As indicated in Section 1.1.3, the history of media art, whilst largely contained within the last fifty years, has roots that stretch back to the end of the nineteenth century. Today, media artists still apply film and photography technologies to create art, although now generally in a digital format, but whilst these art forms were not necessarily accepted within the mainstream art canons of the early twentieth century, they did form part of the avant-garde at this time. 250 It was during the interwar period that the main shift in art attitudes took place, and by the 1960s, as technology began to infiltrate more elements of society, the Fluxus network emerged which, whilst remaining relatively undefined throughout its own history, introduced many of the practices that now exist within media art. Fluxus was a loosely defined group of international artists who saw the network as one of many means of presenting their work, and its relative longevity has been attributed by some writers to its experimental origins, although it was “little more than a name and a public face” for a practice that had long since existed. 251 Along with other more mainstream art practices, these artists continued the move started by the Dadaists in the early twentieth century which pushed the boundaries of art away from production for commercial sale and, arguably, redefined what was meant by the concept of art. Dadaism introduced new techniques to art production, and made an overt statement that rejected the attitudes of the traditional art world, having been “born of a need for independence, of a distrust toward unity.” 252
There are strong echoes of this current preoccupation with a similar issue that emerged during the 1950s and 1960s in regard to science and art. C.P. Snow’s, The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution (1959) was seminal in setting out what came to be seen as a major problem of our age, namely, the separation of art and science to the detriment of science especially. In brief, the argument was, and it has been reiterated in various forms since, that science needed ‘humanising’ to better serve the interests of society rather than the narrow ones of science and technology. At the time the argument was a persuasive one and, in the United Kingdom for one, resulted in none too successful curricula experiments to broaden the outlook of science students. 1 Irrespective of whether or not encouraging scientists and technologists to read novels, visit the theatre and art galleries, or attend courses in Jane Austen would ever have the desired effect of ‘humanising’ these disciplines, the point is that it reflected a strong feeling that art, and science and technology, were worlds apart and that this was to be regretted and, if possible, changed. A similar sentiment, we suggest, lies
participation in normalized routines through assistive technology. Her family looks forward to Evelyn having some control over her physical environment and the ability to engage fully in family routines. Evelyn likes to go to school, play games, watch movies, use stickers, and travel, but most of all, she seems to enjoy joking with her family. Prior to the accident, Evelyn enjoyed making art. She continues to enjoy art and is proud to show off her completed projects, although she currently participates only in making decisions about how the art is completed, guiding others to complete the work for her. Unlike Brianna, she does not have the space or technology in her home or at school to participate independently in art making. With help from her family, she is able to create digital art on an ipad using a mouth stick. Increasing independence with art-based activities can increase her sense of autonomy, an important developmental achievement (Mulcahey et al., 2010). Evelyn looks forward to opportunities, technology, and training in the future to be able to create art independently.
Moreover, HTA is subject to general values in society and in medicine. HTA is closely related to Evidence Based Medicine , which has been criticized for being an “ideology” hostile to humanity and threatening to medi- cine’s identity as an “art.” In HTA, as in general in most so called developed countries, there has been a rather firm belief in technology and in progress . There is what has been called a progress bias. It is presupposed that there will be development, improvement, and eco- nomic growth, and that this is a good in itself. Advanced hi-tech has higher prestige than lo-tech or no-tech. To see is better than not to see, or not to know. E. g., imaging technologies have intrinsic values . We tend to need more and better evidence to call a halt on a technology (disinvestment) than to implement one, and “loss aver- sion,” “stakeholder inertia”, “entrenchment” has been identified in health technology management . Although HTA agencies may be much more critical than other au- thorities and social agencies, the new is often considered to be better than the old (i. e. the sometimes fallacious, argumentum ad novitatem). E. g. when introduced, proton therapy was considered to be better than radiotherapy , and robot assisted surgery was considered to be better than ordinary surgery .
In view of the increasing range of sophisticated technology being developed to support people with communication impairments, it is important to examine published work regarding the interventions using these devices. Evaluation of study findings is needed in order to provide evidence-based information for funders, potential users, and service managers, and to underpin evidence-based practice amongst speech-language pathologists . This review therefore was undertaken as a “state of the art” review  to present an assessment of the current state of knowledge in the field. The work encompassed both quantitative interventions studies and qualitative papers reporting views of service users and providers. Findings regarding the qualitative studies are reported elsewhere . In this paper we consider primary studies reporting evaluations of interventions.
Development of the visual system begins during embryonic period and continues until after birth (1). Correct and complete development of the human visual system is affected by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors (2). Infants born by ART may be susceptible to several factors with undesirable effects on development of the visual system (3). On the other hand environmental conditions, before and after birth, strongly influence infant’s visual system (4). Hence, being aware of their visual system condition can help the professionals to choose the proper technique for assisted reproduction technology and the effective care for it. Furthermore, a child’s first 12 month of life is considered as the critical period (5); although, some studies have stated that the development of the visual reflexes may continue after age three (6). Appropriate interventions in this period of time can reduce the influence of interruptive factors affecting the visual system development (7). Therefore, as a rule in visual sciences, all infants experiencing hazardous conditions during prenatal period and those with unfavorable hereditary background must undergo various eye exams during infancy (8). Accordingly, several screening programs are designated for this period in many countries (9-11). The aim of this study is to describe the impact of assisted reproductive technology (ART) on ocular and visual performances of infants born by these methods.
Wireless sensor network (WSN) technologies provide a useful and efficient tool for remote and real-time monitor- ing of important variables involved in grape production, processing the data and transmitting the required informa- tion to the users. A WSN is a network of peripheral nodes consisting of a sensor board equipped with sensors and a wireless module for data transmission from nodes to a base station, where the data are stored and accessible to the end user. The nodes are energy independent and are installed in areas representative of the vineyard variability, which can be identified with information provided by a vigor map (Figure 3). A comprehensive review on the state of the art of WSN in agriculture and the food industry was written by Ruiz-Garcia et al. 54 With regard to viticulture, Burrell
Since the turn of the 20th century, various professionals (including doctors, psychiatrists, psychologists, teachers, etc.) have acknowledged the important role of art in the process of treatment. For over a century various visual methods, such as projective drawings and tests, have been used as a tool to gain deeper understanding of the human psyche [1–3]. From these visual methods, art-based assessment in art therapy emerged. Assessment in art therapy consists of the use of any combination of verbal, written, and art tasks, which are chosen by a professional art therapist in order to assess individual‘s level of functioning, problem areas, strengths, and treatment objectives [4, 5]. This assessment is done using several tools both subjective and objective such as an interview, observation, tests, questionnaires, as well as art-based assessment tools. PhD, art therapist Donna Betts indicates that art-based assessment tools are standardized measures designed by an art therapist and incorporate various drawing materials, such as markers, coloured pencils . The ability to select and use aforementioned instruments is one of the basic competences of art therapist working in any setting worldwide [5, 7–9].
first nanotechnology ever discovered and applied was that of black ink based on carbon black and bone black, containing fullerenes and a wide variety of aromatic small molecules. Today, printing technology has expanded its horizon toward the realization of electron devices on any substrate, according to two main approaches: 1) analog printing, involving the use of linear/rotary machines that are able to realize multiple copies of the same pattern at a rather high speed (serigraphy, gravure, offset, flexography), involving generally microstructured inks; and 2) digital printing, where raster machines realize at rather slow speed a single copy of a pattern that could be changed simply working at the software level (inkjet printing, 3-D print- ing), involving nanostructured inks. In Figure 1, an example of a complex circuit realized on an unconventional substrate
The philosophical development of art and aesthetic education in the museum setting began in the beginning of the nineteenth century both in Europe and America and it was advocated by Benjamin Ives Gilman, Secretary o f the Boston Museum o f Fine Arts (1893-1925). Gilman thought that “an institution devoted to the preservation and exhibition o f works of fine art is not an educational institution” (quoted in McCoy, 1989, p. 138). Gilman established a lecture room, published a handbook and, also, appointed the first docent programme and started to supervise other educational activities to fulfil his ideas (Alexander, 1979, p.35) Gilman’s teaching method focused on the object itself rather than lecturing on historical information alone (Dimaggio, 1982; McCoy, 1989). Gilman insisted that art museums differ from science and history museums in that their collections exist to allow their viewers to experience beauty rather than to convey information (Alexander, 1979, p.36). He argued that the primary obligation of the museum is to present works of art for aesthetic contemplation (Duncan, 1995, p. 16). He stressed that museums should be places that offer audiences an aesthetic approach to their art experiences and he tried to accomplish this goal by providing audiences with interpretative supports such as docents and educational handbooks (Hein, 1998, p.43).
Despite the similarities (discussed above) between Tennantspin and Veterans in Practice there are sig- nificant differences between the two projects, especially with respect to the way in which they were originally envisaged and set up to run. Tennantspin started as a community project with a strong artistic and curatorial lead (by artist Alan Dunn) and a clearly defined format (Superflex TV), with time losing its creative edge and moving into the realm of community art and focused on its role in facilitating social agency. VIP started as a social engagement and wellbeing project with no clearly defined artistic output or format. The veterans themselves and in discussion with project facilitators from FACT determine the nature of their creative engagement. Although Tennantspin, especially in its earlier period, had a clear focus and functioned within specific context – providing a platform for older residents to engage in debates about their future housing – the project had much wider resonance as a ground-breaking experiment, which tested emerging media tools as a platform for discussion and citizen activism. Tennantspin later functioned as a city-wide channel for community led debate. In contrast, Veterans in Practice focuses on particular group of people and the challenges they face, aiming to help veterans return to civilian life, and regain their confidence through en- gagement with art. Tennantspin and Veterans in Practice share in common focus on the process of sustained engagement, collaboration with specific group for a longer period of time.
One of the elements that have popularized and facilitated the use of geographical information on a variety of computational applications has been the use of Web maps; this has opened new research challenges on different subjects, from locating places and people, the study of social behavior or the analyzing of the hidden structures of the terms used in a natural language query used for locating a place. However, the use of geographic information under technological features is not new, instead it has been part of a development and technological integration process. This paper presents a state of the art review about the application of geographic information under different approaches: its use on location based services, the collaborative user participation on it, its contextual-awareness, its use in the Semantic Web and the challenges of its use in natural languge queries. Finally, a prototype that integrates most of these areas is presented.
The third class of experiments is on-board experimentation for verification of the technology. In these, the practical application is investigated and high altitude experimentation is performed to collect the data to verify the algorithms, sensor installation, various features of the signals, validity of the electrostatic monitoring system, and so on. As mentioned in Section 1, SHL developed the IDMS and EDMS systems based on electrostatic monitoring of the charged debris in the gas path. IDMS is used to detect a foreign object entering the engine via the intake, while EDMS is used to real-time monitor gas path component degradation. The hardware configuration, technology maturity and the applications for IDMS/EDMS were presented and discussed in [4, 26]. The integration of IDMS and EDMS has allowed the impact of foreign objects ingested into the engine to be analyzed and identified
This paper illustrates a teaching innovation that took a traditional role playing exercise based on a case study and added some nuances that amplified the learning experience. The example illustrated in this paper was a didactic negotiation exercise intended to teach simple, basic negotiation principles like zone of possible agreement (ZOPA), opening gambit, and the “feel of the deal,” but this innovation can be applied to many different types of interactive cases. Traditionally, an exercise like this is conducted in one class; however, in this case study, we enhanced the exercise by using two different classes in two different geographical locations 1 taught by two different professors with different styles of teaching negotiation. Additionally, students had a choice of technology by which to perform the negotiation and technology was used to bring both classes together for a debriefing session. The end result was an exponential increase in the learning experience. Not only did the students accomplish the key learning objectives of the case, the negotiation principals, but they also were able to experience different negotiation styles taught by the two professors and experience the impact technology has on communication effectiveness.
Painting technology according to the Oxford Advance Learner (Hornby) Dictionary is “the graphic art consisting of an artistic composition made by applying paints to a surface. It is creating a picture with paints. The act of applying paint to a surface” Pablo Picasso and Michelangelo were great painters who applied colours of surfaces. Michelangelo painted Monolisa and Media in the Medici Chapel. Painting is a means of communication, documentation and beautification. Pevsner (1974:21) indicated that “The artist withdrew in disgust from such philistinism or squalor. It was not for him (William Morris) to condescend to the taste of the majority of his fellowmen, to meddle with the “Arts Not Fine”. During the Renaissance, artists had first learned to consider themselves superior beings, bearers of a great message. Leonardo da Visci wanted the artist to be a scientist and a humanist, but by no means a crafts man”. Painting as an art is means of communication from the early days irrespective of the surface used. Ceramic wares surfaces whether the inner or outer surfaces are highly paintable surfaces, although the techniques and the materials differ. The painting on ceramic wares equally bear great message for preservation, documentation and aesthetic appreciation. The interrelationship between ceramics and painting technology in the contemporary art is enormous and worth investigating to engender new frontiers in the concerned areas of art.
Sanjay Agarwal et al. inquired into the surface integrity in EDM process with AISI 4340 Steel and copper tungsten electrode . They infer that reduced pulse current increases the surface crack density. Induced residual stresses also depends upon the pulse current and pulse duration.Durairajetal.analysed the process parameter ofwire EDM with stainless steel using Taguchi method and Grey relational Grade . They deduced that pulse ON time plays major role on surface roughness and kerf width. They used ANNOVA for study of the parameter relationships.KapilGupta et al. examined the micro- geometry of miniature spur gears of bronze and aluminium machined by wire EDM process. They found that the profile deviation and irregular shapes and craters are formed due to high electric discharge and wire lag in wire EDM process. Uhlmannidentifiedthe development and optimized the die sinking EDM technology for machining nickel alloy MAR-M247 . They found that machining time has been increased by 50% due to variation in discharge current , discharge duration, pulse duration and ignition voltage and duty factor. Vikas et al. analyzed the effect of process parameters on the surface roughness in EDM for EN41 materials using Grey-Taguchi method . They found that the discharge current has a larger impact over the surface roughness. The effect of other process parameters are significantly less and ignored. Feng Yerui et al. investigated the EDM parameters for TiC/Ni Cermet machining . They concluded that pulse ON time increases the material removal rate and increase the surface roughness. Gasification and melting are the main material removal methods observed.
sought to convey to the next generation the knowledge, ideas, values that were important for the further development of culture and civilization. However, the growth of innovative processes at an unprecedented pace changes the human environment, destroys the generally accepted rules and views, and sets new challenges for education. According to E.B. Morgunov, "changing the living environment generates new stereotypes of behavior and consumption, new skills, habits, traditions, new work morals. In the end, a new philosophy of life emerges, whose carrier is a new man" . The unprecedented growth of information and the pace of emergence of innovation in science and technology possess new challenges for today's education: how to convey to pupils the necessary amount of fundamental and most modern knowledge, how to ensure knowledge acquisition, how to spark children's interest in learning the world, and teach them to apply acquired knowledge in practice?
problems posed by the conditions of diversity and change mentioned just above. Complex problems require thorough examination, understanding of relevant history and precedents, detailed analysis of alternatives, thoughtful reflection, and reasoned judgments. This hard work has been facilitated by print technology and the high literacy it promotes, but it is not compatible with the new technologies.