Therefore, the hotel industry is a very important component of the tourism industry, because it satisfies the most important needs of the tourist which is accommodation. In order to increase the portion of hotel industry in Malaysia economy, the hotels must satisfy and retain their guests. To build customer satisfaction with hotels guarantee a high rate of customer retention and reduced cost for recruiting new customers which leads to long-term profitability. From the hotel's perspective, to retain their customers, they should try to make customers satisfied with their services and offerings. Due to the importance of the hospitality and hotel industry and its vital relation with the guests, the emphasis of recent academic and managerial inquiry in the hotel industry has focused on determining the services that effect on the guest satisfaction and retention (Sim et al., 2006).
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study, especially in relation to adjustments in the capital stock and the resulting changes in the demand for labor, suggest that an expansion of the guest-worker program (i.e., an increase in G) would result in an increase in the number of ﬁrms employing illegal aliens in the long run, with the wage paid to undocumented workers falling by less than it does in the short run. By contrast, repressive enforcement measures targeting illegal aliens that were examined in Section 4.4 have an adverse eﬀect on the proﬁtability of ﬁrms in Sector I operating with the aid of undocumented labor. This encourages exit and a contraction of existing ﬁrms over time, lowering the demand for such labor and contributing to a reduction in the wage of undocumented workers. Overstaying is thereby discouraged and the stock of illegal aliens in the underground economy will tend to decline over time. In consequence, the quantitative impact of these policies on the wage of undocumented workers can be expected to be smaller in the long run than it is in the short run, while the negative impact on the stock of undocumented labor should be stronger. We can thus think of the ﬁndings presented in our paper as being particularly relevant in the short to medium run, although we would expect the qualitative results to remain largely intact in the long-run.
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GRE-based Guest Isolation Deployment deals with isolating guest traffic by making use of IGT virtual appliance and Access Portal that acts as an external captive portal. Create three interfaces such as management interface, IN interface and OUT interface in IGT. The IGT’s IN-interface is configured as the remote end point on the Access Point (AP) 9100. The AP tunnels the guest traffic to the IGT appliance. The appliance on receiving client traffic, decapsulates the packets and forwards it to the Access Portal. The Access Portal OVA can be deployed as virtual appliance on the same server that host IGT appliance. In this situation, the OUT interface of IGT is connected to the IN interface of the Access Portal. A Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server can reside on the IN interface of the Access Portal. The OUT interface of Access Portal will be connected to the Internet or DMZ. Hence, guest traffic is tunneled from the AP to the guest tunneling appliance and later through the access portal.
at 25 °C. It was found that the bpy ligands in 10 interact with pyrene via CH···p interactions. The face of the pyrene guest sits over the edges of the bpy linkers, nearly orthogonal with H(pyridyl)···C (pyrene) distances of 2.769-3.295 Å and a dihedral angle of 95° (Fig. 4). Crystal packing studies showed that the host-guest pairs, 10·pyrene, are arranged in a stair- like fashion, in which the guest pyrene molecules are not located within the molecular cavity of 10. This is an example of a CH···p interaction that is rarely designed into a host-guest pair.
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long-run analysis of the clandestine labor market would need to consider the possibility of the number of ﬁrms and the capital stock of each ﬁrm contracting or expanding in each sector in response to variations in the proﬁtability of their operations due to changing conditions on the sector’s labor market. In the long run, the prices of goods and services produced by the two sectors would also have to be treated as endogenous. An earlier paper by Djaji´ c (1997), focussing on the short- and long-run eﬀects of illegal immigration in the context of a model with perfect international capital mobility and intersectoral mobility of native workers, which is only partial in the short run, provides an indication of how our economy would react to policy changes when everything is allowed to adjust. 15 Insights provided by that earlier study, especially in relation to adjustments in the capital stock and the resulting changes in the demand for labor, suggest that an expansion of the guest-worker program (i.e., an increase in G) would result in an increase in the number of ﬁrms employing illegal aliens in the long run, with the wage paid to undocumented workers falling by less than it does in the short run. By contrast, repressive enforcement measures targeting illegal aliens that were examined in Section 4.4 have an adverse eﬀect on the proﬁtability of ﬁrms in Sector I operating with the aid of undocumented labor. This encourages exit and a contraction of existing ﬁrms over time, lowering the demand for such labor and contributing to a reduction in the wage of undocumented workers. Overstaying is thereby discouraged and the stock of illegal aliens in
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Host-guest chemistry describes complexes that are composed of two or more molecules or ions held together in unique structural relationships by hydrogen bonding or by ion pairing or by Van der Waals force other than those of full covalent bonds. 1 The host component is defined as an organic molecule or ion whose binding sites converge in the complex and the guest component is defined as any molecule or ion whose binding sites diverge in the complex.Host-Guest Chemistry involves or more molecules, a “host” and a” guest”, involved in non-bonding interactions to form a Supramolecular complex. 2 According to Cram,” The host component is a molecule or ion whose binding sites converge in the complex”. The guest component is any molecule or ion whose binding sites diverge in the complex.
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Taking into consideration Question Q22 of this study, which determined the relationship between overall satisfaction and repeat- purchase behavior, findings indicate it as the last favorable attitude of the guest regarding the hotel. Although, marketers have long advanced the presence of guest satisfaction as instrumental in ensuring repeat business, guest satisfaction does not appear to have the substantive and sweeping effect on guest loyalty, which was previously assumed. This means that the key for greatly improving loyalty in the number of repeated purchases is not in guest satisfaction; nor did this study support the “people factor” (i.e., service quality) in terms of tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy as being the most salient in determining repeat purchases (Skogland and Siguaw, 2004). Incremental improvements in customer satisfaction may improve consideration, but based on the evidence presented in this study showed it does not improve loyalty “per se”.
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Molecular recognition is defined by the energy and the information involved in the binding and selection of substrate by a given receptor or host molecule. 3 The term “host” describes the ability of a molecule to bind another one with preference over all others, and with greater strength than is commonly found in unspecific molecular interactions. The chemical nature of the “guest” to be specifically bound mutually complements the host. These include geometry and electronics. 4 In general, molecular recognition relies on the factor that there is a molecular interaction between host and guest, leading to an assembly of two or more species into a well-defined structure. These non-covalent interactions could be: ion-ion, ion-dipole, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding, cation-π, π-π stacking, van der waals forces, close packing in the solid-state, the hydrophobic effect or the combination of those interactions.
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poor chemical and/or structural stability in physiological environment, where the active drugs are converted into inactive and/or potentially immunogenic forms. Typically, PEGylation of protein drugs through covalent modification is chosen to increase the solubility, promote the stability, inhibit aggregation, reduce glomerular filtration, and improve pharmacological activity. Although the direct covalent modification is feasible, several issues still exist. The modified proteins need purification to eliminate exogenous compounds that are possibly cause immunogenicity. Over-modification may also result in a deleterious effect on proteins activity and function. Anderson et al. proposed a supramolecular route to modify the properties of therapeutic proteins using CB-based host–guest chemistry (Figure 14b) , endowing the supramolecular proteins with prosthetic functionality. Non-covalent modification substantially increased the stability of three distinct protein drugs (insulin, glucagon, and an antibody) and prolonged their pharmacological activity. CB exhibited high affinity to an N-terminal aromatic residue on insulin, thus allowing supramolecular modification of insulin by CB-PEG. In vivo evaluations demonstrated that the duration of insulin activity could be controlled by change the molecular weight of CB-PEG without a need for direct modification to the therapeutic protein. Compared with conventional PEGylation, supramolecular PEGylation of therapeutic proteins possesses evolutionary advantages. Firstly, the non-covalent modifications are clear, isolation and purification are unnecessary. Secondly, the therapeutic entities remain unmodified, facilitating to maintain their activities and functions. This can simplify regulatory approval of a previously approved biopharmaceuticals. Thirdly, the supramolecular building blocks can be easily excreted from body, greatly reducing the risk of immunogenicity.
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As Guest Editors, we would like to thank the authors for their paper submissions, as well as the large number of reviewers whose efforts have helped to maintain the high publication standards of IET Renewable Power Generation. We would also like to thank the IET Editorial Office for the help and support that has made this Special Issue possible. Finally, we would like to thank the Editor-in-Chief, David Infield, for providing us with this opportunity as well as patiently awaiting the completion of this Special Issue.