Sustainable Water Use Efficiency

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Sustainable Water Use Efficiency for Rice Cultivation in Rajshahi of Bangladesh

Sustainable Water Use Efficiency for Rice Cultivation in Rajshahi of Bangladesh

application of 3, 5 and 7 days of disappearance of standing water respectively. Continuous standing water (5cm) was maintained in all plots up to 28 days after transplantation (DAT) to avoid pre-apprehended weed infestation that could be awesome during crop establishment stage. A bowl of 1.5 liters was used to irrigate the plots from the buffer zones by throwing water in. The seedlings were transplanted maintaining hill to hill distance of 15cm and row to row distance of 25cm. The first and the last hills were kept at 7.5cm away from their nearest levees resulting in 25 hills along the length and 10 hills along the width. Since the grains of BRRI hybrid 2 got ripened earlier than the BRRIdhan 28, the former was harvested (23 April 2011) two weeks earlier than the harvesting date (May 12, 2011) of the latter. Matured plants inside 1m square of land were harvested for subsequent analysis. Moisture content of the grains, however, was adjusted to 14% equivalent moisture content after measuring through digital grain moisture meter for subsequent analysis. Quantitative information related to yield and all the yield contributing characters viz. plant height, effective tillers, length of the panicle, no. of spikelets per panicle, no. of filled and unfilled grains per panicle, 1000 grain weight, grain yield, straw yield, harvest index and water use efficiency of the two varieties (BRRIdhan 28 and BRRI hybrid2) were analyzed to obtain the effect for AWDI on rice production.
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Biological Treatment of Textile Wastewater and Its Re-Use in Irrigation: Encouraging Water Efficiency and Sustainable Development

Biological Treatment of Textile Wastewater and Its Re-Use in Irrigation: Encouraging Water Efficiency and Sustainable Development

Abstract: The present study focused on the isolation of potential bacteria from contaminated soil of textile industries and subsequent employment of those organisms in treatment of textile waste-water. Wastewater was treated by novel isolates and the biologically treated wastewater was used for the irrigation (phytotoxicity evaluation) of two important edible crop plants (Brassica nigra and Cyamopsis tetragonolobus). For this, plants were grouped as I, II, III and IV that received the tap water, raw effluent, chemically treated and biologically treated wastewater respectively. 46 bacterial isolates were obtained and optimization of parameters revealed that one strain, namely UBL-27 (Comamonas sp. UBL 27) decolorized the wastewater to a max. of 80% in static (anoxic) condition at pH 8 in 24 hours at 32 o C. There was a remarkable performance in the germination percentage under biologically-treated wastewater to about 83.6% when compared to that of Control Group producing 92.9%. In contrast to this, the germination % was significantly too low (p≤0.05) in the other cases with the raw wastewater and chemically treated wastewater. The wastewater had marked effect on the growth of the Brassica nigra, the height of the plant was higher in the biologically treated effluent (11.2 ± 0.4 cm) and control group (12.1±0.2) than Group II (8.9±.17 cm) and Group III (9±0.2 cm). Weight of the plant was 1.95±0.35 g and 1.68±0.47 g in Group I and Group IV. It was significantly lower in case of Group II and Group III. In Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, heights of the plant among the four groups at the end of 80 days were 102.3±3.4, 52±7.6, 45.3±4.9 and 92.8±5 cm respectively. Similarly, no. of leaves/plant among the four groups was 49.2±3.2, 26.8±4.5, 32±2.4 and 47±4.5. Total yield of the plant under the experimental area for Group I was 3.15±0.09 kg while that of the Group IV was 2.92±0.09 kg. The yield was significantly lower in the Group II and III such as 1.67±0.17 kg and 2.06±0.22 kg respectively. To consolidate, the raw effluent has decreased the yield by more than 45% (p≤0.05) while that of the chemically treated group by more than 30%. Though, biologically treated wastewater may not be absolutely fit for drinking purposes or for recycling in dyeing processes, it is proved from this, that the eco-friendly alternative can be used for the irrigation purposes beside abatement of water and soil pollution.
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Sustainability Versus Mega Urban Development Projects

Sustainability Versus Mega Urban Development Projects

In addition, sustainable design considers opportunities to confine and recycle water. Reducing water consumption benefits both the resident, in terms of cost savings, and the environment. There are several environmental benefits of water management. Conserving water helps ensure that there will be adequate groundwater supplies for future generations, and preserves the habitat values of surface water supplies. Reducing water use also reduces requirements for wastewater treatment, which can be a significant community expense, or individual homeowner expense in the case of infected systems. Efficient plumbing fixtures can reduce household water consumption. Furthermore, the use of water-conserving fixtures and appliances, such as low-flow showerheads, faucet aerators, water-efficient dishwashers, and clothes washers can help in increasing water-efficiency. Occupants behavior plays a significant role in water consumption, so providing occupants with indicators on water – management practices can reduce long-term water use and raise awareness of sustainable use of water.
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Sustainable safe reuse of drainage water in agriculture at North delta soils, Egypt

Sustainable safe reuse of drainage water in agriculture at North delta soils, Egypt

In rural and peri-urban areas of most developing countries, the use of sewage and wastewater for irrigation is a common practice. Wastewater is often the only source of water for irrigation in these areas. Even in areas where other water sources exist, small farmers often prefer wastewater because its high nutrient content reduces or even eliminates the need for expensive chemical fertilizers. In order to meet this projection, Field experiments were carried out in different demonstration fields at North Delta. Maize and cotton crops were cultivated in the growing season of 2014. A split-plot design was used, where main plots were assigned to the different irrigation water sources e.g. fresh water, sewage water, drainage water, drainage water alternative with fresh water and sewage water alternative with fresh. Three methods of irrigation namely; traditional surface irrigation, gated pipes and surface drip irrigation were laid in sub plots. By summarizing these results in easy readable charts, fiber crop such as cotton is preferable to be cultivated when treated waste water used in irrigation. Also, drip and gated pipe irrigation saved water in clay soil and increased irrigation application efficiency and water productivity. Alternating of low quality water with fresh water can optimize the water unit return due to saving fresh water.
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SUSTAINABLE WATER MANAGEMENT  FOR WATER SUPPLY EFFICIENCY:  A CASE STUDY AT SYARIKAT AIR MELAKA BERHAD

SUSTAINABLE WATER MANAGEMENT FOR WATER SUPPLY EFFICIENCY: A CASE STUDY AT SYARIKAT AIR MELAKA BERHAD

Water use has been growing at more than twice than rate of population growth in last century. This level of population growth will result in increased demand for potential water from agriculture, industrial and domestic sectors of the economy. Rapidly rising demand and falling supplies of fresh water are leaving ever more nations to face chronic water shortages. The objective of this research is examined current water management systems in Syarikat Air Melaka Berhad (SAMB), assessing how far the current systems manage to keep the water sustainably. This research aimed to identify the effectiveness of programs implemented by the SAMB to sustain the water supply. Furthermore, this research aimed to formulate and propose improvements and enhancements for better water management systems. This research is beneficial for the government, university and the public. The research is been conducted at Syarikat Air Melaka Berhad (SAMB) through interviews of fifteen respondents. From there, researcher gained crucial information and point of view from the managerial perspective and also technical and technology insight regarding sustainable water management at SAMB.
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Sustainable water management for water supply efficiency : a case study at Syarikat Air Melaka Berhad

Sustainable water management for water supply efficiency : a case study at Syarikat Air Melaka Berhad

According to Fogden (2009), defines “safe drinking water” as water from an improved water source, which includes household connections, public standpipes, boreholes, protected dug wells, protected dug wells, protected springs and rainwater collections. Fogden (2009) also states that water use has been growing at more than twice than rate of population growth in last century. This level of population growth will result in increased demand for potential water from agriculture, industrial and domestic sectors of the economy. Rapidly rising demand and falling supplies of fresh water are leaving ever more nations to face chronic water shortages. By 2025, 1.8 billion people are expected to be living in countries or regions with absolute water scarcity, and two-thirds of the world population could be under stress conditions.
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A Review On Green Building Movement In India

A Review On Green Building Movement In India

IN India, the Green Building Movement was adopted by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) in 2001.They formed the Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) which is actively involved in promoting the Green Building concept in India. Their vision is, ―To enable a sustainable built environment for all and facilitate India to be one of the global leaders in the sustainable built environment by 2025‖. The Green Building movement in India started gaining momentum since 2003,from just about 20,000 sq.ft in 2003 to 450 crores sq.ft green footprint in India today [13]. A green building is one, which uses less water, optimises energy efficiency, conserves natural resources, generates less waste and provides healthier spaces for occupants, as compared to a conventional building. It is also known as a sustainable or ‗high performance‘ building [22]. There are various systems in the form of design standard or practice code worldwide to enhance the use of green building design. Usually their performance is based on certain sustainability criteria which are combined to assess the design effect [17]. These criteria, in general, focuses on sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, material and resources, indoor environmental quality.
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Comparison of Water Use Efficiency in Alfalfa Using Water and Waste Water

Comparison of Water Use Efficiency in Alfalfa Using Water and Waste Water

tare and increase water consumption efficiency to 78.9 percent [13]. A number of re- searchers at western south of Nigeria claimed that water consumption efficiency in ir- rigation treatment with wastewater has been greater than the treatment with water [14]. Shahrekord with population over 140 thousands persons and daily consumption of 170 liter per person each day and conversion coefficient of 70 percent has the wastewater over Seventeen thousand cubic meters per day, which this is equivalent to 196 l/s dur- ing year. This output is not the same during different days of year, but at critical pe- riods of year that demand for water consumption for agriculture consumption is high, rate of wastewater intensifies and reuse of wastewater at Wastewater Treatment Plant becomes the most beneficial way to avoid environment pollution and supply a percent of water needs. Alfalfa acreage in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province is over 15,000 hectares with an average yield of 10,850 kg per hectare. Farmers engage in cultivation and irrigation via surface method (furrow and basin) with time periods of 10, 12 and 14 days regarding the current irrigation round. To improve the sustainable management of water demand, culture of optimal water consumption should become c universal and individual in the community should make huge effort to increase water consumption efficiency and demand management of water consumption. Nowadays, in most crops, the cost price for the production of product from income due to low efficiency and wa- ter consumption efficiency is greater. Hence, with regard to real value of water, energy costs and other costs, water consumption efficiency should increase in order that the agriculture sector enables to compete with other economic sectors of society and status of food security improves in the society. Calculation of water consumption efficiency for each product especially dominant products is required at region; with regard to cri- sis on water scarcity and production of domestic wastewater treatment plants, use of wastewater is inevitable, under which water and wastewater consumption efficiency in alfalfa harvest were calculated and analyzed.
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Technical Assistance for Sustainable Urban Water Use

Technical Assistance for Sustainable Urban Water Use

Average residential water use is on the decline across the country due to factors outside of utility control, such as demographic and plumbing code changes 1 . In addition, as the environmental and collective impacts of energy and water use are realized, society is asking water utilities to implement conservation programs to reduce utility demand from their customers. Yet water and wastewater utilities most commonly generate revenue by charging rates for water usage. So when a utility promotes, or even passively experiences, customer conservation or efficiency, it is essentially eroding its sales base. Few viable businesses thrive by encouraging a decrease in customer use.
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The code for sustainable homes in the UK: affordability and future

The code for sustainable homes in the UK: affordability and future

To the forefront, when the target to make all social housing decent by 2010 was first set, a decent home has been defined to be wind and weather tight, warm and has modern facilities (Wilson, 2003). The BREEAM (2009) has established the Code of Sustainable Homes which is an assessment for the design and construction process of new homes in complying with the required standards for energy efficiency and sustainability to ensure for a reasonable degree of thermal comfort. Most importantly, it encourages the households to live in a sustainable lifestyle such as creates less waste, reduction in water and electricity usage in result for a lower running cost. Therefore, the home builders must take into account of the Code rating system which sets the standards for sustainable design principles: energy efficiency, water efficiency, surface water runoff, site waste and household waste, use of materials, pollution, health and well-being, and management and Ecology (Communities and Local Government, 2006).
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A Simple Method for Evaluating the Sustainable Design of Energy Efficient Family Houses

A Simple Method for Evaluating the Sustainable Design of Energy Efficient Family Houses

In addition to the energy and environmental parameters, the evaluation of the design of new buildings should also include economic and user parameters where suitable. The economic criteria, which is of key importance from the point of view of the owner and user, is usually the subject of a simultaneous optimization of the project energy efficiency, an investment in measures for efficient use, and use of renewable resources for the new buildings. Use of low embodied energy and cost effective building materials in the building construction can significantly reduce the overall energy consumption and investment [20]. The percentage of the investment going for costs over the whole life cycle can reach up to 70%, therefore finding suitable concepts for energy efficient new buildings is of key importance [6] and [10]. The quality of the living conditions in contemporary new buildings can be indirectly increased by increasing their energy efficiency, however only through the use of suitable concepts for heating and ventilating spaces that take into account the specific characteristics of the new buildings.
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Sustainable Construction: Water Use in Residential Buildings in Portugal

Sustainable Construction: Water Use in Residential Buildings in Portugal

A building can only be considered sustainable when the different dimensions of sustainable development - environmental, economic, social and cultural - are considered from the planning to the implementation phase [3]. The main objective of certification systems is to gather all the available data and information and produce reports. These reports are the base for the complex decision-making processes taking place during the various stages of a building’s life cycle in sustainable construction. There are parameters considered at both the scale of the building and to assess the building's interaction with the environment in which it is inserted, evaluating sustainability in a broad fashion [4]. Typically, the parameters that serve to support the assessment of sustainability are related directly or indirectly with the following general objectives:
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Water-scarcity footprints and water productivities indicate unsustainable wheat production in China

Water-scarcity footprints and water productivities indicate unsustainable wheat production in China

Davis et al. (2017) identified that optimizing the global distribution of major crops can reduce the current consumptive use of blue water by 12% while increasing the production, and this was substantial com- pared with solutions such as improvements in crop WP and the mini- mization of food waste. In the case of China’s wheat production, the priority for reducing this pressure can be given to optimizing the cur- rent water use patterns by redistributing the national wheat cropping. Historically, southern China was also an important contributor of wheat production. However, the wheat production in some southern regions including the AEZs in Jiangnan, Sichuan, the southwest and the south has decreased by 44% from 1980 to 2015 (NBSC, 1981–2016NBSC, 2016NBSC, 1981 – 2016). Due to numerous socioeconomic factors, especially the shifting of the labor force from rural to urban and sub- urban areas, more and more agricultural land with high quality lie fallow each winter in south China. A land area of 2.1 × 10 7 ha, which is suitable for winter wheat production, lie fallow in the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze basin, accounting for 46% of the arable land in the region (Bao et al., 2014; Zhai et al., 2012). Thus, China’s wheat production is experiencing a paradox — wheat is mainly produced in severely water-scarce regions while the suitable farmland in the water- rich regions lie fallow. To solve this problem, a national wheat cropping adjustment is necessary and urgent.
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Determination of Evapotranspiration and Water Use Efficiency in Crop Production

Determination of Evapotranspiration and Water Use Efficiency in Crop Production

The physical processes of the atmosphere, called meteorological processes, establish the existing climate or mi- croclimate. Although it does not act alone, climate, in turn, determines the regime of soils and plants at a given location. Wind, precipitation, sunshine, temperature, humidity, and soil moisture are the primary factors in- volved. The profitable production of crops and efficient use of water require a microclimate suitable for plant growth. What makes the microclimate suitable? The meteorological methods are helping us answer this question. Recent studies of the nature of the microclimate have yielded a wealth of information on the interaction of the physical processes of the environment and the response of plants to these processes. A brief review of the results from these studies will be presented here [15]-[18]. The meteorological processes are dynamic, each reacting to the changes in the others. The dynamic balance involves a continual exchange of mass and energy. Of particular importance to us are the exchanges of molecular heat energy, radiant energy, momentum, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and oxygen between the plant or soil surface and the atmosphere. We refer to this exchange as the ver- tical flux of the respective quantities. The meteorological method currently offers one of the best approaches to the study of these fluxes. It also permits an evaluation of the rates of the associated plant physiological processes such as photosynthesis and transpiration under natural field conditions [5].
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Popcorn breeding for water-stress tolerance or for agronomic water-use efficiency?

Popcorn breeding for water-stress tolerance or for agronomic water-use efficiency?

The experiments were carried out at the Experimental Station of the State Agricultural College Antônio Sarlo, in Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (lat. 21º 42 '48 "S, long. 41º 20' 38" W, 14 m asl) in the dry season (from April to August). The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications per water regime: irrigation to field capacity (WW– water regime 1) and under water stress (WS – water regime 2). Each plot consisted of four 4.4 -m rows, at a plant spacing of 0.20 m and row spacing of 0.80 m (23 plants per row). The plot area was defined as 8.00 m 2 of the central rows. Fertilization at sowing consisted of 30 kg ha -1 N (as urea), 60 kg ha -1 P 2 O 5 (triple superphosphate)
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On the use of alternative water use efficiency parameters in dryland ecosystems: a review

On the use of alternative water use efficiency parameters in dryland ecosystems: a review

When extrapolating leaf-level intrinsic WUE to the can- opy scale, Beer et al. (2009) assumed the difference between ambient and inner-leaf water vapor pressure to be the vapor pressure deficit (VPD). However, the method neglected to consider aerodynamic resistance through the leaf boundary layer, thus calculating inherent WUE (IWUE). Meanwhile, the slope of linear regression be- tween vegetation productivity and ET has been considered equal to WUE so that one can compare the differences among ecosystems (Brümmer et al. 2012; Shurpali et al. 2013). Notably, due to a lack of ET data at the regional scale, precipitation has frequently been used to replace ET as a proxy of WUE called rainfall use efficiency (RUE) (Yang et al. 2010; Zhang et al. 2013). The various defini- tions are summarized in Table 1. The different definitions of WUE represent different ecological processes or inher- ent mechanisms at different spatial scales (Table 1). For example, emphasis on hydrological processes increases from WUEt to WUE and RUE (Hu et al. 2009), and vice versa for biological process.
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EFFECT OF WATER STRESS AT THREE STAOES OF GROWTH ON WATER USE AND WATER..;USE EFFICIENCY OF DWARF WHEAT

EFFECT OF WATER STRESS AT THREE STAOES OF GROWTH ON WATER USE AND WATER..;USE EFFICIENCY OF DWARF WHEAT

The per cent extraction of available soil water from this layer decreased with increase in the masnitude of water stress particularly during jointing to flowering stage.. Th[r]

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Optimization of Green Building for Low income People at Pondicherry

Optimization of Green Building for Low income People at Pondicherry

A planned foundation can variety a considerable influence on controlling heat and cooling charges though removing possible moisture and mold difficulties. There are several types of foundations to choose from, dependent on soils condition, water table, climate etc. Crushed rock stone [Fig.1] is one of the utmost available natural resources and it is a major basic raw material used by flooring & foundation construction at Pondicherry which is mixed with fly ash aggregates, stones etc.

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Improving Irrigation Water Use Efficiency of Robusta

Improving Irrigation Water Use Efficiency of Robusta

Distance from the source of irrigated water to farm (m) Negative Ownership of irrigation system Positive Education level (dummy variable) Positive Farmer’s irrigation experience (years) Positive Extension contact (dummy variable) Positive Access to credit (dummy variable) Positive

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Sustainable land use on the East Coast : a case study of land use change in the Upper Hikuwai catchment : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University

Sustainable land use on the East Coast : a case study of land use change in the Upper Hikuwai catchment : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University

Introduction and Comments on the Study Sustainable Development and Sustainable Land Use Sustainable Land Use and Erosion Prone Pastoral Hill Countl' Sustainable Land Use Pattern in the U[r]

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