deﬁ ned by high levels of skill, ongoing learning, multitask- ing and problem solving, relative to workers who reported less complexity in their roles. Innovation and creativity are increasingly believed to be the keys to organizational success and our ﬁ ndings suggest that responsibility for idea generation and related behaviors falls on certain workers over others. Results from a recent survey of workers in the knowledgeeconomy indicated that, on average, workers use a fairly limited range of methods to share and capture information in the workplace, focusing primarily on informal interactions with colleagues. Idea-sharing tactics that were less common included talking to outside experts, reading professional journals, attending external training sessions or events, scheduling brainstorming meetings and using informal socialization outside of the ofﬁ ce. 14 The results
The World Bank Institute offers a formal definition of a knowledgeeconomy 1 as one that creates, disseminates, and uses knowledge to enhance its growth and development. A knowledgeeconomy uses data as it raw material and transforms it using technology, analysis tools, and human intelligence into useful applications for businesses that lead to economic (productivity) growth. Knowledge can be obtained and trained by experience, familiarity, science or learning. Often knowledge is taken together with innovation, the commercial exploitation of knowledge. Knowledge then is the adding up of abilities (capabilities, creativity and persistency) to recognize and solve problems, by collecting, selecting and interpreting information. The knowledgeeconomy then is the use of knowledge in interactive relations between market actors and others, while producing and using goods and services, from the first idea to final products. This definition does not focus solely on technological renewal as the goal of a knowledgeeconomy, but on productivity and employment growth of firms. With the sustained use and creation of knowledge at the center of the economic development process, an economy essentially becomes a KnowledgeEconomy. A KnowledgeEconomy is one that utilizes knowledge as the key engine of economic growth. It has been found that the successful transition to the KnowledgeEconomy typically involves elements such as long-term investments in education, expanding innovation capability, modernizing the information infrastructure, and having an economic environment that is conducive to market transactions.
Services are increasingly important, and are the locus of much value-adding in the value chain. But, the knowledgeeconomy is not simply a services economy. Our services must be linked intimately with production. With increasing use of integrated computer aided design and manufacturing systems (CAD/CAM), just in time (JIT) and other technologies, and labour and other physical resource costs accounting for an ever smaller proportion of overall costs, the need to integrate research, design, development, manufacturing, distribution and after sales service into seamless chains of creation, production and distribution is likely to increase. We cannot assume that a services economy linked to offshore manufacturing will work. Co-location or deep integration through information and communication technology networks and logistics and distribution networks will increasingly replace arms-length, off-shore, low wage manufacturing. And this has profound implications for investment attraction, structural adjustment, infrastructure development, and skilling.
Abstract. Throughout this paper, we present the observations and conclusions of our research that is both conceptual and pragmatic. As the title suggests, our research focuses on the new roles of universities in the knowledgeeconomy. Since their beginning, universities have been scientific, cultural and moral landmarks for society and even today they have the mission of stimulating a social and economic progress in society. We start the presentation of the research by emphasizing the correlations between the new understanding of the knowledge concept and the functioning of the university. We consider that knowledge represents a strategic resource for universities and also the main resource used in all its organizational processes and has great impact on the final products and services that the university delivers for its stakeholders and finally for the whole society. In the second section of the paper we discuss the strategic roles that the universities play in society. Though we consider that the primordial role of the university is to educate students and to contribute to the scientific knowledge of the world, today universities integrate more and diverse responsibilities which represent new dynamics capabilities. Within the third section of the paper we approach the problem of the intellectual capital which we consider also as a strategic component of universities and with great potential for their prosperity. The discussion regarding the impact of the intellectual capital is particularly important due to the presentation of the novel entropic model of intellectual capital. In the final part of the paper we analyze and argue the most recently announced challenges and high perspectives for the universities world-wide and we present our concluding remarks.
As has been discussed, OECD measures of both volume and trade in high and medium technology manufacturing sectors are frequently used as a proxy for measuring the growth of the ‘knowledgeeconomy’. This is based on an assumption that the existence of such technology sectors is a strong indicator of knowledge capacity, since high technology goods are a physical embodiment of the knowledge that produced them. While these measures have some validity at a global level, they become less meaningful when applied to individual nations and regions since they do not disaggregate the processes from the product or give any weighting to the particular type of activity within such sectors that is carried out within a specific geographical region.
dynamic capabilities within the world-wide universities acting in the context of the knowledgeeconomy. Universities have always been considered landmarks from the cultural and moral point of view but nowadays they are being overloaded with social and economic tasks. Throughout the sections of this research paper, we gradually focus on critical ideas related to the subject in order to accomplish the stated mission. We started by presenting the correlations of the organizational knowledge dynamics processes and the functioning of the university. The understanding of the basic knowledge conversion processes at the organizational level (Nonaka, 1991; Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995) is essential for the further development of the competitive advantage throughout knowledge creation. Within the second section of the paper, we analyze the nature and characteristics of organizational knowledge capabilities. We consider that organizational knowledge capabilities represent a strategic competence for universities and also one of the main sources that generate effectiveness and growth for organizations. Throughout this second section of the paper, we discuss the strong connections between these special organizational capabilities and the gaining of a competitive advantage which ensure prosperity on long-term. We allocated the space in the third section for the presentation of relevant examples of dynamic capabilities from practice in order to reveal their intellectual capital potential for organizations’ success (Bratianu, 2011; Stewart, 1999; Sveiby, 1997). What is most important to know about dynamic capabilities is that they really make the difference in the business world and also in the academia. For instance, businesses like Apple, Amazon, Google, and Facebook which are points of interest demonstrated that an ability
The purpose of the paper is to substantiate the importance of combination of the intellectually creative potential of a society and the world's scientific and technological achievements for the effec- tive implementation in the national economic development strategy of conceptual framework of the knowledgeeconomy as a decisive factor for progress in the context of globalization. The South Ko- rean model of transition to the knowledgeeconomy, the country's strategic achievements and challenges emerging full blown in the context of globalization are described in this study. The conclu- sions are, according to the authors, relevant to Ukraine, which, being at the beginning of its transformation towards the knowl- edge economy, faces difficulties with the development of a modern economic development strategy. The main idea is to understand the opportunities and limitations of use of the Korean model of eco- nomic growth in policies of other countries, and of Ukraine in the first place.
creased speed of ICT advancements, and espe- cially dramatic growth of Internet and its ser- vices, as well as continuous decline of ICT equipment prices, led to fast growth of both Internet and the number of its users. All these were instrumental in the growth of influence of knowledge and information on economy. However, some other prerequisites besides tech- nology must be fulfilled too in order to enable growth of knowledgeeconomy. First of them are education and training, including lifelong learning, training of teachers and developing modernised curricula. Besides, proper envi- ronment for innovation should be created and stronger links between business and academic world should be developed. Managers in en- terprises should be able to manage the innova- tion process, and special importance should be paid to the field of knowledge management, i.e. management of production, sharing and use of knowledge capital in organization.
with production. With increasing use of integrated computer aided design and manufacturing systems (CAD/CAM), just in time (JIT) and other technologies, and labour and other physical resource costs accounting for an ever smaller proportion of overall costs, the need to integrate research, design, development, manufacturing, distribution and after sales service into seamless chains of creation, production and distribution is likely to increase. We cannot assume that a services economy linked to offshore manufacturing will work. Co-location or deep integration through information and communication technology networks and logistics and distribution networks will increasingly replace arms-length, off-shore, low wage manufacturing. And this has profound implications for investment attraction, structural adjustment, infrastructure development, and skilling.
A higher rate of innovation is considered an important factor. In accordance with the new growth theory, the generation of knowledge is viewed as an endogenous process, which responds to market stimuli, such as expansion of possibilities for profit generation, development of production
The knowledgeeconomy offers organizations and society an unprecedented opportunity for creating the future. This is a bountiful climate in which ideas will be valued, but only as they are applied to advance society. The answers lie in an effective innovation strategy, redefined according to the flow of knowledge- “ideas to prosperity”. The foundation for a new economic world order has been laid- one based upon knowledge, innovation and international collaboration.
world full of both economic and political changes. The knowledge-based economy promotes innovation, initiative, entrepreneurship, and dynamism, being the economy whose one production factor is knowledge (Skrodzka, 2016). Changing the paradigm of development, in the global economy, leads to an unprecedented increase in the value of science and education for social progress. Given the latest trends in the global development of the emerging countries of the market economy, the most important is the focus on building a knowledge-based economy. This means that the main priority should be to develop human skills, focusing on: education, science, and vocational training. Only in this way is it possible to integrate into the rapid processes of globalization. The knowledgeeconomy also envisaged increasing the intensity of new knowledge and increasing the globalization of economic activities. Increasing the intensity of knowledge was in turn influenced by the ever-changing information revolution and technological change. The knowledge-based economy has transformed the business world by re-evaluating the role of innovation as a core process of production, and as an important factor in business success.
The knowledgeeconomy currently presupposes that each organization manages its knowledge and in doing so intentionally endeavors to achieve a long-term competitive advantage. In other words the key source of success is no longer information as such, but the right knowledge which is associated with a specifi c bearer – employee who must constantly develop this in a currently highly competitive environment. The goal of this article is to identify and evaluate the conditions for the use of the resource approach focused on the management of knowledge in the current knowledgeeconomy across all economic branches. The research is descriptive and empirical by nature, because the primary data has been collected using the survey method, including fact-fi nding techniques such as questionnaires and interviews. According to the results of the quantitative research focused on education in Czech organizations, 66.5% of the surveyed organizations make use of some type of education or training at work. However, one third of Czech organizations still do not educate their employees and do not work with knowledge development and management in any way. The following recommendations can be given to organizations nowadays: (1) identify and overcome the barriers to knowledge sharing through fostering effective relationships, (2) the employees’ willingness to participate in the learning process needs to be enhanced, (3) the organization’s management should introduce a refl ective process and a career development process leading to effective knowledge sharing and (4) the role of the mentor and coach is crucial in effi cient organizational learning. The main areas which affect knowledge development in organizations are based on cooperation and communication. This refers to both the organizational culture and the climate. Those areas are crucial for employee and organizational knowledge transfer and development.
Another essential pillar for the knowledge-economy development represents the ICT which is believed to have the significant power to enhance the quality and cost-efficiency of the existing production, generate new education, business, and healthcare opportunities . It is therefore of vital importance that countries use its full potential in all relevant aspects of their economies. Investments in ICT can improve productivity and en- hance competitiveness levels across various sectors. In order to establish a sound information framework, it is essential to gain support from relevant stakeholders, namely governmental bodies, private sector, individual us- ers, ICT providers, etc. Additionally, of equal importance is the development of the related human capital that would enable its effective utilization. The key actor in charge of the ICT aspect is the ictQATAR, acting as a supreme council for the ICT in the state of Qatar that regulates the ICT use, drafts legislation, formulates the vi- sion and the strategy . It has also developed the ICT national plan that is comprised of twelve different initi- atives and programs to be able to secure the benefits from the associated investments. Overall, even though the national ICT strategy has been devised there is still an important task of setting out the specific goals and time- frames, as well as allocating adequate budgets. The Figure 1 presents a model of knowledge-based economy using a fuzzy approach.
networking – network creation, which integrate different kind of companies, oriented around the value chain vector generates rapid economic growth: the speed of technical, human and economic flows amplifies a lot, generating real explosive effects; (6) products value rises exponentially with the value of the market share – the effect of networking leads to a situation in which as bigger as the volume of one kind of product becomes, so its market share is, and its value rises; (7) rising importance of middle levels in the economy – the amplification of volume and complexity of information and knowledge determines the rapid growth of info-intermediaries and of there impact on functioning and performing of the economy; (8) buyers get great power, and sellers get new opportunities – the possibility for the buyers to rapidly obtain the best information they can get just through one “click” confers them a higher possibility to choose and rapidly procure the product / service they need; in the same time, there are some new opportunities for producers and sellers, because, by holding relevant information about markets they know that to produce, at what prices to sell and which are the best market shares; (9) the transaction with goods and services become more and more personalized – rapid and cheap access to information about the specifics of demand reflects into manufacturing and selling of personalized product / services, which determines a substantial diminishing of stocks and of waiting times; (10) availability of any product everywhere – you can order instantly by e-commerce on- line the product you wish and you can get it very fast; so, the gap between the wish to buy and the possibility to do it tends to diminishes to zero in some cases.
Past literature view knowledge as an object and the main resource for products and services (Connell and Voola, 2007; Cao and Xiang, 2012; Yu et al, 2013), whereas others look at knowledge as a process (Ahmad and Daghfous, 2010), a business transaction process (Barachini, 2009), a business objective to create business value (Coakes, 2006), and that knowledge is situation-dependent and context sensitive (Bennet and Bennet, 2007). Information and knowledge are not possessed by the organization per se, but rather by the individuals within it (Cecez-Kecmanovic, 2000). Apart from the literature on knowledge sharing, literature from the areas of knowledgeeconomy (Powell and Snellman, 2004; Felin et al, 2009), knowledge management (Darroch, 2003; Nonaka, 2007; Chen, 2009; Jayasingam et al, 2010; Konstantinou and Fincham, 2010; Hana, 2012; Wang et al, 2012; Yazhou and Jian, 2013), organizational learning (Chang and Lee, 2007; Yang, 2007; Chiou and Chen, 2012), and organizational citizenship behaviour (Al-Zu'bi, 2011; Kabasakala et al, 2011; Lathalavanya and Thenmozhi, 2011; Ramasamy and Thamaraiselvan, 2011; Lee et al, 2013), all contribute to the notion that knowledge in organizations resides within individuals.
Approaches associated with Farm Systems Research (FSR) (second column) display a narrow focus on farm context(s), and less on wider, multi-level issues. However, on-farm issues routinely transcend the farm itself, and whilst more recent FSR has incorporated an understanding of those very issues, it is increasingly aligned with the AIS perspective and other systems approaches (Darnhofer et al., 2012; Klerkx et al., 2012b). Agricultural knowledge and information systems (AKIS) are primarily concerned with the development of knowledge and information in the agricultural system, and particularly on the functioning of extension services. A lot can be taken from this perspective that is, in many ways, a natural sibling to AIS. However, the AIS tradition departs from AKIS in placing emphasis on interaction amongst all the various actors within the agricultural domain that contribute to innovation. Innovation systems approaches have been employed to identify and offer solutions to complex agricultural problems, variously termed “barriers”, “bottlenecks” and “systemic problems” in agricultural systems in both the developed (Lamprinopoulou et al., 2012) and developing world (Hounkonnou et al., 2012; Kebebe et al., 2015). As such, AIS is a product of considerable research into agricultural innovation, and is an appropriate vehicle for exploring the barriers to innovation in the UK fresh produce industry at this time: