Good leadership in the life long learning of technical and vocationaleducation exists when the leaders are able to perform either one or combination of transformational leadership characteristics, even though, less emphasis on these characteristics can affect job satisfaction of his or her subordinates. This study investigated transformational of Heads of Departments at the Polytechnics with regards to the job satisfaction of the lecturers. Respondents of this study are made up of 365 lecturers randomly selected from the polytechnics in Malaysia. Survey instrument had been used. Data obtained is analyzed using means and Pearson correlation methods. Results of the study show the elements of intellectual stimulation (mean = 3.18), increasing influence (mean = 3.17), providing reasoning as individuals (mean = 3.08) and inspirational motivation (mean = 3.04) are high; as well as a high job satisfaction level (mean = 3.16). The Pearson correlation analysis indicates that all four transformational leadership in the life long learning characteristics practiced by Heads of Departments at the Polytechnics have strong and significant correlations with the job satisfaction of the lecturers. As a conclusion, Heads of Departments at the Polytechnics is practicing transformational leadership in the life long learning characteristics in the administration of departments.
Technical/Vocationaleducation has historically been considered education for those students who fail to make it through the straight path, i.e. from primary to secondary to university. The general public saw this type of education as expensive, patronized by intellectually inferior students and associated with non-prestigious blue-collar employment. After completing primary school, a child who fails to go to secondary school may join a technical school. Usually the technical school was a no-alternative option and students would join it as a last resort. Even the parents regarded their children as failures and in disappointment ‘dumped’ them into the technical school. Similarly, a child who failed to go to university would be ‘dumped’ in a vocational institution as a last resort to keep him in school. The situation was even made worse by the fact that technical and vocationaleducation was terminal with no vertical mobility and access to higher education. Yet, students completing technical/vocational courses were ill equipped for both industry and self-employment. Sometimes, a child would rather stay at home than join a technical school.
Invariably, effective vocational and technical training begins with the formulation of a national policy and the establishment of a national implementation body, either as a semi- autonomous body or as an agency within a designated government ministry. Such agencies or National Vocational Training Authorities have been established in many countries, including Botswana (Botswana Training Authority – BOTA), Mauritius (Industrial and Vocational Training Board – IVTB), Namibia (National Vocational Training Board – NVTB), Tanzania (VocationalEducation Training Authority – VETA), and Zambia (TechnicalEducation, Vocational and Entrepreneurship Training Authority – TEVETA). Ghana has also recently passed an Act of Parliament that establishes a Council for Technical and VocationalEducation and Training (COTVET) which will have overall responsibility for skills development in the country. The Council is expected to establish an Apprenticeship Training Board to link non-formal and informal vocational training to the formal TVET sector. Private training providers, including NGOs and Church Based Organisations (CBOs) are represented on the Council. In general, Training Authorities, through their various specialised organs and occupational advisory committees, have the responsibility to develop national vocational qualification frameworks and proficiency levels as well as standards for validation of training, certification and accreditation of training institutions.
ABSTRACT : Technical and VocationalEducation (TVE) is an education-oriented approach to train and focus on what needs to be done in the workplace as a result of either to meet the work requirements or enhance individual development. The teaching and learning competency-based career development is split into segments that have achieved learning outcomes based on standards set by the career. However, in a work field a combination of job-oriented skills and knowledge alone were not sufficient in order to develop the potential of career development. Therefore, the application of TVE should be considered as a medium that can be combined with elements of education and provide better results for individuals, educational institutions but also in terms of skills development. Application of career development should be instituted early stage of education if they want to produce a generation of highly skilled as well as having the characteristics of competency-based career development. This concept paper is to discuss the role of TVE in the career development of individual potential.
Good leadership in the life long learning of technical and vocationaleducation exists when the leaders are able to perform either one or combination of transformational leadership characteristics, even though, less emphasis on these characteristic can affect job satisfaction of his or her subordinates (Hashim et.al 2010). Leadership is perceived as being masculine and as a result women are less likely to be seen as leaders regardless of their capability or effectiveness. Effective leadership is therefore associated with communication and decision-making styles linked to men directive, authoritative and expedient rather than the communal and inclusive styles attributed to women. Gender stereotypes affect the perception and acceptance of women as managers and leaders. Internal factors found to be positively linked to managerial aspiration and advancement includes instrumentality, adaptive coping strategies, self promotion and entrepreneurism (Eagly & Carli 2007).
Graduate unemployment in Nigeria is traced to lack of skills and innovation leading to poverty and foreign dependent economy. One sure way of redeeming the economy is taking Entrepreneurship into Technical and vocationaleducation serious. Meaning, Skills, discoveries and innovations are converted into goods and services to the marketplace. Enormous benefits are derivable from this system of education including; self-employment, employer of labor, poverty eradication, and reduction of capital flight among others. For the purpose of this study, secondary data were used by reading documents. The aim of this paper is to persuade education authorities, policy makers, financial institutions and entrepreneurs to adopt an integrated approach. The paper posit that urgent steps are needed to ensure that Entrepreneurship into Technical and vocationaleducation system is given its desired priority to accelerate economic development in Nigeria,
According to Najib, M. (2010), in developed countries the technicaleducation and vocational training to be among the favorites primary students because it provides good career prospects. By contrast, in Germany it is seen as the last option because the perception of limited career prospects. Negative assumptions must be rejected. EducationTechnical and vocational training is actually providing a good alternative substrate for students realize their potential. 100,000 SPM holders, or 22 percent of entering the job market each year without skills training. To enable them to get technicaleducation and vocational training, technicaleducation facilities and vocational training and further enhanced mainstreaming TVE in order to become a high income nation. Tenth Malaysia Plan (10MP) for the period 2011 to 2015 shows a change significant system TVE di Malaysia. Cultivation of ideas and strategies based on the achievement and improvement of the country outside, Korea and German into a high-income nation, Malaysia has become a model for continue to move forward and be competitive on the world stage. To work with a more holistic approach in first class human capital formation is a priority to one embodiment of Malaysia as a high-income countries and respected (Aminuddin, 2011). It is clear that the Malaysian government has always support for technical and vocationaleducation in order to achieve the country's vision. Therefore sustainability sustainable development in terms of implementation at all levels should be emphasized that strategic plans and prospects of the national economy reached.
Most recently, unpublished PhD dissertation by Ezekiel Bangalu (2015) entitled “comparative analysis of technical and vocationaleducation and triaining policy in selected African countries; South Africa, Ghana and Nigeria, concludes that the system has a very poor track record and suffers from lack of recognition, under-funding,poor public perception of the sector, lack of adequate learning facilities and lack of qualified staff and inadequate training. Ezekiel noted that the technical and vocationaleducation and training sector is obstructed by numerous challenges, which include under-funding, inadequate teaching and learning facilities, and poor governance. Therefore, this article, review the current negative perception of TVET for dropouts students in Ethiopia in general and in Addis Ababa in particular.
Teaching and learning innovation in technical and vocationaleducation (TVE) has been implemented through competency-based education modules in curriculum requirements. The challenge faced by teachers in TVE is training for future curriculum in Technical and VocationalEducation and the Training (TVET) required very comprehensive content to strengthen the process of producing TVET graduates especially from vocational colleges and primary schools aligned with nation transformation agenda. Pedagogical approach will be changed to fulfil the learning outcome of TVE curriculum. The changes in pedagogy or pedagogical shift are defined as a description of reasoning and action which teachers need for a shift from initial comprehension to a new comprehension (Shulman, 1987). Pedagogical shifts are characterized by a teacher’s transformation of content knowledge into forms that are pedagogically powerful and adapted to suit the student. Shulman’s Model of Pedagogical Reasoning and Action (MPRA) suggested reasoning by teachers includes the process of developing understanding, transformation, instruction, evaluation, reflection and new knowledge which can lead new comprehension. The stage of reasoning and action in pedagogical context through shifting initial states of comprehension to new comprehension provide convincing conceptual framework for exploring practice-based teaching. Thus, this study was conducted to seek information on the implementation of MPRA in TVE curriculum in specifically their level of knowledge, competencies and relationship between these aspects with teachers’ background.
Technical and VocationalEducation (TVE) plays a vital role in developing the country’s progress. TVE has been known to produce transformations in producing quality products as well as competitive and skillful work-force. Based on the Malaysian New Economic Model (NEM), the government has underlined the importance of developing and maintaining world- class talent to transform Malaysia into a high income country. Thus, the government is taking initiatives to mainstream TVE into the tertiary education system. However, TVE in Malaysia is seen as a last resort in career development choices because of the perception of limited career opportunities. In contrast, TVE is the preferred choices for students in the developed countries because as TVE is seen as the means to good career prospects for their future. Thus the government is making every efforts to change the perception and to show to the masses that TVE actually provides an alternative platform for the students to realize and maximize their potential.
Technical and VocationalEducation and Training (TVET) and entrepreneurship education have always been used as a vehicle towards economic and social transformation within many nations. With this in mind, the research investigates the entrepreneurship education practices in TVET institutions in Trinidad and Tobago. A quantitative study utilising a face-to-face survey was conducted with 446 TVET students from four TVET institutions from all geographical locations in Trinidad and Tobago. Correlation analysis and logistic regression were performed to assess the views and significant relationships involving students ’ interest and entrepreneurship education practices. The results of this study have important implications for TVET institutions. Students ’ interest in pursuing entrepreneurship was very high, and it tells a very good narrative that persons want to be an entrepreneur. Survey data revealed that 98% of respondents were interested in pursuing entrepreneurship as a career path. However, with the absence of an adequate platform or systems at the TVET institutions, students are not engaged in entrepreneurial paths in any significant way.
Developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and its subsequent acceptance into education among other sectors of the economy, challenged higher institutions to take advantage of the simplicity this ubiquitous environment presented in teaching, learning as well as other components covered in the curriculum. Therefore, it has become imperative for programmes such as Technical and VocationalEducation offered in higher institutions of learning in a country like Nigeria to readjust their curriculum through upgrading the traditional way of preparing, placement, supervision and scoring of students on internship (Industrial Training) period. Industrial Training (IT) in Nigerian context is an internship programme offered by curriculum specified period (minimum three month) tenable usually outside schools, in industries or other organizations recognized by the higher institutions to bridge the gap between theory and practice and to further prepare student for occupations after graduation. The programme was developed courtesy of the establishment of Industrial Training Fund (ITF) in 1971 bestowed with the responsibility of administering Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) (Talabi, 2012).
Many stakeholders have a poor perception towards career in technical and vocational field which needs to be improved in line with the national industrial development plan. The purpose of this study was to analyze the perceptions of secondary school students and apprentices of private institutes on the image of and their loyalty towards technicaleducation and vocational training. The sample for this study was 356 form four secondary school students and 102 apprentices’ from private training centres. Survey questionnaires were used to collect data for this study and correlation and regression analysis were used to analyse the data. The results indicate that school students and apprentices did not agree with the statement that technical students and vocational trainees had low academic interest, tend to be juvenile delinquents, problematic and have low interest in furthering their study to tertiary level. Apprentices have a better perception of the image of technicaleducation and vocational training compared to secondary school students. Furthermore, secondary school students demonstrated low interest in continuing education and work in technical and vocational compared to apprentices. Recognition of qualification, work ethics, social values and applicability of course content are major predictors of students’ loyalty towards technicaleducation and vocational training field. Therefore, promoting and recognizing technical and vocationaleducation and training (TVET) qualification, nurturing high-quality, knowledgeable and innovative skilled workforce with strong work ethics and good social values should be projected frequently especially through the electronic media.
For any nation to create jobs and be self-reliant there is need for human capital development through technical and vocationaleducation. This paper therefore examines the concept of education and human capital. It further talks about technical and vocationaleducation and how it engenders human capital development. It also highlights how the academic structure, teaching pedagogy, academic staff, industry participation and learning support programmes will help to stimulate human capital development. The paper recommends the need for government at all levels to have a deliberate policy to create conducive environment for technical and vocationaleducation to flourish, thereby realizing its objective of enhancing human capital development in Nigeria. It further recommend the need for social education and reworking of education curriculum to make technical and vocationaleducation compulsory from primary school to tertiary education level.
The Current TVE Structure in Libya: There is no doubt that technicaleducation and training plays an important and strategic role in moving the wheels of development and progress in any society as it looks forward to the future. Thus, it is essential to focus on this type of education and to provide support for it in terms of both material and human resources, since this is important in providing the community with a human capacity which is technically qualified to a high level, and which can function in various fields of economic and industrial productivity. To ensure this strategic role, it is imperative that the outputs and outcomes of technicaleducation are of a high quality and aligned with the country’s development needs and the needs of the market on both a quantitative and qualitative level. The development of technical and vocationaleducation in Libya can make an effective contribution to advancing the country’s development, and to achieving social and economic prosperity for all members of society. There are currently numerous educational and training institutions at different levels, including approximately 382 institutions in the cities of Libya which offer technicaleducation, and these institutions provide training for more than 160,000 students in different disciplines. Learners generally enter these institutions at the age of 16, after finishing their education at intermediate school, and the duration of study varies from three to four years. In the first year, students study general modules like mathematics, English language, Arabic language, electrical engineering and basic mechanical engineering. There are different engineering specialisations in the second year, when students select suitable courses according to their interests and performance, such as the mechanical route or the electrical route. After fulfilling the course requirements, there are several types of certificates in various subjects which graduates may be awarded, including diplomas in artistic media, higher technical diplomas and technical bachelor's and master's degrees ( Merhi, 2009).
The neglect of technical and vocationaleducation is socially and economically injurious because it is robbing the nation the contributions it would make on national development, for that Nigeria is today wearing the toga of a poor state (Dike, 2008). The society needs competent auto repairers, truck drivers, carpenters, plumbers, electricians, computer engineers, database and web/network technicians, medical technicians, vocational nurses etc and numerous other technicians in all sectors for the economy to operate optimally. Technicaleducation provides the much needed skilled manpower in these various spheres. Above all, technical and vocationaleducation holds the key to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) since it is a catalyst for accelerated economic development/growth. To this end, technical/vocationaleducation should be given due recognition because it provides students with "life skills" (Alwasilah, 2008) to become productive entrepreneurs as it engenders creative and innovative ideas, enlarge the economic pie, and results in total transformation of the individuals concerned and the nation as well. Most of the so called "expatriate engineers" that are paid millions of dollars to build/construct Nigeria's roads and bridges are graduates of technical and vocational colleges yet the leaders of the nation have not yet come to terms with realities. The above underscores the need for Nigeria to adopt "education through recreation" as the opportunity to learn in a seamless fashion through all of life's activities (Johnson 1996; Jack, 1992). Technical and vocationaleducation promotes/encourages lifelong learning which is actually the back-bone/pivot of both the industrialized nations and the emerging economies.
system as well as the national policy on education in the area of access, quality of teaching, technical and vocationaleducation etc, but still several problems remained unanswered. According to UNESCO (2005), post-primary education must be reformed so as to pave way for young people to interact, be responsible citizens, productive, well equipped for life and be able to participate in today’s knowledge based technology society. The reformation in Nigeria has to focus in the area of improving the attitudes of the students towards technical and vocationaleducation. It must also continue to offer educational services that are relevant to individuals and societal needs as well as the national needs. The reform must also continue to recognize the teacher development program in order to retool and improve the current teaching techniques adopted by the teachers. In a global community nowadays, education has moved away from rote learning to possession of factual knowledge, drill, critical thinking and problem-solving, the focus has also changed from arts and humanities to that of science, technology and mathematics. It has also shifted from teacher as a chief convener of knowledge to coach and facilitator, and such access has to be encouraged continuously for all. But educational system in Nigeria has been witnessing a one step forward and two step backward matches towards policy and implementation processes (Etim, 2007).
Participants of the study have a different mindset towards TechnicalVocationalEducation. But most of them have negative a mindset; it is because of the influence that they get from their family, friends and especially the image of TechnicalVocationalEducation possesses that time.One of these mindsets is that TechVoc is only for people who are less fortunate and that graduating from a 4-year course is better rather than graduating from a TechVoc education. The participants believed that they should pursue Bachelor‟s Degree Courses because it can give them a better job and a better life; that‟s why they didn‟t enroll to a TechVoc institute in the first place. Another finding is that before they thought of enrolling in a TechVoc course, they lack the proper understanding. The public knew only a limited amount of information regarding TechnicalVocationalEducation. Another image that the informants think before enrolling to a TechVoc course is that it lacks facilities to give proper training.On the positive side, some of the participants said that TechVoc education provides you with a wide range of options for a career or skill training that you want to acquire and that these skills can be used if you have difficulty in finding a job or if you retired and you still desire to earn a living.
Mode of delivery and learning styles - The case study combines different modes of delivery, lectures (direct instructions) and online materials and information. After the students received lectures and prepared to conduct the actions of the case study, students are emphasised have control and more learning responsibilities. Students are responsible for using the knowledge, attitude, and technical skills gained from previous learning activities and case studies and relating it to the problem introduced in a real work situation. So, students are collaboratively learning (Deignan, 2009; Barnes et al., 2011). Examples of modes of delivery in collaborative learning are e-learning materials and technical tasks where students can share experiences, critically explore and negotiate learning activities, and achieve a higher level of critical thinking. Moreover, the learning modes should be controlled by the individuals: each group of students should take responsibility and make decisions which match cognitive, cultural, social and emotional needs which they can communicate effectively with others; and construct knowledge by formulating ideas into words and by interpersonal interaction and the responses of others during the delivery of learning.