Tithonia diversifolia

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Antioxidant effect of plant extracts of the leaves of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl ) A  Gray on the free radical DPPH

Antioxidant effect of plant extracts of the leaves of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl ) A Gray on the free radical DPPH

This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant and cytotoxic effect of aqueous and ethanol extracts from the leaves of Tithonia diversifolia (Asteracea) on the free radical DPPH • and larvae of Artemia salina Leach, respectively. Samples of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray was collected in the district of Fazendinha, Macapá- Amapá. The selected leaves were dried at 40C and then ground in a mill to obtain a fine-grained powder. After obtaining the aqueous and ethanolic plant extracts, they were subjected to phytochemical analysis for identification of metabolites classes. Phytochemicals tests were conducted to verify the presence of saponins, organic acids, reducing sugars, phenols, tannins, alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, resins, proteins and amino acids. The evaluation of the antioxidant activity was assessed by the sequestrant ability extracts on free radical DPPH • (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl- hidrazila). There was prepared a methanol solution of DPPH at the concentration of 40mg / ml. Where the aqueous and ethanolic crude extracts T. diversifolia were diluted in methanol at the following concentrations (5-2,5-1,0- 0,75-0,5 and 0.25 mg/mL). To evaluate the cytotoxic activity the adult forms (metanauplius) of Artemia salina were incubated for 24 hours with the following concentrations of 1000 extracts, 750, 500, 250, 100 and 50 µg/mL, thereby groups were assigned according to their respective concentration and all tests were performed in triplicate. The result of phytochemical analysis of crude aqueous extract Tithonia diversifolia revealed the presence of saponins, organic acids, reducing sugars, phenols, tannins, alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, and resins. In crude ethanol extract was revealed the presence of those found in the aqueous crude extract plus protein and amino acids. It is observed a strong antioxidant activity of both the aqueous extract as ethanol dose dependent on the type DPPH • with IC 50 of 2.273 and 0.630 mg / mL, respectively, for EBA and EBE. Regarding the cytotoxic activity, is observed

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Antifleas Activity and Safety of Tithonia diversifolia and Senna didymobotrya Extracts

Antifleas Activity and Safety of Tithonia diversifolia and Senna didymobotrya Extracts

Methods: Antifleas activity of Tithonia diversifolia and Senna didymobotrya were compared with Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium, and also their acute toxicity in Wister rats and dermal and eye irritation in Newzealand albino rabbit were studied using a method reported previously. Crude aqueous extracts of flowers and leaves for T. diversifolia, leaves of S. didymobotrya and flowers of C. cinerariifolium were prepared and serial dilutions of the crude extracts and control drugs were prepared. Whatman’s filter paper no.1 stripes were coated with plant extracts which were used to investigate antifleas activity, using fleas obtained from mongrel dogs. The activities were observed after 24 and 48 hours by counting the number of life fleas in the polypylene tubes.

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Enhancement of microbial degradation of crude oil polluted soil using Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia) and wild groundnut (Calapogonium mucunoides)

Enhancement of microbial degradation of crude oil polluted soil using Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia) and wild groundnut (Calapogonium mucunoides)

In view of this, various suitable inorganic and organic materials have been applied to optimize these factors to enhance speedy biodegradation of the pollutants. Agro- wastes are organic materials developed from agricultural activities; and the use of agro-wastes appears to be a better option in ensuring an effective bioremediation of crude oil pollution. They are also recognized to be a cheaper means of bioremediation and proven to be more economically feasible and more versatile treatments. Agro-wastes are also the main source of nutrient supply to crude oil utilizing microbes (Swannell et al., 1996), which are largely dependent on these nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) for survival. The agro-wastes used in this study were “Mexican sunflower” (Tithonia diversifolia) and “wild groundnut” (Calapogonium mucunoides).

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CHEMICAL VARIABILITY OF TITHONIA DIVERSIFOLIA (HEMSL ) A  GRAY LEAF AND STEM OIL FROM CÔTE D’IVOIRE

CHEMICAL VARIABILITY OF TITHONIA DIVERSIFOLIA (HEMSL ) A GRAY LEAF AND STEM OIL FROM CÔTE D’IVOIRE

ABSTRACT: Tithonia diversifolia was collected from 27 localities of Côte d’Ivoire. The oils of the leaves and stems obtained by hydrodistillation using Clevenger-type apparatus have been studied by GC and GC-MS. The identified components accounted for 91.4% - 96.9% of leaves and 93% – 95.6% of stems. The content of the main components varied from sample to sample. α-pinene (0.9 – 47.4%), limonene (0.5 – 65.5%), (Z)-β-ocimene (0.0 – 35.9%) and 3-methyl-2 (2-methylbuthenyl) furan (0 – 94%) were noted as major components of the oil from the leaves. Whereas, the stem oil was rich in α-pinene (5.8 – 89.8%), sabinene (0. – 5.2%), β-pinene (0.3 – 10.5%), limonene (1.3 – 36.5%), (Z)-β-ocimene (0 – 39.3%), thymol (0 – 4%) and spathulenol (0.1 – 11.8%). Due to the chemical polymorphisme, the results of oil obtained from leaves and stems were submitted to hierarchical cluster, principal components analysis and discriminant factoriel analysis which allowed the distinction of two groups within the oil samples of each organ. According to the essential oil from the leaves, the composition of the oils of the first group (10 samples) was predominated by α-pinene, limonene and (Z)-β-ocimene, when the second group (17 samples) was rich in α-pinene, limonene, (Z)-β-ocimene and 3-methyl-2 (2-methylbuthenyl) furan. Concerning the stems oil, the group I (7 samples) was characterized by α- pinene, sabinene, β-pinene, limonene, (Z)-β-ocimene, thymol and spathulenol. The group II was dominated by α-pinene, limonene, (Z)-β- ocimene, β-pinene and sabinene.

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Comparative effects of organic manure (tithonia diversifolia and bat guano) on the crop yield of corn  (in monoculture                                            and in association with cowpea) in ngandajika region in central democratic republic of Congo

Comparative effects of organic manure (tithonia diversifolia and bat guano) on the crop yield of corn (in monoculture and in association with cowpea) in ngandajika region in central democratic republic of Congo

The present crop association system many advantages, it is used by good producers in tropical areas, but it also faces the same constraints as the conventional culture dominated by monoculture. Given the low availability of organic amendment, the Tithonia diversifolia offers some advantages that may well motivate its use in lieu of most organic fertilizers include: The use of compost and animal manure including inadequate 1st of materials required for their manufacture can stand as an obstacle. Where materials are available 1st; transportation can be a problem. As for green manure, the use of this technique faces its perception by farmers. How can we be content to lose a whole growing season to the cultivation of a plant species that we will not bury reap a product. Given all these constraints, then we can look at that Tithonia diversifolia:

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Investigation of anti oxidative stress in vitro and water apparent diffusion coefficient in MRI on rat after spinal cord injury in vivo with Tithonia diversifolia ethanolic extracts treatment

Investigation of anti oxidative stress in vitro and water apparent diffusion coefficient in MRI on rat after spinal cord injury in vivo with Tithonia diversifolia ethanolic extracts treatment

Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced secondary oxidative stress associates with a clinical complication and high mortality. Treatments to improve the neurological outcome of secondary injury are considered as important issues. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the anti-oxidative effect of Tithonia diversifolia ethanolic extracts (TDE) on cells and apply the pharmacological effect to SCI model using a MRI imaging algorism. Methods: The anti-oxidation properties were tested in a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Rat liver cells (clone-9) were treated with various doses of TDE (0 ~ 50 μ g/ml) before exposed to 250 μ M H 2 O 2 and cell survival was determined by MTT and LDH assays. We performed water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)

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Anti-bacterial Activity of Tithonia diversifolia, Secamore afzelli and Jaundea pinnata Against Plasmid-bearing Multiple Antibiotics Resistant Bacteria from Different Water Sources in Akure, Nigeria

Anti-bacterial Activity of Tithonia diversifolia, Secamore afzelli and Jaundea pinnata Against Plasmid-bearing Multiple Antibiotics Resistant Bacteria from Different Water Sources in Akure, Nigeria

Abstract: This study aims at assessing the antibacterial efficacies of some plant leaves. In this study, the antibacterial efficacies of Tithonia diversifolia Harm, Secamore afzelli Linn, and Jaundea pinnata Linn were assayed against plasmid- bearing multiple antibiotics resistant Gram-negative bacteria isolated from different water sources in Akure local government, Nigeria. The extracts of the plant leaves were prepared using cold water, hot water, Petroleum ether and Ethanolic solvents. The plant leaves of Tithonia diversifolia, Secamore afzelli and Jaundea pinnata were air-dried and pulverized using an electric blender which were soaked in 1 liter of solvent each for 72 hours after which it was sieved using muslin cloth and filtered using Whatman No 1 filter paper. Filtrates collected in beaker were concentrated in vacuousing rotary evaporator. The extracts were then reconstituted in tween 20 and sterilized with the aid of Millipore membrane filter. Agar well diffusion technique was done by using 1 ml aliquot of 18 hours broth culture that had been adjusted to the 0.5 McFarland standards which was dispensed into sterile Petri dishes and molten sterile Muller-Hinton agar was aseptically poured into the plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Clear zones around the wells were measured in millilitres. The minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts that showed antimicrobial activity were reconstituted by diluting 0.5 g of each in 10 ml of Tween 20 and then sterilized by passing through sterile Millipore membrane filter (0.45 µl). Different concentration of the extracts (50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, 3.125 mg/ml) was used. From this research work, it was observed that the highest plant extract yield was seen in the ethanolic extracts of Tithonia diversifolia, Secamore afzelli and cold water extracts of Jaundea pinnata having 17.8%, 8.6% and 15.7% respectively while the lowest yield was observed in petroleum ether extracts of Secamore afzelli. From the antibacterial analysis, it was observed that Hot water extract of J. pinnata inhibited Acinetobacter baumanni, Salmonella typhimurum while the cold water extracts of T. diversifolia inhibited Enterobacter aerogenes and Shigella dysenteriae.

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EFFECT OF INCREASING DOSES OF Tithonia diversifolia COMPOST ON COPPER PHYTOAVAILABILITY IN CHIVES (Allium Shoenoprasum L.) GROWN ON A CONTAMINATED SOIL OF TSHAMILEMBA, LUBUMBASHI/ DRC

EFFECT OF INCREASING DOSES OF Tithonia diversifolia COMPOST ON COPPER PHYTOAVAILABILITY IN CHIVES (Allium Shoenoprasum L.) GROWN ON A CONTAMINATED SOIL OF TSHAMILEMBA, LUBUMBASHI/ DRC

Currently access to mineral fertilizers is not within the reach of all Katanga scholarships, particularly in vegetable growing. In a part of the development of organic waste and the fight against the terminology of soil contamination by trace elements, this attempt was conducted to evaluate the behavior of chives (Allium scheonoprasum. L) on a contaminated soil of Tshamilemba using compost Tithonia diversifolia.

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Effect of the environment on the secondary metabolic profile of Tithonia diversifolia : a model for environmental metabolomics of plants

Effect of the environment on the secondary metabolic profile of Tithonia diversifolia : a model for environmental metabolomics of plants

Tithonia diversifolia is an invasive weed commonly found in tropical ecosystems. In this work, we investigate the influence of different abiotic environmental factors on the plant’s metabolite profile by multivariate statistical analyses of spectral data deduced by UHPLC-DAD-ESI-HRMS and NMR methods. Different plant part samples of T. diversifolia which included leaves, stems, roots, and inflorescences were collected from two Brazilian states throughout a 24-month period, along with the corresponding monthly environmental data. A metabolomic approach employing concatenated LC-MS and NMR data was utilised for the first time to study the relationships between environment and plant metabolism. A seasonal pattern was observed for the occurrence of metabolites that included sugars, sesquiterpenes lactones and phenolics in the leaf and stem parts, which can be correlated to the amount of rainfall and changes in temperature. The distribution of the metabolites in the inflorescence and root parts were mainly affected by variation of some soil nutrients such as Ca, Mg, P, K and Cu. We highlight the environment-metabolism relationship for T. diversifolia and the combined analytical approach to obtain reliable data that contributed to a holistic understanding of the influence of abiotic environmental factors on the production of metabolites in various plant parts.

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Prospective Bioactive Compounds from Vernonia amygdalina, Lippia javanica, Dysphania ambrosioides and Tithonia diversifolia in Controlling Legume Insect Pests

Prospective Bioactive Compounds from Vernonia amygdalina, Lippia javanica, Dysphania ambrosioides and Tithonia diversifolia in Controlling Legume Insect Pests

Synthetic modification of phytochemical has resulted in more effective and improved bioactive compounds [13]. Synthetic pyrethroids such as cypermethrin, cyahalothrin and deltamethrin based on the natural pyrethrum structural models, have become quite popular and occupy a large share of the pesticide market, mainly because of their broad-spectrum activity and low mammalian toxicity. The most economically important of the natural plant compounds used in commercial insect control are the pyrethrins from the flower heads of pyrethrum Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium [14]. Nicotine isolated from number of species of Nicotiana is also insecticid- al. Botanical products like tobacco extract, neem oil and extract, which can be easily and cheaply collected in rural farmers, have been found promising and useful for common bean pest control [15]-[17]. Likewise the bio- active compounds of Tephrosia vogelii, Azadirachta indica, Annona squamosa, chilli paper Allium sativa have been used successfully in controlling insect pests in common beans and cowpea [18]. Due to the need for the al- ternative to synthetic insecticide, there is a need of evaluating the potential compounds from locally available plant materials known to possess insecticidal properties such as Vernonia amygdalina, Lippia javanica, Dys- phania ambrosioides and Tithonoa diversifolia. These plants have showed effectiveness in insect pest control, for example Vernonia amygdalina have been used to control cowpea bruchid, fungal disease in cowpea and vegetable pests [19], Lippia javanica have been used in controlling aphid population on cabbage (Brassica capi- tata by 24.65%. The plant also has antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal and insect-repellent activity and seems to repel antestia bugs [20]. Dysphania ambrosioides have both repellency and insecticidal which was observed in controlling bean bruchid especially Z. subfasciatus in stored haricot bean. The extract also was observed in controlling aphids in tomato [21]. Likewise Tithonoa diversifolia have been identified to have insect feeding de- terrent characteristics due to presence of 6-methoxyapigenin and to have tagitinins A, B, C and F, with diversi- form, tirotundin, tithonine and sulphurein [22]. There are few reports on insecticidal investigations concerning these plants. Therefore, there is a need of exploiting more about the potential of these plants in controlling insect pests causing damage to common bean.

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The effect of essential oils of Tagetes minuta and Tithonia diversifolia on on-host behaviour of the brown ear tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus

The effect of essential oils of Tagetes minuta and Tithonia diversifolia on on-host behaviour of the brown ear tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus

That the essential oil of T. minuta has a higher repellent effect than the essential oil T. diversifolia, is manifested in the fact that treatment by the former causes the highest percentage of ticks to drop off the host from various body locations and that none of the ticks got attached to the ear pinna, the predilection feeding site. A considerable number of ticks in the control became attached to the ear pinna and just a few dropped off, whereas only one tick got attached to the ear pinna of the animals treated with the essential oil of T. diversifolia, where a considerable percentage of ticks dropped off the host body. Although both essential oils showed significant effects on R. appendiculatus locating their preferred feeding site, the essential oil of T. diversifolia did not prevent the ticks from becoming attached to the ear base, like its counterpart.

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Evaluation of Biochemical and Heamatological Changes in Plasmodium-berghei -Infected Mice Administered With Aqueous Extract of Tithonia diversifolia

Evaluation of Biochemical and Heamatological Changes in Plasmodium-berghei -Infected Mice Administered With Aqueous Extract of Tithonia diversifolia

The bioactive compounds in the leaves of the plant has been isolated and these include sesquiterpenes, alkaloids, tagitinin, saponin and flavonoids etc. (Kuo and Chen, 1998; Gu et al., 2002). Also in 2002 Gu et al isolated three new sesquiterpenoids; 2-alphahydroxytirotundin, tithofolinolide and 3-alpha acetoxydiversifolol, along with eight known sesquiterpene lactones some of which are, 3 beta acetoxy–8 beta– Isobutyrloxyreynosin, tagitinin A and tirotundin in an ethyl acetate extract of the aerial parts of T. diversifolia. A reliable reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method revealed the presence of Tagitinin C and A, an antiplasmodial sesquiterpenes lactones (Goffin et al., 2002). Ether extract from aerial parts of the plant has been shown to have good antiplasmodial activity against three strains of Plasmodium falciparum (Bidla et al., 2004)

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Etude de la biologie reproductive de Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) Gray (Asteraceae) : Espece non indigene invasive en Cote dIvoire

Etude de la biologie reproductive de Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) Gray (Asteraceae) : Espece non indigene invasive en Cote dIvoire

Nous avons parcouru tout le site de l’Université de Cocody (10 ha) pendant toute une saison de végétation de l’espèce, depuis le stade de croissance jusqu’à la dispersion des graines, de Novembre 2008 à Décembre 2009 Nous avons utilisé comme méthode de relevé, un inventaire itinérant. Cette méthode a consisté à parcourir la zone d’étude dans toutes les directions et à recenser tous les peuplements de T. diversifolia rencontrées. Dans cette étude, nous avons utilisé des peuplements naturels de Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae) en croissance maximale. La plante étant buissonnante, un buisson est appelé peuplement dans notre étude (fig. 1). Pour mener à bien celle-ci, les différents peuplements recensés ont été numérotés à l’aide d’étiquettes. Nos investigations sur le site d’étude ont permis de dénombrer 15 peuplements de T. diversifolia. Parmi ces peuplements, 10 ont été sélectionnés de façon aléatoire conformément à la méthode de MUOGHALU et CHUBA (2005). Les capitules de chaque plante ont été étiquetés pendant la floraison et laissés jusqu’à maturation complète. Cette étude portant sur la biologie reproductive, nous avons

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Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Tithonia diversifolia in Experimental Animal Models

Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Tithonia diversifolia in Experimental Animal Models

Carrageenan, a phlogistic agent that is widely used to induce inflammation in experimental animal for the screening of plants that possess anti-inflammatory activity [23,24]. It has a biphasic effect during inflammation induction. Carrageenan was used to induce inflammation in this study and the induced oedema involves the synthesis or release of mediators at the injured site. Such mediators include prostaglandins, especially the E series, histamine, bradykinins, leukotrienes and serotonin, all of which also cause pain and fever [25]. Thus, the extract was able to reduce oedema significantly as evidence by its anti-inflammatory activity. Studies have reported phytochemicals such as alkaloids and flavonoids are responsible for the anti- inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity of prostaglandin synthetase inhibition, prostaglandins which are observed in the late phase of acute inflammation and pain perception [26]. In addition, it has been reported that carrageenan-induced paw oedema test is effectively controlled with the arachidonate cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors due to its COX- dependent mechanism, thus, from the observed results, it is suggested that T. diversifolia may possess arachidonate COX inhibitory property [27].

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Medicinal Plants of Manipur: A Survey

Medicinal Plants of Manipur: A Survey

92 Thunbergia alata, f: acanthaceae Sambal sana khudop Black eyed susan vine Both hill and valley Wild Non marketable 93 Thunbergia grandiflora , f: acanthaceae Sambal khudop Blue sky vine Both hill and valley Wild Non marketable 94 Tinospora cordifolia, f: menispermaceae Ningthoukong-li Gulancha tinospora Valley and foot hills Wild/ cultivated Non marketable 95 Tithonia diversifolia, f: asteraceae Lam numitlei Maxican sunflower Valley and foot hills Wild Non marketable 96 Trapa bispinosa, f: trapaceae, Heikak Water chestnut. Lakes and ponds Wild/ cultivated Marketable 97 Xylosma longifolia, f: flacourtiaceae Nong-leishang Dandal Both hill and valley Wild Non marketable

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Essential oils of indigenous plants protect livestock from infestations of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and other tick species in herds grazing in natural pastures in western Kenya

Essential oils of indigenous plants protect livestock from infestations of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and other tick species in herds grazing in natural pastures in western Kenya

Abstract The effects of formulated essential oils of Tagetes minuta and Tithonia diversifolia on Rhipicephalus appendiculatus infesting livestock were evaluated in semi- field experiments. Forty-five zebu cattle naturally infested with ticks were randomly selected from 15 herds, three animals from each. Of the three animals within each herd, one was treated with 1 g of petroleum jelly (control), one with 1 g of essential oil of T. minuta and one with 1 g of essential oil of T. diversifolia on the inner side of ear pinna, the preferred feeding site of R. appendiculatus. Tick infestation on each treated host animal was monitored daily for 18 days by counting the number of ticks attached to the animals. Within 1–4 days post-treatment, the number of ticks on animals treated with essential oils was reduced by more than half the original population. By the 5th day post-

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P-Available Enhancement Mechanism through Combinations of Organic Matters and Incubation Period in Psammentic Paleudults Soil

P-Available Enhancement Mechanism through Combinations of Organic Matters and Incubation Period in Psammentic Paleudults Soil

Abstract— Understanding the mechanisms underlying the availability of phosphorus (P) is important for improving soil productivity Psammentic Paleudults. This research aimed to determine the mechanism for increasing phosphorus availability due to the application of various organic matters and incubation period in the Psammentic Paleudults soil from Labuhan Batu Selatan District, Sumatera Utara Province. This research was conducted at the Research Laboratory of Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sumatera Utara, using Factorial Completely Random Design with 2 treatment factors and 3 replications. Factor 1 was organic matters (20 tons/ha) consisting of Control, Tithonia diversifolia Compost, Durian Sk in Compost, Empty Fruit Bunches Compost, Chick en Manure, Tithonia diversifolia Compost + Chick en Manure, Durian Sk in Compost + Chick en Manure and Empty Fruit Bunches + Chick en Manure. Factor 2 was the incubation period consisting of 1 week incubation, 2 week s incubation, 3 week s incubation and 4 week s incubation. The results showed that the combination of Tithonia diversifolia compost with chick en manure was able to increase P-available soil higher and reduce Al-P and Fe-P content.Organic matters incubation for 3 week s reduced soil Al-P and Fe-P content. The interaction of compost Tithonia diversifolia+ chick en manure with 3 week s incubation was the best treatment increasing soil P-available and reducing Al-P and Fe-P content in Psammentic Paleudults soil.

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Bacterial Inoculants to Increase the Biomass and Nutrient Uptake of Tithonia Cultivated as Hedgerow Plants in Ultisols

Bacterial Inoculants to Increase the Biomass and Nutrient Uptake of Tithonia Cultivated as Hedgerow Plants in Ultisols

Ultisols require greater amounts of fertilizer application compared to other soils. Unfortunately, the price of synthetic fertilizers has increased over time during the years, making them unaffordable for most Indonesian farmers. Over the last century, efforts to reduce reliance on synthetic agro-chemicals have recently focused on Tithonia diversifolia as a green manure alternative. Generally known by its common name of tree marigold or Mexican sunflower, this plant has attracted considerable attention for its prolific production of green biomass, rich in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (NPK). This outstanding feature and the plant’s capacity to solubilize soil P have recently been capitalized for improving the fertility of highly leached soils in Africa and particularly in Kenya. As microorganisms are expected to play an important role in biomass production and high nutrient uptake of this plant, this issue of importance was pursued further in the following investigation. The aim of this study was to determine the type of bacteria suitable for Tithonia cultivation as hedgerow plants in Ultisols which have higher biomass production and nutrient content. The field experiment was conducted with 5 treatments in a randomized block design (RBD) using 3 replications. The treatments were: without microorganisms inoculation or control (K); phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) (L); Azospirillium (M);PSB + Azospirillium (N); and PSB + Azospirillium + Azotobacter (O). The bacterial substrates were inoculated into the Tithonia rhizosphere in the nursery. The young Tithoniaplants were then planted as hedgerow on Ultisols in the experimental field for 8 months, and pruned once every 2 months. The differences between treatments were statistically significant by HSD test at the 95% level of probability. Treatment L (phosphate solubilizing bacteria) was found to be the most effective, followed by treatment N (PSB +Azospirillum).

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Evaluation of some plant extracts on mycelial growth and sporulation density of fungal pathogens of groundnut (arachis hypogaea l )  in vitro

Evaluation of some plant extracts on mycelial growth and sporulation density of fungal pathogens of groundnut (arachis hypogaea l ) in vitro

The effect of autoclave and ultraviolet light-sterilized aqueous extracts of Tithonia diversifolia, Chromolaena odorata and Tridax procumbens on mycelial growth and sporulation density of fungal pathogens were also determined in vitro. Aqueous extracts of the test plants significantly (p < 0.05) reduced mycelial growth of the fungal pathogens. Tithonia diversifolia extract inhibited mycelial growth of C. arachidicola by 96.17% while C. odorata extract reduced mycelial growth of A. alternata by 90.74%. Tridax procumbens extract suppressed mycelial growth of C. personatum by 92.4% at 7 days incubation. Chromolaena odorata extract reduced sporulation density of C. arachidicola by 81.16% while extract of T. diversifolia induced 81.8% reduction on sporulation density of A. alternata. T. diversifolia extract also curtailed sporulation density of C. personatum by 78.32%. Fungitoxicity attributable to ultraviolet light-sterilization of extracts was comparable to that of autoclave sterilization in all the pathogens. The study revealed that plant extracts can effectively control Cercospora leaf spot disease of groundnut and its causative organisms. However, T. diversifolia C. odorata and T. procumbens, should be used as a potential biocide in plant disease management, as they showed fungicidal and fungitoxic ability.

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Enhancing Maize Productivity and Profitability using Organic Inputs and Mineral Fertilizer in Central Kenya Small-Hold Farms

Enhancing Maize Productivity and Profitability using Organic Inputs and Mineral Fertilizer in Central Kenya Small-Hold Farms

Declining land productivity is a major problem facing smallholder farmers today in Sub-Saharan Africa, and as a result increase in maize grain yield has historically staggered behind yield gains that have been achieved elsewhere in the world. This decline primarily results from reduction in soil fertility caused by continuous cultivation without adequate addition of external nutrient inputs. Improved soil fertility management practices, which combine organic and mineral fertilizer inputs, can enable efficient use of inputs applied, and can increase overall system’s productivity. The trials were established at two sites with different soil fertility status to determine the effects of various organic sources (Tithonia diversifolia, Mucuna pruriens, Calliandra calothyrsus and cattle manure) and their combinations with mineral fertilizer on maize grain yield, economic return and soil chemical properties. Drought spells were common during the peak water requirement periods, and during all the seasons most (90%) of the rainfall was received before 50% flowering. In good and poor sites, there was a significant (p < 0.001) effect of season on maize grain yield. Tithonia diversifolia recorded the highest (4.2 t ha −1 ) average maize grain yield in the poor site, while Calliandra calothyrsus gave the highest (4.8 t ha −1 ) average maize grain yield in the good site. Maize grain yields were lower in treatments with sole fertilizer compared with treatments that included organic fertilizers. The maize grain yields were higher with sole organics compared with treatments integrating organic and inorganic fertilizers. Soil pH increment was statistically significant in the sole manure treatment in good and poor sites (t-test, p = 0.036 and 0.013), respectively. In the poor site, magnesium increased significantly in the sole manure and manure + 30 kg N ha − 1 treatments with t-test p = 0.006 and 0.027, respectively. Soil potassium was significant in the sole manure treatment (t-test, p = 0.03). Generally the economic returns were low, with negative net benefits and benefit cost ratio of less than 1. Inorganic fertilizer recorded the highest net benefit and return to labour (p < 0.001 and <0.01, respectively) in the good site. The treatments that had very high maize grain yields did not lead to improved soil fertility, thus there is need for tradeoffs between yield gains and soil fertility management when selecting agricultural production technologies.

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