sweetpepper at the seedling stage is more suitable about 18°C, and the root zone temperature should be around 30°C in fruit ripening period. SSC-P and SSC-W could effectively reduce low and high temperature stress. Moreover, SSC-P and SSC-P had less difference of low and high temperature between average daytime and nighttime temperature, and on average the highest and the lowest diurnal temperature. This data revealed that soil plus substrate could store more heat in a low temperature environment to maintain root zone temperature compared to soil only, while it prevented sudden increase of root zone temperature at daytime under high temperature environment compared to single substrate. SSC could be used in CSG which has a poor buffer capacity of air temperature that suffered from outdoor temperature diurnal change. Moreover, the root zone temperature buffer capacity of SSC-W was slightly better than that of SSC-P. Therefore, SSC-W has the advantage of buffering root zone temperature at relatively moderate range, which is beneficial for crop growth since it eliminates extreme temperature stresses to some extent. This study confirmed that the root zone temperatures of SSC-P and SSC-W were higher compared to SR during 16 th and 20 th of March, while they were
evaluating the performance of the proposed method. An RGB-D camera (Intel Real Sense F200, Intel company, USA) mounted on the robotic arm was used to collect RGB-D data of sweetpepper. The data collection was conducted over 10 days within a protected farming system. After data collection, the reconstruction of a dense sweetpepper point cloud from multiple views is implemented using the Kinect fusion  , and the statistical outlier remover and voxel grid down sampler supported from Point cloud library (PCL)  were used for data de-noising and filtering.
collected were measured and subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) appropriate to complete randomized block design (RCBD). The result shows that there was significant effect of farmyard manure in the growth and yield parameters of sweetpepper such as plant height, number of leaves, number of branches and stem girth at two, four and six weeks after transplanting (WAT) and number of fruits, length of fruits, diameter of fruits and fruits weight at one, two, and three weeks of harvest with regard to the effect of compost manure, which shows least significant different in the growth and yield of sweetpepper (Capsicum annum L.) in Adamawa state.
Based on the stomatal conductance and water use eﬃ ciency value, it was not observed high diﬀ erences between the treatments in the water balance of plants. However, the transpiration rate and the photosynthetic activity showed the positive eﬀ ect of the potassium supply and also the negative eﬀ ect of nitrogen deﬁ ciency. The results conﬁ rmed and 3: Stomatal conductance (gs) of sweetpepper transplants grown
Sweetpepper (Capsicum annuum L. ‘Slávy‘ F1) plants were colonized by the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus and grown in two irrigational levels: 1. optimal water supply (the irrigation activation by available water capacity (AWC) < 65 %); 2. drought stress (irrigation activation by AWC < 45 %). In the ﬁ eld experiment selected physiological parameters, such as photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and water use eﬃ ciency were observed. The highest photosynthetic activity was observed in the ﬁ rst measuring date in both experimental years (2010: 7.5–8.1 μmol . m −2 . s −1 2011: 6.1–8.6 μmol . m −2 . s −1 ). In the next measuring dates, when the temperature
tion halos range between 0.15 a 0.50 mm) against those microorganisms, which increased slight with increasing extract concentration in some cases (Table 4). Statistically significant differ- ences (p < 0.05) among extracts were detected; however, statistically significant differences were not found (p > 0.05) among the different con- centrations evaluated for each type of extract. Higher antimicrobial activity was reported by Nazzaro et al. (2009) against other microorgan- isms such as B. cereus and E. coli, showing inhi- bition halos of 15 mm and 7 mm for alcoholic ex- tracts of two varieties of sweetpepper C. annuum L. against B. cereus (DSM4313 and DSM 4384) and halos of 7 mm for E. coli EC 101 . Antifungal activity against P. expansum DSM 6694 (8 mm) and D. hansenii DSM 70238 (16 mm) was also re- ported by these authors. Ciulu-Costinescu et al. (2015) also reported a bactericidal effect of C. annuum L. alcoholic extracts against Staphylo- coccus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis and B. subtilis. Whereas, Diz et al. (2006) found fungicidal activity from protein fractions obtained from C. annuum L. (Chilli peppers) against Candida albicans, Sac- charomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the authors indicating that one of the fractions also promoted several morphological changes to C. albicans, including the formation of pseudohyphae, as revealed by scanning elec- tron micrography. In contrast to all those re- sults, Motohashi et al. (2003) did not find any antibacterial activity of Anastasia Red, C. an- nuum L. sweetpepper extracts (hexane, acetone and methanol) against Helicobacter pylori. The differences found between our results and others authors could have been due to C. an- nuum L. variety used in each study. In this sense, Padilha et al. (2015) found a great vari- ability in the bioactive compounds present and their concentrations in different varieties of C. annuum peppers. Some of these compounds such as polyphenols and other antioxidants can af- fect the growth and metabolism of fungi, insects and bacteria (Alberto, Canavosio, & de Nadra, 2006; Padilha et al., 2015). Similarly, David- son and Taylor (2007) reported that polyphe- nols act on cytoplasm membranes causing leak- age cell as well as on the membrane proteins such as ATPase. In the same way, there are other
ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT- The production of greenhouse sweetpepper is increasing because of the consumer demand for sweetpepper year around. In this study, physiological characteristics of sweetpepper were evaluated in a greenhouse under different levels of arbascular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus intraradices, (AMF) and various levels of amino acid (AA). Treatments included no AMF as a control (AMF1), 1000 spores (AMF2) and 2000 spores (AMF3) of the AMF and four amino acid concentrations including control (C), 3 g (AA1), 4.5 g (AA2) and 6 g (AA3) of AA. Results indicated that mycorrhiza inoculation and mixture of amino acid increased shoot and root fresh weights. AMF application did not affect transpiration, chlorophyll content, and P and K concentration; nevertheless, photosynthesis improved with AMF. Fruit quality also improved under AMF2 and AMF3 treatments. Finally, it was concluded that with higher AA concentration and 1000 spores of mycorrhiza, more positive effects on sweetpepper growth could be observed.
Sweetpepper (California wonder) seed was obtained from a subsidiary of Premier Seed Company in Ibadan. The mycelium of P. aphanidermatum was taken from infected tomato seedlings showing the symptom of damping-off disease at the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University (O.A.U). The spores of the three Trichoderma species used for this study were collected from rotten root residue and soil compost around the screen-house of Faculty of Agriculture, O.A.U and were identified using standard protocol by Watanabe, (2002).
Pepper (Capsicum annum) is one of the most important solanaceous crop grown after tomato in Nigeria. Nigeria ranked fifth (5 th ) in the world as the major producer of pepper after China, Mexico, Turkey, and Spain (Norman, 1998). Pepper, which belongs to the family, Solanaceae, is believed to have been originated from tropical America, where it is being spread to Europe, and finally to all parts of the world. It is known in different countries by alternative names as sweetpepper, bell pepper, cherry, paprika pepper and pimento pepper (Janic, 1999). Pepper is of two species, the hot (chili) and the sweetpepper respectively. The grouping depends on the amount of active ingredients of pungency called capsicinoid. The sweetpepper is less pungent than the hot (chilli) pepper. Nutritionally, raw pepper are high in vitamin C, the puree of ripped pepper had about 2.5ing of ascorbic acid, 0.1mg of lycopene, 2% protein and traces of other minerals such as potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron and high level of capsicinoid, hence it is widely grown in Nigeria (Geoge, 2002). Vegetative growth of crops, especially vegetables is generally determined by climatic, agronomic, soil factors and proper spacing.
will be extended shelf life by slowing the rate of respiration . In this study, fungal decay was the major contributor to loss of visual quality of sweetpepper. Sweetpepper fruit under ambient conditions achieved lower decay at the 10 th day of storage which sharply increased over time. Decay of sweetpepper stored at 4° was initiated to a lesser extent on 10 th day, increased thereafter at 20 th day of storage. In the experiment, a very little decay was identified in fruits kept in 4°C temperatures at perforated poly bags until 10 day of storage. But the maximum loss of firmness was recorded at ambient temperature with unpackaged packaging. The experimental results were similar to those of Sigge et al. , who stated that storage in 5.5°C with perforated poly bags resulted in better visual quality than at non perforated polythene bag, which was better than unpackaged conditions, as they did not find any incidence of fungal decay even after 10 days of storage at ambient conditions. Gorini et al.  found that sweetpepper storage in perforated poly bags with 6.5°C resulted in lower decay with better visual quality than non- perforated poly bags, which were better than at ambient temperature and unpackaged conditions. Nyanjage et al.  observed that the perforated poly bag was the major factor in determining the post-harvest performance of sweetpepper. The interaction of lower temperature (5.5°C) and perforated polythene packaging produced the best results. The maximum weight loss was observed in unpackaged condition at ambient temperature. However, the minimum weight loss of fruits was found at temperature of 4°C kept in perforated poly bags. Fruits of different temperature exhibited a gradual weight loss from 10 th day up to 20 th days of storage
Beneficial plant microbe interactions in rhizosphere were sufficient for plant health and soil fertility when organic matter was used (Hameeda et al., 2007). Increasing pelargonium growth by compost may have been due to the increase in P supply as evidenced by increased level of shoot P concentration of the plants grown in 40% compost compared with 20% (Perner et al., 2007). Similarly, in this study, shoot dry weight, TSS, fruit fresh and dry weights of sweetpepper increased in C+V50. Yield increased with V25 and reached the highest in C+V50 treatment. One of the reasons can be increased P concentration by vermicompost application as previously was reported by Perner et al. (2007). Also, Perner et al. (2007) reported that the higher water holding capacity of peat based substrate with higher compost addition caused increased plant growth. Furthermore, Fernández-Gómez et al. (2012) indicated that increase in shoot and root biomass of Trifolium. repens by vermicompost application may have been due to the ability of organic material to stimulate plant growth by increasing available nutrients for crop. In contrast, in our study, AM fungi inoculation alone or combined with vermicompost did not affect plant biomass production. The result of Ortas and Ustner (2014) showed that root dry weight of citrus plant increased by mycorrhiza in andesitic tuff+ peat + compost. In line with previous results, in pepper plants, it was seen that shoot FW and DW, root FW, root volume, fruit FW, fruit diameter, yield and IWUE increased in M1. Ortas and Ustner (2014) stated that growth media play an important role in plant growth as required air, moisture, and nutrients. Nemec (1992) reported that shoot and root growth increased by mycorrhiza inoculation with G. intradicas in different growth media
Abstract: Isolation trials from the roots of wilted sweetpepper plants yielded Alternaria spp., Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium spp., Rhizontonia solani , Sclerotium rolfsii and Trichoderma spp. The isolates of the fungus F. oxysporum were selected to test their pathogenicity and Kalubia isolate was the most virulent one. The fungus was virulent to sweetpepper and low infection was found in case of the other five tested plants. Therefore, the fungus F. oxysporum named Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici. All the five Bacillus strains, i.e. Bacillus chitinosporus ,B. coagulans , B. humilus ,B.subtilis and B. thuringiensis caused significant reduction to the radial growth of F.o.f.sp.capsici compared with control treatment. In addition, the growth of the tested pathogen was completely inhibited by B.subtilis and B.thuringiensis at the concentration of 60%. Furthermore, B.thuringiensis was the most efficient bioagent in this regard followed by B.subtilis then B.pumilus. Adding the three tested bioagents ,i.e.B.pumilus .B.subtilis and B. Thuringiensis to soil infested with F.o.f.sp.capsici resulted in significant reduction to sweetpepper wilt with significant increase to the plant height as well as the number of pods and their weight / plant compared with control treatment. The symptoms of the disease were obvious both on the foliage growth and the xylem vesicles, but the severity of the disease was more higher on the xylem vesicles than on the foliage growth. In addition, plants grown in soil infested with Bacillus strains were of high values of plant height and fruit yield (number and weight / plant) than that grown in the control (uninfested soil). The total phenolic compounds were greatly increased in the bacterial treated plants as compared to untreated plants with the bioagents and that infested with the pathogen only. These results give a potential of these bacterial strains for use as plant protection agents against Fusarium wilt of sweetpepper. This work was performed to investigate the potential of some bacterial bioagents ,i.e. B. humilus , B.subtilis and B. thuringiensis on management of sweetpepper Fusarium wilt and the formation of phenolic compounds in the plants.
There are different approach of studying planting schemes of sweetpepper in various countries. For example, Mexican scientists Acosta Rodriguez Gerardo Francisco, Chaves Sancez Noe studied influence of planting scheme to the quality indicators of the yield and seeds of sweetpepper variety Jalepo in planting variants with the interval of beds 50, 70, 90 and 100 cm and interval between plants 10, 20, 40 and 55 cm. As a result the best scheme to receive high and quality yield identified as 50х20 cm planting scheme. Plant`s feeding territory did not show any influence to the germination process of the seeds (92-95%). Russian scholar V.N. Makarov (1998) introduced the method of sowing two plants of sweetpepper in one nest or planting in the scheme 70х35 or 70х30 cm where could be planted 85-90 thousand seedlings per/ha [3, 7].
Offered and improved by us laboratory methods for determining salt tolerance of solanaceous crops - tomato, sweetpepper, and eggplant by the germination of seeds in salt solutions and determination of cold resistance by the germination of seeds in cold weather conditions appeared to be sufficiently reliable and uncomplicated, have high accuracy, they are convenient and effective for primary assessment as express methods. While creating a valuable breeding material of tomato during heat and drought resistance selection, it is effective to use assessment for the water retention and water recovery capacity of leaves during their most sensitivity to lack of water in the phase of flowering and drought resistance coefficient.
The irrigation regime influenced the growth and development of sweetpepper cultivars subject of the study. The lack of water during the vegetation period influenced the level of total average productions. Following the data in Table 4, there is no big differences between varieties within the same irrigation level. In the case of the first irrigation variant, a 1 , all cultivars achieved a total low
The green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Steph.) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), is a generalist predator in its larval stage of most species of soft bodied insect pests, especially aphids, whiteflies, thrips, coccids, and mealy bugs. This predator had been recorded in different regions in Saudi Arabia as indigenous species. The fitness of this indigenous predator for controlling the aphid, Aphis gossypii Glov., and the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.), with five and ten releasing rates on sweetpepper and squash plants in the open field was evaluated. The experiments were carried out in Taif region, Saudi Arabia, during the summer of 2017. On squash plants, the reduction was more than 90% after the third predator release of ten larvae per plant for both pests and reached 100% only for the whitefly after six releases. On sweetpepper plants, reduction rates of the aphid and whitefly reached about 90 and 97%, after the second predator release of five and ten larvae per plant, respectively. A 100% reduction was achieved after four releases with five larvae/plant and three releases with ten larvae/plant. The present findings indicate that the releasing rates of five larvae/pepper plant and 10 larvae/squash plant were sufficient for suppressing both B. tabaci and A. gossypii populations.
The majority of the sensory research thus far has focused around the bitter compounds PROP and PTC. Those who can detect the bitterness of PROP and PTC have been classified as either medium tasters; who rate PROP or PTC as moderately bitter, or super-tasters; who rate PROP or PTC as exceptionally bitter. This research has shown that those sensitive to PROP generally dislike some vegetables and eat smaller amounts of these, compared to those not sensitive (Dinehart et al., 2006, Duffy et al., 2003, Hayes and Duffy, 2008, Yeomans et al., 2007). The relationship between those sensitive to the bitter taste of PROP and the influence this has on sweet taste liking, intensity and intake has been addressed. Research has indicated that those sensitive to PROP reported sucrose to be more intense, and had low liking and intake of sugar and sweet tasting foods (Dinehart et al., 2006, Duffy et al., 2003, Hayes and Duffy, 2008, Yeomans et al., 2007). However none of these studies directly assessed dietary intake, therefore we cannot be confident in the dietary results obtained. Research by Drewnowski et al. (1997) aimed to address this research gap through the use of a more direct measure of dietary intake. In this study, participants’ food preferences were assessed which were hypothesised to predict consumption, along with a three day food record. In agreement with previous research those who were more sensitive to PROP had greater dislike of foods considered bitter, such as cruciferous vegetables and coffee. Also those who rated greater concentrations of sucrose solution as more pleasant had higher preference ratings of sweet tasting desserts and sugar added to tea.
Since ethanol is one of keep the prices of fuel within the certain limit. Thus, we observe that production of ethanol from sweet sorghum will definitely increase the economic growth of farmer & ultimately that of nation. The main objectives of this project was Ethanol production from waste agriculture material such as sweet sorghum, sweet potato, sweet corn etc. Ethanol an important biotechnology product in terms of volume and market values is intensely researched.