Time to First Sexual Intercourse

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Determinants of Age at First Sexual Intercourse Among Women in Rural Ethiopia

Determinants of Age at First Sexual Intercourse Among Women in Rural Ethiopia

Abstract: Age at first sex has important implications for gender relations and the organization of family life for in societies. This study aimed to investigate the determinant factors of age at first sexual intercourse among women in Rural Ethiopia. The 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey was used to explore the determinant factors of age at first sexual intercourse. The study considered 10,417 women aged 15-49 years from nine regions and one city administration. The accelerated failure time models were employed with the help of R statistical package and STATA soft wares. The median time of age at first sexual intercourse was 17 year with 95% CI; (16.90, 17.11). Log-logistic accelerated failure time model was better than weibull and log-normal models based on Akaike’s information criterion and graphical evidence. The result showed that, region, women’s educational level, wealth index and religion were significantly affect timing of first sexual intercourse. Women who had secondary and higher education prolonged time-to-first sexual intercourse by the factor of ф = 1.38 and ф = 1.34. Improving girls and young women access to education is important for rising the women age at first sexual intercourse, which is vital for empowering them and enhancing their participation in any sector.
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Childhood Behavior Problems and Age at First Sexual Intercourse: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

Childhood Behavior Problems and Age at First Sexual Intercourse: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

maternity hospital in Western Australia, with clinical and questionnaire data collected at 18 and 34 weeks’ gestation. Study children and their families were then followed up at ages 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 14, and 17 years with extensive clinical and questionnaire data collected, including behavioral assessments (2, 5, 8, 10, 14, and 17 years), and sexual behavior (17 years). Informed consent was obtained at the time of study enrolment and at every subsequent follow-up. Study protocols were approved by the Human Ethics Committees at King Edward Memorial Hospital and Princess Margaret Hospital for Children in Perth, Western Australia.
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Age at Menarche and Age at First Sexual Intercourse: A Prospective Cohort Study

Age at Menarche and Age at First Sexual Intercourse: A Prospective Cohort Study

require a speci fi c cutoff age for early, average, or late age at FSI as is required for logistic regression methods. For some survival methods, the assumption of proportional hazards is required; namely, that the absolute risk (hazard) for each group of the predictor of in- terest (in this case, earlier, average, and later AAM) changes at the same rate across study time, yielding summary relative risks (hazard ratios [HRs]) that are constant across time in comparing the predictor group with the reference group. The proportionate hazard as- sumption was assessed by inspection of plotted Kaplan-Meier survivor prob- abilities and, where graphical fi nd- ings were ambiguous, examination of Schoenfeld residuals. 59 Where the
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Developmental assets and age of first sexual  intercourse among adolescent African American males in Mobile, Alabama

Developmental assets and age of first sexual intercourse among adolescent African American males in Mobile, Alabama

Written parental consent was obtained by trained in- terviewers at the home of each youth in this study. The refusal rate was only nine percent. Adolescents were scheduled for a time for a group survey administration at numerous locations such as nearby churches, community centers or schools in the neighborhood. The group inter- views ranged from 3 to 40 adolescents at a time, with an average of 22 per group. If the adolescents were not able to make it to a group administration, they were given in- home interviews; about 20% of the youth were intervie- wed in their homes. The overall response rate was 85%.
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Putting the C Back into the ABCs: A Multi-Year, Multi-Region Investigation of Condom Use by Ugandan Youths 2003-2010

Putting the C Back into the ABCs: A Multi-Year, Multi-Region Investigation of Condom Use by Ugandan Youths 2003-2010

A major strategy for preventing transmission of HIV and other STIs is the consistent use of condoms during sexual intercourse. Condom use among youths is particularly important to reduce the number of new cases and the national prevalence. Condom use has been often promoted by the Uganda National AIDS Commission. Although a number of studies have established an association between condom use at one’s sexual debut and future condom use, few studies have explored this association over time, and whether the results are generalizable across multiple locations. This multi time point, multi district study assesses the relationship between sexual debut and condom use and consistent use of condoms thereafter. Uganda has used Lot Quality Assurance Sampling surveys since 2003 to monitor district level HIV programs and improve access to HIV health services. This study includes 4518 sexually active youths interviewed at five time points (2003– 2010) in up to 23 districts located across Uganda. Using logistic regression, we measured the association of condom use at first sexual intercourse on recent condom usage, controlling for several factors including: age, sex, education, marital status, age at first intercourse, geographical location, and survey year. The odds of condom use at last intercourse, using a condom at last intercourse with a non-regular partner, and consistently using a condom are, respectively, 9.63 (95%WaldCI = 8.03– 11.56), 3.48 (95%WaldCI = 2.27–5.33), and 11.12 (95%WaldCI = 8.95–13.81) times more likely for those individuals using condoms during their sexual debut. These values did not decrease by more than 20% when controlling for potential confounders. The results suggest that HIV prevention programs should encourage condom use among youth during sexual debut. Success with this outcome may have a lasting influence on preventing HIV and other STIs later in life.
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Childhood Behavior Problems and Age at First Sexual Intercourse: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

Childhood Behavior Problems and Age at First Sexual Intercourse: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

Although adolescents may have been affected by self-report biases, we asked sexual behavior questions around the time many of the cohort would have recently commenced sexual activity, thereby increasing the likelihood of accurate recall; and we also used computer-assisted reporting, which provides greater perceived confidentiality and adolescents report they are more likely to respond truthfully. 55 In addition, in a reliability

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Sexual Behaviours of Secondary School Students in Port Harcourt

Sexual Behaviours of Secondary School Students in Port Harcourt

Using the Purposive sampling technique, two all- boys, two all-girls and two mixed Senior Secondary (SS) schools were selected for the study. From each selected school, 2 arms were selected from SS1 to SS3 by simple random sampling technique. From the selected arms, the first 30 names in the class registers were recruited for the study, making a total of 60 students per class and 180 students per school. Consent forms were given to the parents of the 1080 selected students but 33(3.1%) parents/guardians did not consent to the study, consequently, their wards were excluded. Eventually, 1047 students participated in the study. A 32 itemed, pretested, structured, self- administered questionnaire was distributed to the 1047 students whose parents gave consent for the study. Information sought included socio- demographics; if the students had had sexual intercourse at least once in their life time, age at first sexual intercourse, if the students had sexual intercourse in the last 3 months before the survey, condom use, number of sex partners in the last 3 months before the survey, if the students had been pregnant at least once and if they watch pornographic movies. Having sexual intercourse in the last 3 months before the survey was regarded as being currently sexually active. The questions were adopted from the sexual behaviours section of the 2013 Youth Risk Behaviour Survey questionnaire [11]. Data were entered into SPSS version 20.0 statistical software. Univariate analysis was done to describe the socio-demographic characteristics and sexual behaviours of the study participants.
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Volume 8 - Article 3 | Pages 61–92

Volume 8 - Article 3 | Pages 61–92

In this paper we analyze data from Italy. In this country, young adults tend to wait to have sexual intercourse considerably longer than their counterparts in other Western countries do (Bozon and Kontula 1997; Cazzola 1999; Ongaro 2001). Our attention is directed towards the reproductive health risks of young people who do not use contraceptive methods at first sexual intercourse. Obviously, this indicator needs to be studied in a multi-dimensional context and may be insufficient when considered on its own. More precisely, the study of risk connected with behavior is flawed when the contraceptive method is not known, as the method may not be suitable for the prevention of STDs and/or pregnancy. This is a concern particularly in Italy where traditional contraceptive methods are still used, even by adults (Note 1) (Bonarini 1999; Spinelli et al., 2000). Because of the limits of available data, this study concentrates on the non-use of contraception at first-time sexual intercourse as a risk indicator, not on different types of birth control methods. This indicator will provide an underestimated risk measure of being exposed to pregnancy (because even when birth control is used, the method involved may not be fully effective), and an even more underestimated risk measure for the exposure to STDs (even effective contraceptive methods such as oral contraceptives do not provide protection against STDs) (Note 2). The indicator may however overestimate risks because especially when first sexual intercourse takes place after first marriage, non-contraception may be a choice, although first sexual intercourse in Italy for recent cohorts is almost completely detached from marriage (Ongaro, 2001).
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Sexual health of young adults and age at first intercourse

Sexual health of young adults and age at first intercourse

methodologies employed illustrate some of the challenges involved in conducting research on the effects of early first sexual intercourse, such as convenience samples, categorization of age groups with little explanation, possible recall bias over long time periods, and self reports of a history of STIs. Since many STIs are asymptomatic and diagnosis may also depend on access to health care, reliance on self reports probably results in substantial under-reporting of infection (Wellings & Cleland, 2001). It is likely that this under-reporting is not randomly distributed across factors (e.g., age, race, education, and socioeconomic status) that may influence whether a person receives regular health care. Therefore, using self-reports could introduce problems with biased misclassification. Also, the measure of ever having an STI gives no indication of whether the infection was recent. This means that positive responses may indicate an infection that occurred early in adolescence rather than an infection in adulthood.
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Impact of Intervention Program on Non Pregnant Women's Knowledge and Genital Hygiene Practices Regarding Bacterial Vaginosis

Impact of Intervention Program on Non Pregnant Women's Knowledge and Genital Hygiene Practices Regarding Bacterial Vaginosis

Tables (3) reveal the distribution of studied women according to their history, regarding the age of menarche, nearly half (46.3%) of women reported that they had their menarche from 13 to 15 years while the remaining 8.7% had their menstruation after their 18th birthday. As the reaction to the menstruation within last 14 days, more than one third of the women (36.3%) had menses within last 14 days, bout 1.3% had Prior STD history. Also 67.5% of women had their age at first sexual intercourse < 20 years. Also 38.7% of women had Sexual intercourse ≤ 1 time/week. Concerning Last sexual intercourse, only 20% of women had Last sexual intercourse < 48 hours. While 6.3% current used of antibiotic. More than half of women (53.7%) reported current IUD used. according to use of vaginal douching, 21.3% women had douching > 1 time/week , 11.3% used douching inside vagina, and 13.7% had recent use < 48 hours. Table (4) Describes the correct knowledge of women about definition, causes, risk factors, and signs and symptoms of bacterial vaginosis. The percentage of women able to correctly define bacterial vaginosis as natural balance of organisms in the vagina is changed jumped from 6.3% to 60% after the intervention program. This 10-folds increase was extremely statistically significant (p=0.0001). When asked to give the causes of bacterial vaginosis, only 35.0% of the women gave a correct answer, while 21.2% didn’t know. After the intervention program, 43.7% could choose a correct answer, while the percentage of those who didn’t know decreased to 3.7%. This difference was highly statistically significant (p=0.002). Knowledge about the risk factors of bacterial vaginosis improved from 32.5% to 43.7% after the intervention program and this increase was highly statistically significant (p=0.003). On the other hand, only 66.7% of the women correctly identified the signs and symptoms of bacterial vaginosis ,this percentage rose to 93.7% after the intervention program with statistically significant difference (p=0.0001). Finally, the mean and SD of the overall percentage of adequate knowledge related to bacterial vaginosis improved from 4.267±3.55 to 7.07±2.45, with a highly significant difference (p=0.000).
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Mediators of the Association Between Age of First Sexual Intercourse and Subsequent Human Papillomavirus Infection

Mediators of the Association Between Age of First Sexual Intercourse and Subsequent Human Papillomavirus Infection

The racial and ethnic distribution for this study sample was 59% white, 12% black, 13% Hispanic, 9% Asian, and 7% other. Mean participant age was 20.4 years ( ⫾ 2.1 years), mean age of menarche was 12.3 years (⫾1.2 years), and mean age of first sexual in- tercourse was 16.7 years ( ⫾ 1.8 years). Mean lifetime number of sexual partners was 4.2 (⫾3.9), mean number of sexual partners in the past 6 months was 1.3 (⫾0.9), and mean frequency of vaginal inter- course in the previous 6 months was 1.4 times per week. Condom use during the past 6 months was reported by 144 participants (28.8%) as never or rarely, by 80 participants (16.0%) as sometimes, and by 259 participants (51.8%) as most or all of the time. Forty-seven percent reported use of oral contracep- tives in the previous 6 months, and 10% reported a history of an STI other than HPV. More than 25% of participants reported having smoked at least 100 cigarettes in the past, 152 (42.0%) drank alcohol at least once a week, and 30 (8.5%) used illicit drugs at least once a week. The mean score on the scale mea- suring alcohol and drug use related to sexual behav- iors was 3.4 out of a possible 9. The mean age of the main sexual partner was 21.3 years ( ⫾ 2.8 years). The racial distribution of the main sexual partner was 47.8% white, 10.6% black, 11.0% Hispanic, 2.4% Asian, and 28.2% other. The mean number of part- ners’ sexual partners was 2.6 ( ⫾ 2.5). The racial and ethnic distribution of the participants was represen- tative of the ethnic distribution of the total female undergraduate population. Compared with nonpar- ticipants, participants were slightly older and had
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Regret about the Timing of First Sexual Intercourse: The Role of Age and Context  ESRI WP217  November 2007

Regret about the Timing of First Sexual Intercourse: The Role of Age and Context ESRI WP217 November 2007

Results: The median age of first vaginal sex was 18 for men and 19 for women. Median age at first sex had decreased by 4 years for men and 5 years for women over the last five decades. Sex was a ‘spur of the moment’ decision for 39% of men and 29% of women who had vaginal sex for the first time when they were aged 20+ compared to 74% of men and 56% of women who had sex at age 15 or less. Less than 1% of men and women whose first experience of intercourse occurred over the age of 20+ were unwilling or forced. These figures were 8% of men and 27% of women among those whose first sex was at age 15 or younger. A substantial minority (14% of men and 19% of women) said they wished that they had waited longer before having their first sexual experience. This increased to 28% of men and 52% of women who had their first sex before the age of 17. Controlling for age of first sex, the context and circumstances remain important predictors of subsequent regret. Conclusions: Younger age at first sex was associated with weaker planning, lower autonomy, a less stable relationship with partner and higher levels of regret. However, regret after early sexual initiation was not universal and young age per se was not responsible for higher levels of regret. Instead, the lower knowledge and skills of early debutants and their impact on levels of planning, preparedness and willingness lead to later regret.
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When and Where Do Youths Have Sex? The Potential Role of Adult Supervision

When and Where Do Youths Have Sex? The Potential Role of Adult Supervision

Participants completed a self-administered, confidential ques- tionnaire about their health behaviors and their activities after school. The survey asked 5 questions about sexual intercourse: “How old were you when you had sexual intercourse for the first time?” “During your life, with how many people have you had sexual intercourse?” “During the past 3 months, with how many people have you had sexual intercourse?” “Where did you have sexual intercourse the last time?” “What time of day did you last have sexual intercourse?” For the questions about number of sex partners, the choices went from “0” to “6 or more partners.” Six was used as the default value for those who filled in “6 or more.” Two questions asked about the number of days per week and the number of hours per day after school that students were not supervised by adults. The number of days per week unsupervised was multiplied by the number of hours unsupervised per day to obtain an estimate of the total number of hours unsupervised per week for each student. The number of days that students were
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Psychosocial correlates of condom usage in a developing country

Psychosocial correlates of condom usage in a developing country

The current work highlights some similarities and dis- similarities among males, females, and the general popula- tion with regard to condom use (the last time one had sexual intercourse) in Jamaica. Condom use (the first time one had sexual relations) with a partner, one’s partner having had another partner/other partners, self-efficacy, and being mar- ried, were statistically significant factors for condom use (the last time one had sexual relations) across the sexes. Self- efficacy, therefore, had a stronger association with condom use (the last time one had sexual intercourse) for females than males. This suggests that females who have a greater desire to protect themselves from HIV, AIDS, pregnancy, and STIs in general were significantly more likely to have their partners use a condom than were males. However, males were more likely to use a condom than their female counterparts, indi- cating that material supremacy for males gives them vetoing powers over condom usage compared with females, and this accounts for some of the condom usage differences between the sexes. It is this economic supremacy that justifies the male partner’s ability to dictate the determination of a method of contraception, because economically disadvantaged females will say that the males are the bread winners, and so embodied in reality is their relinquishing of contraception decisions to their partners. 29 It is this fact that accounts for males opin-
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Judging in the Presence of Women as Legal Persons – Feminist  alternative to the Indian Supreme Court Judgment in  Sakshi v. Union of India

Judging in the Presence of Women as Legal Persons – Feminist alternative to the Indian Supreme Court Judgment in Sakshi v. Union of India

Sakshi also submitted that Article 15(3) of the Constitution of India stipulates that the state can make special provisions in favour of women and children, under which power Section 376(2)(f) IPC has been enacted which stipulates an aggravated penalty for the rape of girl- children below the age of 12. According to Sakshi, the special provisions that the state is empowered to make must be adequate to serve the purpose, but the narrow definition of rape renders Section 376(2)(f) ineffective in cases of child abuse involving other kids of rape. It is again true that as long as only one kind of rape is defined as rape by the law, child abuse involving other kinds of rape will fall through the cracks of law. But it is the same for sexual violence against adult women. Therefore this argument of Sakshi again somehow usurped the focus of the legal point from the need to acknowledge the sexual harms of all women to the need to protect girl-children. Sakshi’s move here to focus its arguments on the plight of the girl- child had grave consequences for the outcome of the case – the judgment dealt at length with the issue of treatment of child victims of sexual violence in the criminal justice system. In my view, if the petition had not diluted the issue of whether women in general have the right to have their sexual harms acknowledged by the criminal law by concentrating disproportionately on the issue of child abuse, the Court might not have found the easy way out. By easy way, I mean the way of making provisions in favour of protection of girl-children, often preferred by patriarchal institutions to make up their liberal credentials, than to make provisions that safeguard the sexual rights of women. Another example of such preference for the easy way is
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Community based trial of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis to prevent pelvic inflammatory disease: the POPI (prevention of pelvic infection) trial

Community based trial of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis to prevent pelvic inflammatory disease: the POPI (prevention of pelvic infection) trial

The trial will be the first to show if screening for chlamy- dial infection can reduce the incidence of PID in a British population. It will also show if non-invasive screening of high risk, difficult to access groups such as women aged <20 and those from black ethnic minorities is feasible out- side health care settings. Over 40% of young people in the UK now attend higher education adding to the generalis- ability of the results. If the intervention is effective, extending such screening programmes to the community should help to reduce the burden of PID. Finally by pro- viding new information on both the effectiveness of screening and on the natural history of chlamydial infec- tion and the influence of BV, the study will contribute to the evidence base for the UK National Strategy for Sexual Health. The trial will report in December 2008.
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Risky sexual practices among youth attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Risky sexual practices among youth attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Female youth reported a higher number of older male sex- ual partners. However, it was not apparent who the sexual partners of the young men were. There might be a core group of young females with many partners who do not access services at the STI clinic like the IDC. Reasons which have been suggested to explain the higher number of sexual partners that males report are; their desire for sexual gratification, to gain social status or over reporting in order to be respected as a man among their male peers to whom they look for guidance and support. [20] One approach to help these male youth will be to explore ways to facilitate social support and suggestions as to how to reduce the number of sexual partners.
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School Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Practice and Associated Factors in Nekemte Town, West Ethiopia, 2017

School Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Practice and Associated Factors in Nekemte Town, West Ethiopia, 2017

HIV/AIDS have been a threat to Ethiopia since the mid- 1980s [17]. Ethiopian HIV Behavioral Surveillance Survey (BSS) also indicates, having multiple sexual partners and non-condom use among in school Adolescents was significant which increases their exposure to HIV/AIDS infection [18]. In Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey, 2011, male adolescents were more likely to have reported STD or associated symptoms [19]. These groups of population in the country may face the increased risks of HIV by virtue of their social position, unequal life chances, rigid and stereotypical gender roles and poor access to education and friendly health services. They also have limited access to reproductive health services that focus on the special needs of adolescents. Inadequate knowledge about adolescents’ sexual behavior by the society, cultural influences and the limited capacity of implementing reproductive health services hinders the provision of reproductive health education and services to the young group [20].
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A Psychological Perspective on Sex

A Psychological Perspective on Sex

The questions included some of the following: "In what sexual activities do you engage, past and/ or present (i.e. sexual intercourse, anal intercourse, oral sex, kissing)?[r]

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Knowledge, attitude and practice on HIV/AIDS among rickshaw pullers  in Chttagong City

Knowledge, attitude and practice on HIV/AIDS among rickshaw pullers in Chttagong City

In order to explore the future course of the HIV epidemic and to develop the most appropriate preventive measures, it is important to monitor the prevalence of HIV-related risk behaviors among high risk groups, the behavior networks within and between the high risk groups and their changes over time, which is the role of behavioral surveillance. In 1998, Bangladesh adopted one of the world's most comprehensive behavioral surveillance systems. Updated surveillance has revealed the presence of close sexual networks of IDUs with other high risk groups, especially female sex workers (FSWs) (Anonymous, 2009; Anonymous, 2004; Anonymous. 2003; Anonymous. 2002). FSWs were, on the other hand, shown to have close sexual links with multiple male client groups, not restricted to IDUs. According to recent rounds of behavioral surveillance, rickshaw pullers in Dhaka city are among the client groups of street and brothel based FSWs. The study showed that around as 50% to 72.8% of the rickshaw pullers having sex with FSWs in the last month and 12 months, respectively, without consistently using a condom
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