The topic of urbansustainabledevelopment is one which has received a great deal of attention over many years – even before such a term was coined many authors have wrestled with the problems of balancing economic, social and environmental issues when considering how best to manage the growth of settlements across the world (WCED, 1987; Lélé, 1991; Ekins, 1993; Wheeler and Beatley, 2008). In recent years, of course, this journal has hosted some of these debates, with a focus on interdiscipinarity and inter-sectionality of approaches to economic, ecological and social sustainability (Keivani, 2010a). Whilst many of these contributions emphasise the “multi-faceted nature of the sustainability debate” (Keivani, 2010b, p. 12) and acknowledge the “interplay between social and technical solutions” (Williams, 2010, p, 131), there remains a tendency to downplay, if not ignore, the constraints put in place by the context in which development takes place. This context can, despite the best efforts of policy makers, planners, NGOs and other stakeholders, effectively limit the opportunity for the sort of path-breaking innovations often necessary to achieve sustainableurbandevelopment.
This part will first present the result of literature survey of indicators for sustainableurbandevelopment. There are few studies in Malaysia related to indicators that are used for measuring urban sustainability. Before this, there have 55 indicators. These findings of this research are consistent with those of Ho C.S and Muhammad Z.H (2008) as cited the Federal Department of Town and Country Planning has formulated 11 sectors with consists of 55 indicators to measure urban sustainability. However, on 2011 the Malaysian Urban Rural National Indicator Network (MURNInet) is revised. There are few issues that make the MURNInet need to review. One of the issues is local authority participation is not exhaustive. Furthermore, selection indicators by Local Authority which not uniform and display the same indicators flat (no weightage pattern). These finding agree with Marlyana A.M et al. (2011) findings which showed only 10 indicators the most chosen by Local Authority. The 10 urban indicators are average daily garbage collection for each resident, the ratio of pre-school to the population, the ratio of halls to the population, the percentage allocation of financial for landscaping program, the percentage of area receiving garbage collection services, the number of noise complaints received in a year, percentage approval of C.F.O, local revenue per capita, the rate of tax collection, and expenditure per capita. From the research which involves 7 cities; Ipoh, Batu Pahat, Georgetown, Sepang, Teluk Intan, Selama, and Tangkak, the majority of Local Authorities did not use all the 55 indicators in measuring urban sustainability. Another issue that causes the review of MURNInet is the boundaries of the study area for data collection varies. Besides that, features and sectoral indicators are not updated according to the norms of lifestyle changes and key national policy is the issue related to the review of MURNInet. In 2012, MURNInet has come out with new indicators which consists of 5 strategic, 6 dimensions, 21 themes, and 36 indicators that are used to measure sustainability of cities that need to follow by local authorities (Figure 4).
The third hypothesis of the research was also confirmed by tourism organization managers as well as executives of hotels and restaurants, thus social capital plays a moderating role in the relationship between development of urban tourism and sus- tainable urbandevelopment. In studies conducted by Daryabari et al. (2015) and Moayedi and Kheiruddin (2014), the relationship between social capital and sustainableurbandevelopment was confirmed. Also, in researches done by Moscardo et al. (2013) and McBeth et al. (2004), the relationship between development of tourism and social capital was verified too. But none of the studies done has ever addressed mediating role of social capital in the relationship between development of urban tourism and sus- tainable urbandevelopment, and this is one of the most important innovations of this work. According to the hierarchical linear regression analysis, 25.1% of the variance of sustainableurbandevelopment is explained by the moderating effect of social capital. So, the more the social capital in the city is strengthened, the more the relationship be- tween development of urban tourism and sustainableurbandevelopment is reinforced. Therefore, municipal and cultural executives are recommended to pay more attention to social capital in addition to strengthening tourism infrastructures of the city and considering sustainableurbandevelopment, because reinforcement of social capital can facilitate the process of achieving sustainableurbandevelopment through development of urban tourism. The more the participation of citizens in municipal activities is in- creased, the more they desire to host tourists in a better way and thus the city will be moving towards further development. Also, creating unity and communion between citizens of different ethnicities and religions is another factor that can affect the rela- tionship between development of tourism and sustainableurbandevelopment by im- proving social capital. City managers should try to increase social capital in the society as a moderating factor of the relationship between development of tourism and sus- tainable urbandevelopment through promoting moral values in the city, and improv- ing citizens’ trust in municipal authorities and other fellow citizens.
The article deals with cases of displacement and resettlement in the city of Hyderabad. There is a description of how the displacement occurred and later the problems of the displacement and related aspects. Today large numbers of people live in the cities but do not have any entitlements. These people are called as informal dwellers as they live in the so called slums. “The existence of a slum means the authorities have failed,” says the World Bank. Specifically Hyderabad has 17.43% of slum population” . This population has no rights or entitlements and they reside in public places. The major cause for population displacement has been the projects undertaken to promote development at different level for different reasons. Displacement for development is the process of physically uprooting large Urban Resettlement and SustainableUrbanDevelopment –Comparative Case Studies in Hyderabad section of people from their land, economy, resources and culture. The ideology of development is used to strengthen inequitable social relations in society, through the acts like displacement. This phenomenon needs a different approach as they are also part of the
Abstract In this century development, some African countries are now still facing a challenge of lack of electricity, because hydropower and thermal fuel are still on a small scale. This problem results in less economic productivity decline of some countries like Rwanda which is among African countries that are at a very high speed in development, and the grid lines are few compared to the need for electricity, especially in rural areas whereby each household needs power usage instead of using local and traditional means of ironing and lighting at home. This issue can be solved using Renewable Energy for rural electrification such as Photovoltaic systems. Therefore, this paper reviews Solar Energy for SustainableUrbanDevelopment in Rural Area (Rwanda). Under this work, case study result will focus on one village in Rwanda named as” Agahozo- Shalom Youth Village (ASYV) located in Rwamagana district in Eastern Rwanda. The project is the first utility-scale, grid-connected, commercial solar field in East Africa. The field is 8.5 MW of grid-connected power to 15,000 homes and it increased Rwanda's generation capacity by 6%. Solar urban design is a phase of sustainableurban planning that will facilitate development and could provide new solutions to the world’s energy problem by reducing its consumption and improving the performance of future buildings. The main mission of this article is to care for Rwanda's most vulnerable children, is leasing land to house the solar facility, and the fees from which will help pay for a portion of the Village's charitable.
Rai  believes that sustainableurbandevelopment should include: energy-saving technologies in all areas of activity; conservation of biological diversity (the share of natural territories should be at least 30%); reduction of environmental pollution through the greening of vehicles and industry, and the use of roadside environmental components. Researchers  consider the “green” infrastructure an important component of the implementation of the sustainableurbandevelopment strategy as it helps to reduce or level the anthropogenic impact, also contributing to the rational and efficient use of the resources of Earth. In their opinion, a “green” (sustainable) infrastructure is a comprehensive integrated system of interconnected structures and facilities that create an environment for people to live and the economy to function, operating based on the principles of energy saving, energy efficiency, contributing to the rational use of resources, without realizing or minimizing the negative impact to the environment. Among the main components of a balanced infrastructure, scholars distinguish: renewable energy sources; smart buildings; ecological public transport; smart water supply and sanitation systems; rational waste management systems, etc.
Smart cities are all about collaboration, sharing and transparency. They bring together technology, society and government to enable smart governance, smart economy, smart mobility, smart environment, smart people and smart living (Man- ville et al, 2014: 28). The crucial roles play ICT infrastructure, open data and tech- nological devices that enable the exchange of millions of messages on a daily basis. But just the ICT solutions and technology advancements cannot make the expected impact on smart and sustainableurbandevelopment. The key role plays human capi- tal and the adoption of new, complex technologies. The ageing population, lack of information and social responsibility of local administrations and companies to pave the way towards the better future can lead to a poor citizens’ adoption of new tech- nologies and therefore their poor participation in shaping local policies and building smart, inclusive and sustainableurban communities.
Urbanization, Urban Poverty and Slum are often connected, and posed major challenges to developed and developing nations alike, but these challenges are more pronounced in developing nations among which Nigeria is not immune. Urbanization has been a major demographic trend in Nigeria and most especially in the major cities across the country in last half of the century because of the relative increase in both social and economic development that is presently resulting in the uncontrolled population growth of Nigerian major cities, some of which are manifesting in the unnecessary pressures on available infrastructure, environmental degeneration, traffic congestion, housing shortages and high level of crimes. Urban Poverty equally posed a great challenge to urban sustainability in Nigeria because most of the poor in the cities suffers social exclusion, unemployment, homelessness, lack paid income and vulnerability to environmental risks and poor health, while the end result of these challenges and manifestations are the growth of slums, squatters settlements, shacks, dirty run down housing that are already becoming permanent structures in major cities of Nigeria. This paper embarks on comprehensive literature review on urbanization, urban poverty, slums and available statistical figures and relates these issues to Lagos, Kano, Port-Harcourt, Onitsha and some other cities in Nigeria, because these are the cities that faces these challenges the more, where there exist housing shortage in quantitative form, environmental pollution, traffic problems, huge pressure on existing infrastructure such as water supply, electricity supply, healthcare facilities, bad roads, high level of criminal activities, kidnapping, high level of unemployment among others and while at the same time, examined the factors responsible for these challenges in the urban centres. However, practicable recommendations are proffered as to the interrelation and opportunities that can be harnessed among these challenging issues, so as to ensure sustainableurbandevelopment in Nigeria as a nation.
The notion of entrepreneurial discovery was introduced by Haussmann and Rodrik  as a self- discovery process and is constantly recalled by Foray and Goenaga , which clearly mention the legacy of the New Industrial Economy approach in discussing the above mentioned five principles of S3. This core feature of S3 leads to another key concept at the forefront of current European strategies, that is, social innovation. A strong link exists between the S3 strategy, the cluster policy and the concept of social innovation as developed by the European Commission, a cross-cutting approach suitable to be implemented as trans-sectoral innovation. In the Guide to Social Innovation—commissioned by DG Regional and Urban Policy and completed with DG Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion with inputs by various other Directorates General (such as, among others, DG Enterprise and Industry and DG Research)—social innovation is defined as: “the development and implementation of new ideas (products, services and models) to meet social needs and create new social relationships or collaborations. It represents new responses to pressing social demands, which affect the process of social interactions. It is aimed at improving human well-being. Social innovations are innovations that are social in both their ends and their means. They are innovations that are not only good for society but also enhance individuals’ capacity to act” .
Practical implementation of Brownfield development requires consideration of a range of factors including the science of public health protection, the economic drivers of real estate development, and the land use regulation skills of urban planners. The ability today to carefully plan land uses and redevelopment options for affected properties allows for planning of viable risk-based remediation projects while providing liability protection for environmental regulatory requirements. Most countries which have utilised Brownfield methodologies have been required to establish cooperation between the activities of their planning and their environment protection agencies, and frame specific legislation to facilitate such cooperation and shared control.
“There have always been three basic dimensions when building in wood: conservation, innovation and sustainability. The Urban Wood Master Program combines these aspects in a unique way. Architects and engineers will get in touch with up to date knowledge from international experts for the benefi t of their professional or academic career.“
The history of the city of Salford and related current issues of urban regeneration are typical of industrial and post-industrial cities in Western countries. At the time of the industrial revolution, the Manchester area was a leading place for manufacture, particularly for its cotton and silk factories. In particular, Manchester docks, located in Salford, allowed an effective international transport system, connected to the city through a network of canals and rails. Due to the high demand of workforce, Salford was a very attractive place and even became an area of overpopulation.
Gender equality is an issue of development effectiveness, not just a matter of political correctness or kindness to women. New evidence demonstrates that when women and men are relatively equal, economies tend to grow faster, the poor move more quickly out of poverty, and the well-being of men, women, and children is enhanced. The primary pathways through which gender systems affect development are labour productivity and the allocative efficiency of the economy, therefore investments in human capital (especially girls’ and women’s education and health); and physical capital (especially women’s access to capital or to the formal sector employment it creates) aid gender equality.
known that the resources are limited and as a consequence it has been established on a European policy level that governments need to “provide better public services with fewer resources” (European eGovernment action plan 2011-2015, p. 3). Yet another global trend is the increased digitalization in and of societies (Baskerville, 2012; Walsham, 2012). Information and communication technology (ICT) is portrayed to play an important role in overcoming some of the challenges cities are facing. Hence, the present situation described above implies that city management and urbandevelopment face challenges with limited resources and at the same time explore opportunities through the use of ICT. The world is dramatically changing and the information systems (IS) field needs to be flexible and proactive to offer solutions to these societal challenges that focus both ethical and critical aspects (Walsham, 2012). Recently, the concept of smart cities has emerged as a new approach to make urbandevelopment more sustainable (Alawadhi et al., 2011). The concept denotes that cities through the use of ICT can become smarter in using resources and delivering and administrating services to citizens, and thus in a long run contributing to a better living and quality of life (Schaffers et al., 2012). Just like cities are portrayed as having a pivotal role for sustainabledevelopment, different types of ICT artefacts and applications can be seen as important instruments in achieving these goals. For example, the implementation and use of smart grids not only include implementing ICT infrastructure, but also the design and development of new ICT-based services. This also implies that there is a chain of activities that precedes the occurrence of new services and these activities often involve several stakeholders. Thus these kinds of development are complex as they not only involve many stakeholders with sometimes “competing objectives and values” (Chourabi et al., 2012, p. 2289), but also imply requirements of shared technical standards and interoperability (Perera et al., 2013). This has in recent years made the field of urbandevelopment, together with the use of information systems (IS) and information technology (IT) to achieve the above- mentioned goals, an interesting research topic for some IS researchers (Dedrick, 2010). However, the impact of IS/IT for environmental sustainability has so far gained much interest in practice, but as a research area it is still rather novel (Watson et al., 2010; Jenkin et al., 2011) and in a research agenda setting phase (Meville, 2010). 2. METHODS AND MATERIALS
Government of India highlights the need for recovery and reuse of any material thereby reducing the waste destined for final disposal. Sustainable resource management, protection and prohibition on misuse of scarce resources has been the primary agenda of NEP. Notable among them are E-waste Management and Handling Rules 2011, Management and Handling of Municipal Solid Waste 2000, Management and handling of Bio-Medical Waste 2003 etc. Ecotourism sector has been evolved in India since 1998 and has been renewed with the implementation of National Tourism Policy (NTP), 2002. European Union (EU), Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and World Tourist Organisation (WTO) experts have framed indicators for measuring sustainable tourism practices which India also has included in its tourism policy guidelines and made the hotels, tour operators comply with it. Some other city based sustainable projects include river restoration projects; river Sabarmati in Ahmedabad and river Yamuna in Delhi, resilient building infrastructure in Bhuj and Surat in Gujarat. The Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) is also in conformation to SDG 11. India has also exchanged ideas and helped technically cum financially its neighbouring countries and other developing nations. It has played a supportive and catalytic role apart from leading the way from the front. States of Himachal Pradesh and Chattisgarh in India have tried this Community- Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach; brainchild of Bangladesh since the year 2000 through which they have achieved remarkable success in making their country open defecation free. Through the use of public shame and disgust and health information outreach programmes that the Bangladesh government
The results demonstrate the feasibility of the new planned settlement over a medium-long time period when the northern areas will be completely built. The similarity with Aerotropolis is appropriate. The neighborhood, unlike what was expected, tends to integrate tourist activities with residential ones. The adopted building typologies proved to be compatible with the additions of the green spaces. It also takes into account the permanent usability over time (summer has prohibitive temperatures). It is suitable for international tourism. The values of urban planning standards are lower than those of the reference legislation. The values of tourist services have not been considered, because they are to be found within private areas. The plant has a traditional form, based on some large road signs located in the center of the new neighborhood. The viability is reduced compared to what is expected in the official project.
Ambiguity in the sense of sustainability has led to a kind of uncertainty in the concept of sustainableurbandevelopment. There are many researches to overcome these doubts, but they are not still sufficient. The city is a complex system, and as the larger it is, the result of development measures will be more unpredictable. However, the two concepts “urban sustainability” and “sustainableurbandevelopment”, which are often used owing to their proximity to each other, should not be mistaken with each other. To distinguish these two, we must note that sustainableurbandevelopment, in fact, represents the process during which stability can occur, but stability is a set of situations that persists over time. However, some consider sustainabledevelopment in utilizing land and encouraging the reuse of buildings, and maintain that the size, density and location of human habitats suitable for sustainability, will be variable in line with the development of technology in energy, production, building, and transportation. Some also define sustainabledevelopment as a way of improving the quality of life and life in the capacity of bearing backup ecosystems. In each form, various factors and dimensions are effective in sustainableurbandevelopment; climate and environmental considerations are only one of them . Table I summarizes the importance of sustainableurbandevelopment.
2014) worsening problems of access to safe water in peri-urban neighbourhoods. The piped water network has struggled to achieve financial sustainability due to leaks, unregistered customers and poor management (Kjellén, 2006), both under public and private service providers (Kooy, 2014; Liddle et al., 2016; Allen et al. 2017; Adams & Smiley, 2018). The un-connected, urban residents instead have to access water by a variety of different coping mechanisms (Liddle et al., 2016), like purchasing water from vendors, buying it from a neighbour with a pipe connection or fetching it from a borehole or a water kiosk. The people, or entrepreneurs, running the informal water supply systems are sometimes referred to as small-scale independent water providers, SSIPs, that fill the gap in service delivery left by the formal utility’s failure to expand services in growing cities (Ahlers et al., 2013). For example, in the peri-urban areas of Greater Maputo, Mozambique, SSIPs serve an estimated 31 per cent of the population with water (Ahlers et al., 2013). While many cities in SSA share the same general features regarding population growth and insufficient formal water supply systems, the coping mechanisms and consequences for urban residents can vary greatly, even on a neighbourhood-level. Next, we take a closer look at different examples of how informal water systems manifest themselves in different places and what consequences they can have for urban residents in informal settlements.
One of the challenges confronting cities in the developing world is social exclusion and marginali- zation of the poor. This has been observed in terms of large scale informalities in settlements growth, employment and livelihood activities. Inadequate infrastructure, diminishing access to basic services and livelihood opportunities are increasingly precipitating social exclusion in cities. In Tanzania, the policy shift from social welfare to liberal economies is contributing to marginali- zation and subsequently, exclusion of poor households in accessing basic services. This paper dis- cusses the social dimension of sustainability viewed from social inclusion point of view. Eight ma- jor urban centres in Tanzania are being examined. The data collection methods included house- hold interviews, review of documents, workshops and group discussion. Results show that with the exception of access to education and health services, cities are poorly performing in terms of access to water supply, income versus cost of living, employment, services to the handicapped and ownership of properties by sex. Quality of life elements such as sanitation and urban informality also remains below average. While informality in cities accounted for 66 percent (in terms of built up areas), access to onsite potable accounted for only 36.9 percent. On the bases of these findings, it is recommended that strategies such as cross subsidization and addressing informalities should be developed and implemented with a view to ensuring social inclusion in cities.