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b. to test asylum seekers to determine whether they were related to a U.S. citizen c. to test families to see if they were legitimate refugees in the U.S. facility there d. to test whether any of those seeking asylum has originated in the United States ANSWER: b
11) A small business owner has a line of credit from a bank with a nominal interest rate of seven percent. For several years, the price level has been rising at an annual rate of two percent, but the owner has just read in the newspaper that economists expect next year's inflation rate to be four percent or more. Assume that this owner may either continue the line of credit at seven percent, or renegotiate to alter both the size of the credit and the interest rate. What reason might there be for the owner to keep the credit terms as is? What argument might justify changing the credit agreement?
The use of rapid tests for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has become standard in HIV testing algorithms employed in resource-limited settings. We report an extensive HIV rapid test validation study conducted among Ugandan blood bank donors at low risk for HIV infection. The operational characteristics of four readily available commercial HIV rapid test kits were first determined with 940 donor samples and were used to select a serial testing algorithm. Uni-Gold Recombigen HIV was used as the screening test, followed by HIV-1/2 STAT-PAK for reactive samples. OraQuick HIV-1 testing was performed if the first two test results were discordant. This algorithm was then tested with 5,252 blood donor samples, and the results were compared to those of enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and Western blotting. The unadjusted algorithm sensitivity and specificity were 98.6 and 99.9%, respectively. The adjusted sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 99.96%, respectively. This HIV testing algorithm is a suitable alternative to EIAs and Western blotting for Ugandan blood donors.
Table 1 presents the results for instrumental variables regression analysis estimating the effectiveness of interventions on exchange rate volatility. The Sargan-Hansen overidentification test concludes on the validity of the instruments. (P-val=0.843). The results show that over the sample period, (first quarter of 1980 to the third quarter of 2014) the Bank of Canada’s interventions were effective by changing the path of the ex- change rate and reducing the volatility of the $ canadian. There is a negative relationship between interventions of Bank of Canada and the volatility of Canadian dollar exchange rate against the US dollar . The negative sign associated to the interventions coefficient means the Bank of Canada is acting on the exchange rate in the direction desired. An in- crease (decrease) in international official reserves induces a depreciation (appreciation) of the exchange rate. An increase of one percentage point of international official reserves is significantly associated with 0.019% exchange rate depreciation. Monetary interventions are therefore essen- tially stabilizing the volatility of the exchange rate of the Canadian dollar against the US dollar. Thus, in order to reverse a pronounced upward trend in the rate of its currency or to slow down the rate of appreciation of its currency, the Bank of Canada is selling on the foreign exchange market its own currency from its own cash in exchange for american dol- lar. That result confirms the the conclusions of Adler and Tovar (2011) and Daude et al (2014).
In order to keep the test extension reasonable, in a second stage, a set of eight learning goals was selected for each grade level, from kindergarten to 2nd grade; and another two sets of 10 learning goals were selected for 3rd and 4th grade. The selection of goals was facilitated through a questionnaire which was completed by teachers, school leaders and experts in mathematics education. For each objective from the curricular analysis, participants decided its relevance in the school curriculum using a Likert scale. Also, each domain was weighted according to the percentage of learning goals in the Chilean curriculum. Considering these two pieces of information, each grade level’s learning goals for each domain to be assessed within the test were selected. Table 1 shows the number of selected learning goals for each domain per grade level.
Abstract: This study examines the details of merger in between Bank of Baroda, Dena Bank & Vijaya Banks. The primary objective behind this move is to achieve growth at the strategic level in terms of size and client base. The study intended to determine the reasons for merger has been taken place in between the banks and also the benefits derived out of the merger. This study also includes analysis of banks performance with its different financial tools before its merger. This analysis has been shown with the help of line graphs. Data was collected from secondary sources such as websites, articles and merger reports. The study shows that merger of these banks has gained a lot of improvement in its efficiency, expansion, performance. It has also been found that after merger there is no data exposed under the name of Dena Bank and Vijaya Bank. The complete financial statements have been prepared under the name of Bank of Baroda.
Political preferences shaped the way ailing banks were targeted. Authorities in all four countries provided solvency assistance through the liability side of the banks’balance sheets and injected capital into banks, mostly in the form of preferred shares and subordinated debt. While the impact of recapitalizations on risk-taking is ambiguous, they allow for participating preferences in upside gains. Yet, authorities had to recapitalize not only insolvent banks, but also solvent institutions, as became obvious from the aborted attempt to recapitalize insolvent Japanese banks in February 1998. It failed because banks with …nancial di¢ culties hesitated to apply for …nancial assistance in order not to be singled out as a bank with …nancial di¢ culties. Instead, they tried to hide their non-performing loans (NPLs) on their balance sheet from supervisors (Hoshi & Kashyap (2010)). Japanese banks had little incentives to remove NPLs from their balance sheets because the opportunity costs of holding them were low, due to the loose monetary policy of the Bank of Japan and to extremely low interest rates (Nakaso (2001)). To prevent such negative incentive e¤ects, regulators had to o¤er …nancial assistance across the board, which made crisis resolution more costly for tax payers, especially in Japan, where the number of banks was large.
iii. Operational Deficiency. The policy establishing some of the NBFIs envisaged financial institutions that will engender economic development by funding small and medium term enterprises without attaching the commercial bank kind of stringent loan conditions. This policy though laudable did not take our societal value system into consideration, as most of the entrepreneurs that benefited from these uncollaterized loans refused to repay. Their refusal compounded the problems of these NBFIs. The case of the DFIs was not much different but in their own case being government establishments the loan beneficiaries saw it as their own share of the “national cake” ((Alashi, 2002:49).
There are studies favoring the money view and studies favoring the credit view. Romer, Romer, Goldfeld and Friedman  find two types of evidence supporting the money view; first, banks are able to raise funds with little cost during tightening periods, so the impact of restrictive policy on bank lending will be small. Second; because reserve requirements on bank deposits are high, contractionary policy is more likely to operate through bank liabilities (deposits) rather than bank assets (bank lending). Bernanke and Gertler  do not see the credit channel as a distinct alternative to the interest rate channel. Instead they see it as a complementary tool to the conventional interest rate effects which help explaining the magnitude, timing and composition of policy effects on the economy in a more reasonable way. Using vector auto-regressions (VARs), they try to identify the effects of policy on economy by looking at output, demand and spending responses to monetary policy shocks. They point out shortcomings of the conventional money view in explaining these responses. Bernanke and Gertler  also investigate the housing market in the U.S., focusing on the borrowing and spending decisions of households, particularly their spending on costly durable items such as houses. They suggest that the high