The Bologna Process

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Focus on the Structure of Higher Education in Europe 2003/04  National Trends in the Bologna Process

Focus on the Structure of Higher Education in Europe 2003/04 National Trends in the Bologna Process

A degree system based on two main cycles has existed in Poland since 1990 when it became possible for university-type higher education institutions to offer three- year higher vocational studies leading to a Bachelor’s degree (licencjat, inżynier), which could be followed by a Master’s degree. The title licencjat was introduced by legislation in 1992. As institutions are autonomous, these courses have been introduced gradually over the last 10 years, but their development has been further encouraged by the Bologna Process. In 2002/03 they were already quite popular. Although adoption of the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) is not mandatory or as yet underpinned by legislation, it is gradually being introduced. Its implementation began under the Tempus (Phare) programme and is being continued under the Socrates (Erasmus) programme. So far, 120 higher education institutions have introduced ECTS at some of their faculties.
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Influence of the Bologna Process on African higher education: Ethiopian higher education in focus

Influence of the Bologna Process on African higher education: Ethiopian higher education in focus

African HE discussions have also been inspired by the focus within the Process on public responsibility for HE and more by the increasing attention given to the social dimension. This framework has enabled European and African HEIs to undertake a number of joint projects, focusing on issues such as equity and access to HE (EUA, 2010). To this end, one transformation initiative which links institutional, national, regional, continental and international endeavors is the African HE Harmonization and Tuning Project (Tuning Africa), which is part of the Africa-EU strategic partnership. This uses an internationally established methodology to enhance degree comparability, graduate mobility and employability (Tuning Africa, 2014). For instance, a good example is the Tuning Africa project which has been influenced by the Tuning Educational Structures in Europe project aiming at harmonizing curricula. Among the efforts include harmonization of curricula at different regions: Medicine (Northern Africa), Teacher education (Sothern Africa), Agriculture (Western Africa) and Mechanical engineering (Central Africa). In addition to such efforts, progress has been made by Francophone African countries, which are implementing reforms to align their systems with Europe's BP LMD system (a bachelor degree after three years, a masters after five and a doctorate after eight) (MacGregor, 2011). Individual countries are also trying to widen the scope of influence of the Bologna Process in addition to the efforts made by African countries themselves, EU and AU. For instance, France, among other countries, expressed a wish to see former colonies adapt to the Bologna Process. This adaptation is under way through various agreements (bilateral or multilateral cooperation) (Sall & Ndjaye, 2008).
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The Bologna Process and the EHEA – A New European Normative Regime?

The Bologna Process and the EHEA – A New European Normative Regime?

In this regard, the Bologna Process provides a good example for an international regime. First and foremost, the Process creates an international public good in the shape of a framework for cooperation and internationalization of higher education. Secondly, the institutional structure of the process, even unintentionally, projects the Process' political nature: The incremental institutionalization of the Bologna Process as a declaration-based policy backed by a European-led secretariat, periodically meetings of all stakeholders, as well as setting up a monitoring benchmarking mechanism demonstrates its regime-like behavior. But most importantly, the process signals that there is a global order in higher education policy, which is dictated by a global leader. As being the entity that funds and steer the BP, one can say that the EU functions as a hegemon in the field of higher education in a global sense. Even if not manifesting itself an explicit pressure, the EU, via the Bolognian regime, brings countries outside of the EHEA to apply its norms, principles and values on their HESs.in this regard one can say that by elevating the regional Bologna Process to an international regime, the EU enhances the process of the Europeanization 3 of global higher
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Does deliberation matter?: the impact of the Bologna process on attitudes and policies in European higher education

Does deliberation matter?: the impact of the Bologna process on attitudes and policies in European higher education

This research empirically tests such a framework on the Bologna process. Testing the impact of deliberative governance on policy-making is rather different from the typical empirical tests in political philosophy. Such empirical tests traditionally concentrate on the impact of deliberation on public opinion (see for example Boucher et al., 2007; Davidson et al., 2009). Studying deliberation in a policy-making environment introduces many constraints which are not present when looking at public opinion in general or when theorising about deliberation in a normative way. But introducing such constraints is important to understand ‘real life’ European policy-making. How do political interests affect the impact of deliberation on individual attitudes? How does introducing various roles, countries of origins and hierarchies between representatives impact on their reactions to deliberation and affect the group outcome? This research shows that deliberation can have a more instrumental role in policy-making, in addition to the cognitive effect on attitudes described by deliberative democrats. Within this mechanism, state actors use a rhetoric that they have heard at the European level to convince other actors to reform in the domestic sphere.
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The impact of the Bologna Process on higher education in Latin America

The impact of the Bologna Process on higher education in Latin America

The achievements of the Bologna Process (BP) and the consolidation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) have led to debate on the desirability and feasibility of copying and extending the process elsewhere. This text offers a general analysis of the main arguments regarding whether or not it would be feasible to reproduce the BP in other regions of the world. In the specific case of Latin America, it has been claimed that such a process would be unfeasible based on two notions: (i) that a regional harmonisation process would result in the standardisation and homogenisation of Latin America’s higher education systems (HES), reducing levels of national diversity, distinctiveness and singularity; and (ii) that intra-regional differences (i.e. dissimilarities between the HES within a given region) and inter-regional asymmetries (i.e. differences between Latin American and European HES in terms of development, academic performance, models and educational practices) constitute insurmountable obstacles to any initiative geared to regional academic integration. The article concludes by highlighting the positive influence that particular aspects of the BP could have in relation to the academic reform and modernisation which Latin America requires.
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Legislative basis of the bologna process standards implementation in Ukrainian higher education

Legislative basis of the bologna process standards implementation in Ukrainian higher education

The Bologna Declaration in 1999 set out a vision for 2010 of an internationally competitive and attractive European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Higher education institutions have possibility to accomplish the diverse missions in knowledge sphere; and students can find the best educational trajectory. As the important objective of the Bologna Process since 1999, the EHEA is more comparable, compatible and coherent systems of higher education in Europe. At 1999-2010, all efforts of the Bologna Process members were targeted to create the EHEA, that became reality in Budapest-Vienna Declaration of March, 2010. According to the Bologna Process documents the next decade (2010–2020) will be aimed at consolidate the European Higher Education Area.
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Focus on Higher Education in Europe 2010: New report on the impact of the Bologna process

Focus on Higher Education in Europe 2010: New report on the impact of the Bologna process

The inclusion of vocational and professional education in the Bologna process is a source of significant divergence and some confusion across the European region. The reasons for this lie in the many different national understandings of ‘professional’ or ‘vocational’ programmes, and the blurring of distinctions between academic and professional programmes in some countries, as the entire sector focuses more consciously on employability concerns and on providing relevant education for the labour market. Several countries have specifically identified problems in linking vocationally-oriented programmes to their Bologna model. The most common problem is that many vocational and professional qualifications
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National Report regarding the Bologna Process implementation Hungary

National Report regarding the Bologna Process implementation Hungary

In the Leuven/Louvain-la-Neuve Communiqué, the European Ministers responsible for higher education agreed that “mobility shall be the hallmark of the European Higher Education Area”. They called upon each country to increase mobility of students, , to ensure its high quality and to diversify its types and scope. At least 20% of those graduating in the European Higher Education Area should have had a study or training period abroad in 2020”. They also called for mobility of teachers, early- stage researchers and staff At the same time, the Ministers underlined the importance of more balanced mobility across the European Higher Education Area. The findings of the Bologna Process Independent Assessment which were presented on the occasion of Bologna Ministerial Anniversary Conference in Budapest/Vienna on 11/12 March 2010 again underlined the need for action to enhance and better balance student and staff mobility.
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National Report regarding the Bologna Process implementation Finland

National Report regarding the Bologna Process implementation Finland

students), rectors’ conferences, other Ministries, employers, employees and the Finnish National Board of Education. In its report, the committee describes how qualifications and learning outcomes are described in national legislation. Furthermore, the committee describes the quality assurance procedures for Finnish degrees and education, the current state and practices of recognising learning, and the measures that have been taken in different administrative sectors to promote the recognition of learning. The committee's key proposals regarding higher education are as follows: The national qualifications framework will have eight levels based on the EQF. The framework describes the requirements of Finnish qualifications (learning outcomes) in terms of knowledge, skills and competence, which are the criteria agreed upon in European cooperation based on the EQF levels. The dimensions of learning are not, however, distinguished from one another and the EQF levels are specified based on a national perspective. The qualifications are placed in the national framework according to the learning outcomes required by the different qualifications. Although a qualification may contain elements from several levels, it is placed on the level it suits best as a whole. Qualifications that are placed on the same level might emphasise different dimensions of learning. Finnish higher education degrees are placed in the national qualifications framework according to the three cycle system of the Bologna Process: the first cycle includes university and polytechnic Bachelor's Degrees (level 6). The second cycle includes university and polytechnic Master's Degrees (level 7). The third cycle includes scientific and artistic post-graduate degrees, such as licentiate and doctoral degrees. Finnish qualifications will be placed in the EQF by placing them on the levels of the national framework which correspond those of the EQF. The Ministry of Education invited feedback on the committee
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Russian engagement with the Bologna Process: policies and practices in higher education reform

Russian engagement with the Bologna Process: policies and practices in higher education reform

The Bologna process has been politically devised as a set of transnational policies to pursue systemic changes and educational practice changes across a vast geographical area. In the pages above I presented the history and documented policy objectives and diversities inherent in the Bologna process. The policies openly advocate for social and cultural shifts throughout an extended European area, by way of implementing a guided convergence of educational practices, educational values, and norms. As much as it is a theoretical choice in this thesis to approach policy as a set of sociocultural practices, it is also the officially stated goal of Bologna to implement changes in social and cultural behaviours among actors of the higher education sector. In this chapter I explore which aspects of the Bologna history and legislative/administrative structure provided its governing body with the means to overcome the initial participating actors’ diversity of intent, comprehension of the Bologna message, and their varied paces of reform implementation. The construction of today’s EHEA model required a capacity to gradually build a shared rhetoric and repertoire of education development, and build a system of convergence between disparate state actors that might support the continued implementation of the Bologna precepts beyond the initial disparity of members’ engagements. There has been a diversity in the member states’ initial interpretations of the Bologna vision of education and its objectives, which endures to this day in the Bologna implementation processes 71 . Nonetheless, beyond this initial diversity, we see at the policy level fifteen years of growth of the education community, policy framework, definition of expectations, interaction with European legislations in education, and objective definitions. Bologna also relied on the growth of the European Commission’s role, and the parallel development of education reforms in international organisations and the European programme. This constancy in the political message corresponded to a constancy in high-level European funding. Even while the European education project suffered economically from an overly rapid expansion and a lack of political cohesiveness, and while individual national implementations of the Bologna process and institutional engagements towards it varied, the transnational education convergence effort still maintained a small number of policy objectives through its the first decade of growth, and enforced a continuity of policy goals since its
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The Bologna Process Could Be at Stake: Some Thoughts from Spain

The Bologna Process Could Be at Stake: Some Thoughts from Spain

We already addressed job placement in another of our studies [9], where we approached both conferences and research on the topic focusing on two occupational groups: teaching staff and other professions. Our universities are currently undergoing a reorientation process from a Humboldt educational model to a professional paradigm defined by the Bologna Process. From the latter perspective our interest lies in learning and explaining the arrangement and working of university initiatives to pursue this requirement, policies and practices that are part of the so called “induction” and/or “mentoring” by international terminology. In this regard, there are certain universities, such as the University of Salamanca, that offer two services: one devoted to promotion, information and counselling, which is run from different points located in the different campuses; and one focused on employability, internships and job placement known as SIPPE (Service for Employability, Internships and Jobs) that, through its employment section, provides information on job offers and channels the submission of applications. The observatory facilitates reports on the follow-up of graduate students and job placement and carries out satisfaction surveys among the degree holders. Others, such as the University of Granada, have centres for the fostering of employment and internships. The section devoted to employment includes an employment observatory for job offers, a placement agency that acts as an intermediary between graduates and companies and a job vacancies site, while it also provides information to potential employers, carrying out tasks of shortlisting, recruitment, job counselling and other services. The counselling section provides training for employment and distance guidance related to jobs. This means that universities are making efforts in terms of information, counselling and intermediation between graduates and the productive system.
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In the course of the Bologna Process : are Diploma Supplement labels contributing to the mobility of students in Germany, the Netherlands and the UK?

In the course of the Bologna Process : are Diploma Supplement labels contributing to the mobility of students in Germany, the Netherlands and the UK?

Europeanisation was the first concept addressed in Chapter 2. Radaelli (2004) defined Europeanisation as ‘processes of (a) construction (b) diffusion and (c) institutionalization of formal and informal rules, procedures, policy paradigms, styles, ‘ways of doing things’ and shared beliefs and norms which are first defined and consolidated in the making of EU decisions and then incorporated in the logic of domestic (national and subnational) discourse, identities, political structures and public policies’ (p. 30). When applied to this study, the concept of Europeanisation can be easily transferred to the topic of this thesis. The Diploma Supplement was appropriated by the Bologna Process, which was an intergovernmental commitment signed by the 47 participating Bologna countries and several European organizations, designed to restructure the European higher education system and ultimately leading to the creation of the European Higher Education Area in 2010 (Keeling, 2006). Although intergovernmental and decentralized in nature, its implementation is closely monitored by means of reports, regularly held meetings and policy declarations (Keeling, 2006). How does this transfer to the research questions of this thesis now? In particular, the ‘institutionalisation of procedures and rules’ (Radaelli, 2004) can be observed here, since structural changes such as the three-cycle structure and most importantly for this study, also the adoption of the Diploma Supplement, were institutionalized. In more detail, by issuing the DS accordingly and applying for the label, the institutions show that they comply with the rules of the Bologna Process. The Europeanisation of higher education policies can also be confirmed by Börzel (1999), who stated that national policy areas become increasingly subjected to policy-making on the European level.
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Assessment of Colleges’ Activity Quality: the Bologna Process Dimensions

Assessment of Colleges’ Activity Quality: the Bologna Process Dimensions

Quality assessment of college’s activity involves these areas: 1) management; 2) planning and performance of studies; 3) research and relations with Lithuanians part- ners; 4) international relations; 5) material and financial resources; 6) personnel; 7) system of quality assurance of internal quality; 8) system of graduates’ qualifications as- sessment; 9) demand of prepared specialists. While analys- ing the criteria and indicators of assessed activity areas, it is noticed that from 9 assessed areas the demands for col- leges aiming predefined tasks of the Bologna process are raised in the 6 assessed areas. First, in the assessed area of management one of the criteria of activity quality assess- ment is the importance of college’s external integrating processes, its indicators – college management orientation to the demands of regional community, changes that are in the process in different areas of Lithuanian and European society life and the formation of college image in the soci- ety and regional society. Second, the assessed area of planning and performance of studies, the criteria of study programmes demand is excluded and one of its indicators is external and internal factors, conditioning unequal de- mand for programmes, applied means for increasing the demand for programmes, the criterion of rationality of study programmes as a whole and the criterion of the match for regional needs and one of its indicators is the association of the aims of study programmes with the de- mand of labour market, employers’ interests, students’ needs and other. Third, in the assessed area of research and relations with Lithuanian partners the criterion of re- lations with external surroundings and utility for studies is distinguished. In this case the indicators of efficiency of perfection of study programmes
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Switzerland goes Europe? Swiss Education Policy Making under the Impact of the Bologna Process

Switzerland goes Europe? Swiss Education Policy Making under the Impact of the Bologna Process

high number of veto players that may complicate cooperation with the actors on the inter- national level. How can the low resistance of Swiss veto players to the strong invasion by the Bologna Process into the domestic education system be explained? The reasons for the participation in the Bologna Process consist in the pressure of broad participation of the surrounding EU countries, particularly as Switzerland is isolated concerning EU member- ship (Riklin 1995). Thus, even the veto players, such as the people and the cantons, re- garded the participation necessary to make the Swiss education system compatible with the other European countries, including the introduction of the ideal of the Anglo- American two-tier system (Interview CH6, 14). Moreover, the consultation procedure con- cerning the Bologna Process by which the Swiss participation was decided was unusually short, and the Federation was falsely accused of not having consulted the cantons – as formal veto players - and HE institutes - as informal veto players - in advance, as usually. In fact, consultation had taken place, but the consequences of the reform – that is per- ceived as ‘the biggest reform since Humboldt’ – were underestimated (Interview CH2). Another motivation for joining the international initiative was the strategic use of the Bo- logna Process by the rectors of HE institutes – also informal veto players – for reaching their own aim, namely the renovation of Swiss teaching. By taking part in Bologna, other reforms were introduced to overcome the reforms’ backlog of the 1980s and 1990s. The Bologna Process thus was exploited by domestic actors as a remedy for the legitimization of their policy-making (Moravcsik 1993).
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The Bologna Process and physiotherapy education across Europe

The Bologna Process and physiotherapy education across Europe

and resources. An e-mail was sent to those selected inviting them to participate. The email included a short note explaining why they were selected (see appendix 19). In the event that a selected person informed that they were not able to participate they were asked to nominate someone from their country whom in their opinion would be proficient to speak about the Bologna Process and physiotherapy education in their country. In this eventuality the nominated person was to be contacted and clearly informed about the reason for which the contact was being made. This was to be followed with a written invitation sent to them to participate in the study/interview. All those who agreed to participate in the study were proposed a schedule of possible dates and times for the interview that were to be held between June and July 2011. Since the congress of the World Confederation of Physiotherapy was held in June 2011, the participants were also given the option of a face-to-face interview at a mutually convenient time and place at the congress venue. The participants were forwarded with an information sheet (see appendix 20) and asked to give signed consent to the interview (see appendix 21). Arrangements were made to organise a mutually convenient date and time for the interview. Skype°18 was used to facilitate computer-based audio communication in a synchronous environment in real-time and when possible visual interaction with webcam was used. The conduct of the
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Higher Education in Europe: Developments in the Bologna Process

Higher Education in Europe: Developments in the Bologna Process

Qualifications frameworks are tools for describing and clearly expressing the differences between qualifications in all cycles and levels of education. Development of National Qualifications Frameworks (NQFs) has been encouraged in recent years by a range of initiatives and processes, with the aim of understanding similarity and difference between qualifications issued in different education systems in Europe. In the context of the Bologna process, European Ministers of Education in Bergen (May 2005) adopted the overarching Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area (FQ- EHEA) and also agreed that National Qualifications Frameworks should be set up by 2007 and implemented by 2010 in all Bologna signatory countries. These National Qualifications Frameworks for higher education would include reference to the three-cycle study structure and the use of generic descriptors based on learning outcomes, competences and credits for the first and second cycles. While this may have seemed an ambitious but feasible objective to the Ministers in Bergen, the complexity of the challenge was perhaps underestimated, especially as the ongoing dynamics of other European processes added further constraints. Indeed, no sooner had the Ministers of Education adopted the FQ-EHEA than a new overarching European Qualifications Framework for lifelong learning (the EQF), covering all aspects of education provision, began to be developed for the EU member countries in the context of the Lisbon strategy. The EQF was adopted on 23 April 2008 by the European Council and Parliament. While care was taken during the development of the EQF to ensure that the two overarching frameworks would be compatible, nevertheless the approach in developing descriptors was different. Thus the task for countries when developing or adapting their national qualifications frameworks is far from simple: not only should these new national instruments reflect the shift from traditional input-based approaches of categorising qualifications to a focus on learning outcomes, credits and the profile of qualifications, but care should also be taken to ensure that national developments are compatible with the two overarching European frameworks.
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The Bologna Process and its influence on the participation in the Erasmus program

The Bologna Process and its influence on the participation in the Erasmus program

program started with eleven participating countries and developed throughout the years to the largest student mobility program hitherto and one of the most successful programs of the European Union. (Bracht, et al., 2006). The Bologna Process did not play an unimportant role in this success. With the degree structures converging in Europe through the Bologna Process, student mobility facilitated through the Erasmus program was made even easier. Also, the number of participating countries grew. Currently, thirty- three countries participate, including all European countries, Turkey, Macedonia, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein. Moreover, the European Credit Transfer system (ECTS) was introduced in all participating countries, which was already established with the Erasmus program to simplify the conversion of grades. In addition to the easier recognition of courses also the quality of courses was to be assimilated through the instruction of quality assurance tools. But the Erasmus program changed over time. It is now part of Erasmus+ and not only facilitates studies at foreign universities, but also internships abroad. Currently the Erasmus program supports almost 300,000 higher education students every year. 10
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The Bologna process in Germany and the Netherlands : a research about the potential explanations for different student perceptions

The Bologna process in Germany and the Netherlands : a research about the potential explanations for different student perceptions

Afterwards, I had to think of the method of contacting the persons matching the attributes I have defined before. Hence, I looked in my circle of friends so that they could help me as well with the distribution of the survey among their student friends. However, of course, I contacted the student organisations of the subjects in Germany as well as in the Netherlands and asked them for support with the distribution, too. My friends, the student organisations, coordinators of the different educational programmes in the Netherlands and I distribute the questionnaire by e-mail. The contacted students decide freely if they participate. It does not matter if they are Bachelors or Masters. The method described reflects stratification as explained. However, because of the data collection method the threat of self-selection arises. This means in this case “when individuals select themselves into treatments” (Shadish, Cook, & Campbell, 2002, p.56). In my study, the treatment is the questionnaire the students select themselves to answer or not to answer. Then, usually, only a certain part of the contacted students answers the questions, likely the ambitious ones, the ones with the higher marks and the ones knowing about, and being interested in the Bologna Process as topic. However, this is always the problem when conducting a survey through e-mail, ordinary mail, by telephone face to face because one cannot force anybody to participate. Furthermore, people who are interested in the topic and are ambitious answer the
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Observations on the United States as Stakeholder in the Bologna Process

Observations on the United States as Stakeholder in the Bologna Process

Whether as immigrants or temporarily as students, scholars or researchers, the United States has long received many benefits from people from other countries coming to the U.S. Indeed, the U.S. owes its development as a nation to people from other countries and since the mid nineteenth century, the U.S. has been dependent on immigrant labor for much of its economic success. Some argue that the ability of the United States to be a center of ingenuity and invention has been its openness to new ideas, especially in scientific fields, the arts, and entertainment. That openness in turn has fostered the research and development that has been a major economic engine and made the U.S. a magnet for the world’s best and brightest. But today there are clear indicators that the best and the brightest are looking at other parts of the globe as the incubators of new ideas. At the end of the day, the higher education community in the U.S. will view itself as a stakeholder in the Bologna Process to the degree to which the United States is able to keep its doors open to students from other countries. There are challenges to keeping the doors open. This article takes a look at those challenges.
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The Implementation of the Bologna Process Reforms into Physics Studies in Europe: The Doctoral Level

The Implementation of the Bologna Process Reforms into Physics Studies in Europe: The Doctoral Level

Apart from improving the quality of supervision, structur- ing the doctoral phase is another reform goal of the Bologna agenda for the third cycle. This means to integrate doctoral education and training into programmes or schools and frequently adding obligatory course work which might also have credit points attached to it. Altogether 75 percent of our respondents stated that doctoral education and train- ing includes coursework. No coursework is common, in particular, in Germany and Greece. 61 percent of cases in- cluding coursework also have the coursework quantified by ECTS credit points and further 13 percent stated that other types of credit points are used. The types of courses that are offered include specialised third cycle (doctoral) courses (81 %) as well as joint courses for master students and doctoral candidates (63 %). Typically coursework is assessed (83 %) and participation is formally monitored (72 %). Successful completion of the coursework is a require- ment for the final degree in 70 percent of the cases but in only ten percent it is weighted as part of the final degree. Candidates failing the coursework can mostly re-sit or re- take the examination (80%).
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