary instruction and use. Tier 3 words in the text are more concrete and can quickly be told or pointed out with respect to the illustrations so the student can make meaning of the context and text. They do not need extensive focus. The student‐friendly definitions for the words below were found at www.wordsmyth.net.
less prominent, or even not present. On the other hand, the language level of authentic spoken texts will pose comprehension problems for the learners. In other words, there is a trade-off between phonological authenticity and level of language difficulty.
I feel that since the focus here is on awareness/practice of phonological features, it makes more sense to use authentic (or authentic-sounding) texts and give learners an easier task to perform. It is, of course, up to the individual teacher to make the final decision on the optimal combination of text and task level.
Special thanks to Dr. Ani Munirah, University of Malaya whose workshop at MPWS, Bungi, Malaysia on Atlas ti 8 guidance made me able to use the software practically for a systematic literature review of this research paper.
I am using this opportunity to express my gratitude to Noor Azura Omar, the Librarian In charge of Universiti Malaysia, Pahang at Gambang Campus who supported me throughout the course of this research project for using UMP Library. She is the real representative of UMP who always guide UMP PhD students like a family. I am thankful for her aspiring guidance, and friendly advice during this research project work stay in UMP Hostel. On her request, I was given full support from the library staff and I would like to thank the all UMP library specialists for their support who supported my work by providing free student SPSS & Mendeley versions which helped me get results of better quality.
highlighted titles included poetry, fantasy, humor, fiction, legends, non-fiction, picture books, and chapter books.
To learn more about these genres and other aspects of readingaloud, all five of the teachers responding to my survey agreed that they would attend a school district professional development session on this topic. These teachers seem to have an interest in readingaloud, as well as share a few common attitudes or beliefs about the practice of readingaloud. A couple of beliefs stood out. All of these educators see promoting a love of literature and/or reading as one of the most important reasons to read aloud. There also is agreement among these respondents that it is very important for a teacher to model and use fluent, animated, and expressive reading. These seem to go hand in hand, for if lively fluent reading is modeled then promotion of a love of reading and literature may follow.
In this era of increased accountability driven by No Child Left Behind that addresses sanctions low-performing schools with increasingly punitive measures for each year of failing to meet Adequate Yearly Progress, districts are scrambling to find the unique combination of curriculum, instruction, and assessment that produces higher student outcomes. However, one area of education that has received little attention until recently is the high absence rate of some classroom teachers and how those days that students spend with substitute teachers affect their academic performance, emotional stability, and desire to attend school. According to Bergin and Bergin (2009), “Secure teacher-student relationships may seem like a low priority in an era of high stakes testing. However, children’s socioemotional well-being is linked to achievement.
Debbe K. Geary
Many high-school students lack the specific subject matter knowledge, vocabulary, and reading strategies they need to learn from complex texts. Secondary teachers need professional development to improve content literacy instruction. This qualitative case study explored the impact of the Reading Apprenticeship Improving Secondary Education (RAISE) on three teachers and their students over an eight-month period. The teachers in this study attended RAISE workshops and received in-school coaching designed to help them recognize their own subject matter expertise and to apprentice students into the discourse and practices of historians through metacognitive inquiry. The teachers also learned how to support students in building identities as readers who could solve reading problems and persevere in learning from complex texts. The study was conducted at two Midwestern high schools, one rural and one urban. AP World History and U. S. History classes were the focus of the study. Analysis consisted of multiple cycles of coding that surfaced themes; these themes provided scaffolding for the analysis of the narrative responses of the participants and guided the selection of representative examples from transcripts. In the final analysis, the teachers demonstrated instructional efficacy and supported students in developing agency for reading complex history texts. The Reading Apprenticeship model was effective as an instructional innovation and transformational professional development option for school districts.
independently read self-selected texts. Many authorities have advocated for students to be actively involved in their learning through the implementation of uninterrupted blocks of independent reading time, ongoing strategy instruction, and engagement in literate conversations (Calkins, 2001; Cunningham & Allington, 2016; Graves, 1994; Reutzel, Fason, & Smith, 2008; Fountas & Pinnell, 2016). Hiebert and Martin (2009) stressed that blocks of independent reading time are a critical component of a reading curriculum while Shanahan (2016a, 2016b) has criticized independent reading time, specifically SSR and DEAR. In multiple blog posts and comments posted to his blog, Shanahan (2016a, 2016b, 2016c) argued that he supported independent reading within instruction which he described as the teacher having a role in selecting the reading material for content and demand level, holding kids accountable through questioning and conversation, and having kids writing about the text. In several posts, Shanahan (2016a, 2016b, 2016c) also stated that he believed more research was needed on how the reading workshop model is implemented in classrooms. Despite Shanahan’s statements about independent reading, there are researchers who have claimed that when provided time to read, “students
Perhaps you recall being read to as a child. Maybe you hold precious memories of a special adult at home sharing books with you every night for a bedtime story. Or maybe you remember filing into a classroom in elementary school after lunch recess, settling onto the rug or into your desk and chair, and losing yourself in a great book as the teacher’s soothing voice transported you into the characters’ lives and wove delicious stories that made read- aloud your favorite part of the school day.
multiplicity of needs. Most school systems are restricted by funding and staffing to apply few options to aid students. Students, however, have a wide variety of needs, so perhaps a wider variety of strategies would be useful.
Many of the students who are placed in remedial reading have always been strong students; perhaps they had a bad test day or were otherwise unprepared. Some have been absent from the classroom for years. Remediation can provide a bridge for those students. Many more, however, may have some form of learning disability. Sweet, Dezarn, and Belluscio (2011), found that among disabled students in Appalachia, an extensive transition program, beginning in eighth grade, would help bridge this learning gap and enable them to transition more smoothly into the college environment. While this student population may require remediation, “students with mild disabilities can achieve education beyond high school which will open up a world of new
Recommendations for further study
This study was inconclusive about a possible link between engagement and transition time. Student engagement data was collected in fifteen-minute observations. A longer observation time could yield better data about transition time. A future study that is designed to record transition time more accurately would return better data. This study was designed to collected data during a one- month window in the spring. Conducting a longitudinal study of student engagement over the course of an entire school year would provide data over time which this study could not do. While the Van Amburgh Active Learning Inventory Tool was employed for measurement of student engagement for this study, it only recorded the behavioral engagement of students and neglected to collect any levels of cognitive or emotional engagement. Additional tools or methods of measurement might allow for tracking of specific students and the other types of engagement would add to the current body of knowledge on engagement.
Even though the meeting was necessary for the signing of the consent, the facilitator tried to narrow the relationship between school and home in terms of literacy, namely reading,
practices. However, most of the parents limited their presence in the meeting to sign the consent.
Only a few of them approached the facilitator to ask her about the reading material they should buy at home. The facilitator called their attention on the differences in expenses that represent getting a membership in a library rather than buying books. In the visit to a public library that was carried out in the third week of the intervention, only two relatives accepted the invitation to accompany the facilitator, the classroom teacher, the school coordinator and the students. Thus, it is possible to assert that the revised theory is limited in the sense that it gives relevant insights about the importance of making parents get involved in school literacy practices, but it does not provide accurate ideas to do so in public schools that address students from different
a corner or on the reading carpet. While the room was in total silence, students would oftentimes take a break from their reading by laying their books on their desk. This showed the lack of focus and the lack of engagement that the students were having with the books that they were reading.
As I began to walk around the room, I also observed students doing what Prior and Welling (2007) call mumble reading. Students who were mumble reading were not very loud, but you could hear them reading. Prior and Welling (2007) believes that the transition between mumble reading and reading independently starts in grades 2 through 5. The students who were silent reading were not bothered by the students who were mumble reading. After the 20 minutes were up, the timer went off and the students automatically knew to start writing a response to what they were reading inside their response journals. Independent reading time within my room is similar to that of Ms. Bulk, but my students have a hard time silent reading. Everyone mumble reads. As I walked around my room, you can hear students reading. At first I thought that this would interfere with the reading dynamics of the room, but no one was bothered by this so I allowed it as long as the students were reading. While students were mumble reading, it gave me a chance to walk around and listen for student‟s fluency as well as seeing how they were
students and was home to 12 elementary schools, four middle schools, and three high schools. It was chosen for this study because I am employed in the district and have a vested interest in the district’s improvement. The district has invested time and money into the district-wide implementation of direct instruction in targeted second grade classrooms in each of the 12 elementary schools. Identical training and resources were provided to each of the 12 schools; however, scores in each classroom did not show equal progress and growth. Therefore, it was important to determine if teacher attitudes and perceptions played a role in the discrepancies. Before this method of intervention can be applied in other content areas, it must be determined whether or not it is appropriate for all teachers to use. I also examined teacher efficacy and years of experience as areas of interest.
The district and its leaders are aware of the literacy problem in the district. The leaders are also aware of my research and my intent to be able to share its findings. After the approval of my dissertation I will request a meeting with the principal initially before going to the district office. The target site principal has been supportive of the research and phonics-strategies from the beginning of implementation. The goal of the white paper is to provide findings and potential solutions to the identified problem of low Lexile reading scores. In the paper, I demonstrate how implementation of BL strategies coupled with the already implemented phonics strategies may address the solution to the problem of low Lexile scores for incoming and continuing high school students. The white paper is designed to provide information about EBPs that can be used at the target site, wherein the BL approach is the basis for the recommendations. I will recommend that the BL approach of the blended phonics-based strategy instruction be implemented and
Improving educational leadership is not a task for higher education to address alone. School level administrators need to strive toward a mindset of continuous self-improvement. Administrators in Turkey who ensured their school’s vision was shared with the community were found to demonstrate improvements in other areas of their instructional leadership competencies as well (Gulcan, 2012). The demands of educational leaders can be extremely tiring and taxing. Simply trying to implement every initiative and help every teacher improve is a daunting task – especially for a new administrator. Fortunately, the demands of the job seem to ease as experience is gained. A statistically significant correlation was found between demand rating and years of experience, more experience correlated with lower demand ratings
Recent research demonstrates that the student-teacher relationship has a significant impact on academic outcomes, both directly and indirectly. In his book, Pianta (1999) argued that a supportive relationship between early elementary teachers and their students fostered more emotionally healthy and academically oriented children and, if established and maintained, supported and shaped a student‟s development throughout the early school years and beyond. Research has supported Pianta and found that the quality of the student-teacher relationship helps to foster not only achievement but mediating factors (i.e., motivational and learning related processes) that are important to academic functioning. For example, a positive/effective student- teacher relationship will influence a child‟s interpersonal competencies with peers (Buhs, Ladd, & Herald, 2006; Guay, Biovin, & Hodges, 1999; Howes, Matheson, & Hamilton, 1994; Ladd, 1990, Ladd, Birch, & Bihs, 1999), classroom behavior / engagement (Buhs, Ladd, & Herald, 2006; Buhs & Ladd, 2001; Furrer & Skinner, 2003; Ladd, Birch, & Buhs, 1999; Pianta, 1999; Pianta, 2002), and academic motivation / mastery orientation (Birch & Ladd, 1996; Guay, Biovin, & Hodges, 1999; Wentzel, 1991; Wentzel, 1997; Wentzel, Caldwell, & Barry, 2004). In addition, other researchers have also pointed out that the quality of the student-teacher
Learning a language is not only to enhance the learner’s comprehension, but also to develop their social interaction skills through communicative competence. The teachers should realize that they have the important role to educate the students about academic and social aspects for the students’ achievement. Similarly, the students should also consider that they have the equal roles to develop their own competencies in academic and social life. The process of the teaching and learning could be arranged and organized well by both the teacher and the students during teaching- learning activities.
In the discussion section, Ninsuwan claimed RA technique could be an excellent benefit for learners who use
English as a foreign language and also for the beginners. This article is stronger because it also presents that teachers are benefited by the secure teaching method that engages students much better than teaching using typical reading. Desirable characteristics of language teachers have been described in the literature as having not only a profound competence in the target language but a set of personal qualities like sensitivity, warmth and tolerance (Vadillo, 1999), and teaching using RA significantly helps teachers develop these three qualities. In an investigation of the characteristics of good language teachers, Brosh (1996) found the desirable attributes of an effective language teacher to be: having knowledge and command of the target language; being able to organize, explain, and clarify, as well as to arouse and sustain interest and motivation among students; being fair to students by showing neither favoritism nor prejudice.
trained on how and when to intervene to support students’ proficiency in the online reading comprehension. As recently pointed out by the EU High Level Group of Experts on Literacy (2012, 66):
The current digital divide is not whether primary age children in Europe are using digital tools, but the quality of their use. Online reading is largely ignored during initial primary teacher education, although evidence shows that a majority of children engage almost equally in digital and print reading from early on in primary education. Only five EU Member States currently require competences for teaching online reading in the education of primary teachers. Very few countries define learning outcomes for digital reading.