business, health care and industries by providing many attractive features such as Interactivity, Mobility, Convertibility, Connectivity and Globalization. However, the IT has not yet been implemented widely in the higher education’s institutions. Although the tools and services of IT infrastructures are used commonly in the higher educations’ such as emails, blogs, and network technologies, they are not formally categorized as KMS. Therefore, the people in the higher educations like teachers, students, researchers need KMS that are formally implemented to enhance the learning progress and to support the knowledgetransfer activities inside the various higher educations’ institutions. This achievement can lead to minimize the total cost and maximize the organization performance simultaneously. Nonaka and Takeuchi’s SECI model is the most standard model that is used in KM theories. Knowledge in this model can be converted from one form to another ,converting progress can be implemented by Appling (SECI) the four processes which are Socialisation, externalization, combination, and internalisation processes.(1)socialisation(from tacitknowledge to tacitknowledge),(2)Externalisation (from tacitknowledge to explicitknowledge),(3)combination(from explicitknowledge to explicitknowledge),and(4)internalisation (from explicitknowledge to tacitknowledge). However, the conversion processes needs IT support to transfer Nonaka and Takeuchi’s SECI model from its theoretical exist into a real practical usage inside the higher educations’ institutions.  Identified and classified different IT tools and types that fit to each conversion process of SECI model. Furthermore, by distinguishing the suitable IT type for each conversion process, different types of knowledge can then distinguished to be used in the appropriate process. The IT types for each conversion process are classified in the figure 1 based on the roles of information technologies for each method of knowledge conversion in SECI model  .
knowledge. When knowledge has highly explicit components, the use of IT will likely to be more successful for knowledge sharing. IT is less suitable for the transfer of tacitknowledge. However, for organizations it is the effective management of tacitknowledge which determines the degree of competitive advantage. Therefore, IT investments should have an emphasize on tacitknowledge. Since IT transfers effectively only explicitknowledge, it is important to understand the relationship between IT and tacitknowledge therefore IT should be supported by other mechanisms for an effective knowledge management.
Stewart (2003) explains that the term tacit, which was originated in Latin, means “to be silent or secret”. Complimentary to explicitknowledge, tacitknowledge is the knowledge possessed by an individual that is not expressed and displayed. The word explicit also comes from Latin, meaning “to unfold”, which includes ma- nifestation, summarization, and explication. It almost implies “informatization”. In Latin literature, medieval scholars tend to write the word “explicit” at the end, expressing that this paper is intended to be shared by the public. There is a wonderful German word “fingerspitzengefuhl” that means “a feeling in the fingertips,” which works almost like the synonym of tacitknowledge”. Most high-valued knowledge workers have sound tacitknowledge partly because much tacitknowledge is replaced by automation.
Tacitknowledgetransfer efficiency in situation three is lower than the first and second situations, and the main difficulties lies in the knowledge receiving link. Due to the rotators rotate across the job sequences and different employees have their respective expertise knowledge, so that the two sides formed a transactive mem- ory system emphasizing the knowledge division among employees, which will lead to more difficulties in know- ledge understanding and absorption. In this situation, it is important to train knowledge receivers before imple- menting job rotation to establish the common knowledge base. In the process of knowledgetransfer, knowledge source will code the pseudo tacitknowledge and assist knowledge receivers to edit and sort work skills, know- how and thoughts to formwork behavior manual, case reports, etc., which is convenient to be stocked and me- morized. Finally knowledge receivers need to take use of a lot of time and energy to practice repeatedly, trial, correct, and reflect in the practical work to on this process, to internalize the explicitknowledge gradually as personal skills, thinking mode, and individual tacitknowledge.
Table 5.28 indicates that 33.3% of the academics are confident that if their university provided the right technology to them, they would be willing to share their knowledge, skills and ideas with others. About 49% of the participants feel that with right technology they ‘may be’ in a position to share their knowledge, skills and ideas. Other participants are either not sure or probably do not believe in better knowledge sharing with enhanced technology. Universities are trying to implement different technologies to enhance tacitknowledgetransfer(such as video conferencing, online meetings, online chat rooms, discussion forums, intranet, portals) although an overall response to the statement indicates a lack of confidence in technology for tacitknowledgetransfer with a mean response of 1.99. Subramaniam and Venkatraman (2001) found that effective transferral and sharing of tacitknowledge involved face-to-face interaction, often complemented and enhanced with the use of information technology. The use of ICT to convert tacit to explicit will be a good way of moving forward in KM efforts. Ruggles (1998) has suggested the creation of intranets, knowledge repositories, decision support tools and groupware as key KM initiatives for organisations. Pauleen & Yoong (2001) have reported that trusting relationships can be developed amongst people through the use of different ICT.
fication of knowledge as either explicit or tacit is one of two prominent classifications in the knowledge manage- ment literature (Table 1 provides a brief overview of dif- ferent classifications of knowledge creation efforts ). Explicitknowledge is codified and documented, and its transfer can take place in impersonal ways—for in- stance, through written instructions and diagrams. Tacitknowledge is knowledge that is difficult to articulate, especially in terms of cause-effect relationships. It is context-specific, and is transferred mainly through social interactions . Language is an excellent example of tacitknowledge: native speakers of a language are often unable to articulate the grammatical and syntactic rules governing it. Tacitknowledge contributes to the “sticki- ness” of information required for problem-solving, mak- ing it difficult for others to gather, transfer, and utilize. The difficult-to-codify nature of tacitknowledge con- tributes to difficult-to-imitate capabilities that may pro- vide competitive advantage to the organization. Success of process improvement projects depends on the capture of both explicit and tacit types of knowledge [10,11]. 2.3. Knowledge Enabling Software Process
“personalization” and relies on thorough communication lines and person-‐to-‐person transfer to fully flourish (Hansen et al., 1999). They go on to write that organizations should pursue an “80/20” approach regarding explicit versus tacitknowledge. If the organization believes it would benefit more from explicitknowledge, then their KM should focus 80% of its resources on explicitknowledge-‐based solutions; whereas the opposite holds true for companies that believe they would benefit more from tacit KM (1999). Maier & Remus (2003) later challenged this approach, arguing that while it might have been true when first suggested; as organizations became more globalized the dynamic shift would have to change. They suggested a “bridge the gap” approach to explicit versus tacitknowledge, regardless of organization (2003). They created a table detailing the differing roles of tacit and explicitknowledge within organizations along with recommendations for bridging the gap—a portion of that is shown in Table 2 below (2003).
Knowledge is an important resource for modern organisations as organizations successful at generating, transferring, and adopting knowledge are likely to gain competitive advantage. It is common to distinguish explicitknowledge and tacitknowledge. Explicitknowledge can be easily captured, transferred, and organised in digital form, while tacitknowledge is highly personal and context specific and cannot be easily formalised (Pearlson & Saunders, 2006). Tacitknowledge is widely believed to be a source of sustained competitive advantage, because it is difficult to transfer between different organisational contexts (Cavusgil, Calantone, & Zhao, 2003; Johannessen, Olaisen, & Olsen, 2001; SENKER, 1995). Direct interactions between individuals is necessary for transfer of tacitknowledge (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995). Therefore, communication between employees is one of the most important ways for creating and transferring tacitknowledge in a modern organisation.
practice at the occupational level (Lave & Wenger (1991), Brown & Duguid (1998)). Individual employees learn and gain experiences while on the job or from job related trainings imparted to them to acquire new skills and expertise. The knowledge comes in two forms; tacit and explicit. One form of knowledge widely discussed in the literature of OL is tacitknowledge. The concept of tacitknowledge was conceived by Polanyi (1966) who also laid the theoretical foundation of this notion (Taylor, 2007). According to Polanyi, this form of knowledge pertains to our internalization of experiences which builds intrinsic conception of the task that we perform, as Polanyi held the view that; “we can know more than we can tell.” In other words, consider an example of learning mathematics, which is cognitively demanding task. We all learn mathematics, but very few of us really excel. Also, consider the complex skills of a car driver where one may be able to distinguish between the “knowledge that a driver uses (common) and the knowledge that she has developed over the years (specific skills)”. She can explain or teach new learners how to drive a car but she perhaps cannot explicitly “transfer” her complete knowledge about her experiences of how to “excel” in driving which she has gained over the years as a driver. This learned formed of tacitknowledge acquired over the years also helps to develop intuition — an abstract perception of dealing with unfamiliar contexts. Some skill sets are developed just by watching others perform, while some other skill sets are acquired by continued practice and experience. Hence, this form of knowledge is important, and KM specifically attempts to codify “learned autonomic experiences” into coded information (explicit form) so that it can be transferred and reused by others. This explicit form of knowledge as often referred by Spender (1996) as Conscious knowledge is storable and retrievable from personal records or memory (Riege, 2005). A review of the term tacitknowledge in the literature of KM points to several important works by Nonaka (1994), and Taylor (2007). Tacitknowledge is defined as that knowledge which is highly situated, difficult to extract and codify into its counterpart — explicitknowledge, which is direct, comprehensible, and easily codified to enable its internalization. The role of KM is to codify (externalize) tacitknowledge into its more explicit form.
KB sessions could be formal or informal depending on the type of knowledge that needs to be transferred. There are two types of knowledge: Explicitknowledge and Tacitknowledge. Explicitknowledge emphasizes on creating, recording and reusing documented knowledge. Several technologies are used to facilitate such knowledge, such as, Content management systems, lessons learnt databases, Wikis, etc. Tacitknowledge on the other hand, emphasizes on knowledge sharing using interpersonal interaction and face-to-face contacts. Social events such as, group meeting, communities of practice, events, seminars, asking experts, peer’s assist, etc., facilitate sharing such knowledge. Informal meetings are usually used to transfertacitknowledge while formal meetings usually transferexplicit type of knowledge.
knowledge is markedly missing from the KT and public health literatures. That is, the literature on KT in public health has typically adopted a narrow scope, with for- mal, explicit scientific research represented as the knowledge or evidence being translated for use in prac- tice and/or policy decision-making [6,9]. A notable, recent exception is found in the work of Landry et al. , who draw from the organizational management lit- erature to develop a conceptual framework for KT in public health. Their knowledge-value chain (where knowledge is defined as the capacity to act) is a non-lin- ear framework that outlines five capabilities necessary to manage knowledge, including mapping acquisition, crea- tion and destruction, integration and sharing/transfer, replication and protection, and performance innovation. Tacitknowledge is discussed as an integral aspect of these capabilities. Thus, in line with the knowledge- value chain, we take a broad view of KT by encompass- ing other forms of knowledge that are experiential and skills-based (i.e., tacit). The specific purpose of this paper is to report findings from a narrative inquiry that examined how public health practitioners used tacitknowledge in a program planning context.
The SECI model is widely accepted in academic literature for knowledge creation, application and extension (Baskerville & Dulipovici, 2006; Choo, 2006) and has been used in diverse management studies for assessing knowledge strategies (Joia, 2002; Rice & Rice, 2005; Sumita, Shimazaki, & Matsuyama, 2009). However critics of SECI argue that it is not supported by wide empirical evidence as SECI was initially derived from purposeful managerial surveys as opposed to surveys being conducted on a broader population across other levels of management and hence some of the knowledge conversion modes are not very coherent (Gourlay, 2003, 2006). Becerra- Fernandez and Sabherwal (2001) have identified that each of the four SECI modes depends on the presence of appropriate task characteristics for contextualisation of related information. This research study addresses these concerns by utilising purposeful sampling methods of knowledge based professionals in software development belonging to middle and higher management groupings. Moreover the task characteristics of software development activities are confined by the organisational preferences on software development methodologies, tools, metrics and associated structures. Thus, the adoption of SECI model for evaluating knowledge processes in OSD is not limited by the critics’ observations for this study, although it has not previously been applied in the OSD context.
In today’s challenging economy and cut-throat competitive environment, creating and maintaining a culture of knowledge management system by HR is really very essential for competitive advantage. Successful organization’s really focus on education, learning, intellectual growth of their employee’s and to prepare them to contribute to the society and to their organizations. As knowledge management is a discipline that promotes an integrated approach to identifying, capturing, retrieving, sharing, and evaluating an enterprise’s information assets. HR as a knowledge facilitator mainly emphasizes on efficient and effective utilization of all the available organizational resources to attain positive and desirable outcomes and act as a rapid deployment specialist. While writing and presenting this paper I will be mainly covering the various aspects of HR as a knowledge facilitator mainly explicitknowledge , tacitknowledge , the purpose of HR as a knowledge facilitator and creating a culture of knowledge management system in an organization; Knowledge Management as a change and renewal mechanism; Knowledge Management and Information technology; Effective knowledge management and increased job satisfaction and productivity; Knowledge management and creative talent retention strategies; Knowledge management as one of the best practices to avoid lay-offs; knowledge management and talent retention, curb health related costs and boost financial literacy; Knowledge Management and Leadership development.
Transformational leaders have the ability to challenge assumptions, take risks and motivate others, and agree with exploratory service innovation. Transfor- mational leaders achieve the implementation of exploratory innovation through information feedback from effective communicators (Vera & Crossan, 2004). First, through the display of their idealized influence, transformational leaders establish themselves as example, and will be able to transfer this tendency to in- novation behavior to the members of the organization (Waldman & Yammari- no, 1999). Second, through intellectual stimulation, transformational leaders encourage subordinates should be thinking “outside the box”, and encourage to look at the problem in different angles (Sosik et al., 1997). Third, through indi- vidualized consideration, transformational leaders pay close attention to em- ployee growth and needs, to help employees occupation planning, through the consideration to make the members of the organization feel the importance of transformational leadership on reform and innovation, thus affecting the whole tendency of government departments in the choice of exploratory service inno- vation. Fourth, though inspirational motivation, transformational leaders com- bine personal identity with collective identity. The main responsibility of trans- formational leaders is to change the individual consciousness of subordinates to serve organizational goals and to enhance the intrinsic motivation of subordi- nates to pursue exploratory innovation (Jansen, Vera, & Crossan, 2009).
organization and viscosity, which is the richness and thickness of the delivered knowledge. The approach of knowledge visualization in learning environment can be explained using  theory who stated that students’ performance can be uplifted through guidance from a lecturer. The basic idea behind externalization process is the guidance from the expert that can improve students’ knowledge to a higher level from the current level through interaction and transaction process opting tacit and explicitknowledge. Knowledge visualization model explains expert’s guidance method that exercises  theory. The guidance method comes from direct relationship between the lecturer and students through the use of teaching materials in learning environment. The scaffolding introduced by  is the process of teaching new knowledge in which students gradually become more responsible in performing their task or applying new knowledge .
Small business is the most common firm structure in the Canadian economy and accounts for the single largest share of economic activity. As the founders of these firms move to normal retirement age, they begin the transfer of the business to a family or non-family member. When the second generation assumes control of the firm, issues related to generational transfer of knowledge become important. Financial and income and tax considerations have received the bulk of attention in research. This study focuses on knowledgetransfer from the founder to successor. Tacitknowledge has been identified as a key strategic resource and passing this knowledge from the founder to the successor is a key element in transition that ensures the business is viable and remains in the family
Furthermore, practitioners in public healthcare services work in a complex environment, where formal research lit- erature cannot be accessed. In these environments, tacitknowledge can help in the understanding of explicitknowledge (12) and can complement technical skills for health care delivery (13). Research results have also con- firmed that health practitioners lay more emphasis on tacitknowledge while tackling health problems (14, 15). Studies have also reported the crucial role of tacitknowledge in team-based practice (12, 16, 17) and collective decision- making (16). The importance of strengthening teamwork interactions and discussions for collective decision- making is inevitable for organizations in developing countries, where organizational members may be reluctant to collab- orate or share information with others to maintain their dominant position or to be acknowledged by their superi- ors. This spirit is damaging to group cohesiveness (18). Thus, providing a framework for sharing tacitknowledge and improving the knowledge creation cycle is highly im- portant for tacit and explicitknowledge conversion pro- cesses and for promoting collective decision- making. To our knowledge, few studies have been conducted on the methods of utilizing tacitknowledge in health organiza- tions in these countries. Therefore, this study explored the solutions to share and utilize tacitknowledge in health or- ganizations.
Teaching Learning and Evaluation - A senior faculty has mastered the art of teaching learning and evaluation through experience, guidance and challenges encountered by them in their academic career. Their tacitknowledge, that is expertise in teaching skills, communication skills, notes making, fast track revision, class control may be penned down and shared with the juniors. How a particular topic may be dealt with, time allocated to it, best testing pattern. This may be shared within the department and inter department. So the expertise of one no more becomes a monopoly in order to serve our students better. Session Plan per subject, references, time allocated to a particular topic, if prepared by each faculty and a copy of it available in the library will help create a data base on how to go about conducting a lecture. If there are parallel teachers sharing and exchange can take place and additions can be made to it. A novel way of going about it, a website, a book, You Tube video may be added to the data base in due course.
epistemological aspects. On the one hand, objectivism solely focuses on observable attributes of the agents and institutions, paying no attention to the agents’ perceptions and representations. On the other hand, subjectivism solely focuses on how agents actively assign meaning to the social world around them, and how they consciously set goals for their actions and pursue towards fulfilling those goals, completely neglecting the constraining attribute of the social structures (Bourdieu 1989). He finds this opposition artificial and tries to reconcile these two paradigms through introduction of a new approach to social studies which integrates the main contribution of these two approaches while disagreeing with some of their major basic principles (Bourdieu 1990). Bourdieu believes that what drives people’s actions is their knowledge about the social world, and accordingly he refers to his work as sociology of knowledge due to his focus on agents’ knowledge in constructing the social world, and he argues that this knowledge is socially constituted and structured (Bohman 1997). Perception of the social world (the structural
Explicit and tacitknowledge measurement is important to share accurate explicitknowledge according to levels of tacitknowledge within the context of organizations activities. Sharing the right knowledge to the right employee can increase the performance of the working tasks; eventually this will increase the overall performance of the organization. There are different methods that are proposed to measure the explicitknowledge accuracy and tacitknowledge levels. This paper proposed a novel approach to measure the tacit and explicitknowledge in order to improve sharing the knowledge adaptively. A knowledge retrieving and designing method is developed in order to retrieve more focused and valuable explicitknowledge to support the tacitknowledge based on internal contents evaluation rather than general knowledge evaluation. The proposed knowledge aggregation method focuses on retrieving the exact knowledge by managing, designing, and retrieving the explicitknowledge based on knowledge contents level.