Poor dietary selenium (Se) intake and status have been shown to be associated with an elevated risk for various diseases. Key role of Se in human metabolism is at- tributed to its presence in the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) – an antioxidant enzyme which protects cells against harmful effects of free radicals. Se has an immu- nostimulant and anti-inflammatory effect  and it is highly dependent on dietary sources. The north-eastern region of Poland is an area of low Se concentration in soil, and the population is subjected to a particularly high risk of low Se status . All antioxidants in the body (both enzymatic and non-enzymatic) form a total antioxi- dant status of an individual. Miller et al. defined totalantioxidantstatus (TAS) as the sum of endogenous and food derived antioxidants of the extracellular fluid of an individual. Cooperation of all different antioxidants pro- vides greater protection against reactive oxygen and ni- trogen radicals than any single compound alone . The aim of this study was to evaluate serum Se concentration, GSH-Px activity, and TAS value of patients with MS as well as the influence of dietary habits and smoking ciga- rettes on the status.
Schizophrenia is the result of altered cellular homeostasis by oxidative damage in brain which in turn involves in various forms of neurotoxicity including neuronal death. The ethanolic extract of aerial parts Hypericum hookerianum plant has long been used in traditional medicine and in folk treatment for various neurological ailments. The neuroprotective and neurorestorative effect of Hypericum hookerianum was attributed to its antioxidant activity. In the present study the antioxidant potential of Hypericum hookerianum was evaluated in haloperidol induced schizophrenic rat brains. Swiss albino mice of either sex weighing 21-30 g were treated with haloperidol and also treated with Hypericum hookerianum. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the extent of lipid peroxidation, total protein content and also totals antioxidant activity in mice brain. Haloperidol stress caused an alteration in oxidative stress markers with a significance increase in brain lipid peroxidation and decrease in total protein content and totalantioxidant activities in brain homogenate of treated mice. Hypericum hookerianum has significantly minimized the oxidative stress effects by significant decrease in lipid peroxidation level and also an increase in reduced protein level as well as totalantioxidant activities. Results of the present study indicated that Hypericum hookerianum has antioxidant potential against haloperidol -induced oxidative damage in mice brain.
changes are suggested to be effective strategies to pre- vent CVD . The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) recommend the Therapeutic Lifestyle Change (TLC) diet to improve heart health in indivi- duals at risk for CVD. The TLC diet consists of redu- cing intake of saturated and total fat from animal products and increasing the intake of fibrous vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes . Increased fruit and vegetable consumption has been found to play a key role in preventing heart disease. In a follow up of the Nurse ’ s Health Study, an additional serving per day of fruits and vegetables was associated with a 4% reduc- tion in the risk of coronary heart disease . Fruits and vegetables contain many nutrients which may be associated with reduced risk for heart disease, including fiber, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. Phyto- chemicals found in fruits and vegetables have been shown to reduce inflammation, oxidative stress, and other markers of CVD .
As the standard substance, Ascorbic acid showed maximum scavenging capacity of 98.790% at 50 μg/ml concentration and has 6.345 IC50 (Table.2) while clotted cream fortified with cinnamon oil at a concentration 0.75% showed maximum scavenging capacity of 68.023% before thermal treatment while after thermal treatment the percentage is reduced to 61.279%. The clotted cream fortified with clove oil at a concentration 0.50% showed maximum scavenging capacity of 62.209% before thermal treatment while after thermal treatment the percentage is reduced to 59.069%. The clotted cream fortified with combination of both oils at a concentration 0.25% showed maximum scavenging capacity of 70.930% before thermal treatment while after thermal treatment the percentage is reduced to 70.581%. Comparison of antioxidant activity against DPPH Free radical scavenging shows that sample having 0.50% cinnamon essential oil is potent antioxidant before thermal treatment (IC 50 =0.063 ml decline to
Obesity (Ob) is an accepted major risk factor for the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a combination of at least three of five risk factors, which predispose to high oxidative stress (OS), but all obese do not show symptoms of MetS. There is dearth of data comparing OS homeostasis of severely obese adults with and without MetS, and need for biomarkers to help in differential diagnosis. Erythrocytic lipid and protein damage markers, malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCO), antioxidant enzymes erythrocytic superoxide dismu- tase(SOD), catalase (CAT), plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and total an- tioxidant capacity (TAC) as ferric-reducing-ability-of-plasma (FRAP) were compared to understand OS homeostasis among 102 severely Ob (body mass index > 30), 102 Ob with severe (z-score > 2) MetS as per National Cholester- ol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines and 100 healthy non-obese Controls. MDA/PCO and all antioxidant enzymes were lowest for ObMetS, followed by Ob, indicating greater damage to protein moieties of the erythrocytic membrane. Multiple regression analysis confirmed z-scores > 2 as significant predictor of lowered enzymes and TAC. Receiver Operator Curve analysis predicted that TAC was the most potential biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of MetS with an Odds Ratio of 88.5 indicating the high probability that FRAP would be low for ObMetS (z-score > 2) than for Ob with BMI > 30, but z-scores < 1. TAC is qualified as the most effective biomarker to distinguish between severely obese respondents with and with- out metabolic syndrome, and as a useful candidate for study of homeostatic breakdown in metabolic syndrome and the importance of z-score in assess- ment of MetS in obese respondents.
pathways in diabetes including accelerated formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE), polyol pathway and hexosamine pathway. All of which have been proven to be the causative factors in the pathogenesis of microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes. The susceptibility of diabetics to micro- and macrovascular complications may be a function of imbalance between this oxidative stress and endogenous anti-oxidant status in body.
Introduction: The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between neutrophil/ lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and totalantioxidantstatus (TAS), total oxidative status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), paraoxonase, and total thiol (T.thl) in schizophrenic patients compared to healthy control group and investigate the relationship between these parameters and psychopathological symptoms.
lipoproteins (LDL) are consequences of the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It is well known that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles exert as a part of their antiatherogenic effects by counteracting the oxidation of LDL particles (Deakin et al., 2011). Antioxidants, which containing components as rich of flavonoids may cause increases in PON activity by 20% in serum (Mackness et al., 1996). Because of the number of different antioxidants in plasma, serum or other biological samples to measure separately the each antioxidant is difficult. Therefore, since antioxidant components into plasma are additive, the measurement of totalantioxidantstatus (TAS) can only reflect the antioxidative status of plasma (Erel, 2004). Fish are commonly used to estimate the influences of environmental factors due to the sensitivity of their biochemical and hematological parameters under certain conditions (Lopes et al., 2001). As a sign of stress, the using of biochemical and hematological methods provides valuable knowledge about physiological reactions occured against to changing environmental conditions.
several individual and social problems [3,4]. SNHL is a significant cause of morbidity; its adverse effects can be prevented by early diag- nosis and appropriate treatment methods . Genetic mutations, environmental factors (noise exposure), ototoxicity (tobacco smoke exposure, heavy metal toxicity, cisplatin, and gentamy- cin), infectious factors (cytomegalovirus, men- ingitis, mumps, and measles), prematurity and asphyxia account for this condition. However, the etiopathogenesis of childhood prelingual profound SNHL has not been fully elucidated. There are issues with treatment methods. A better understanding of the underlying patho- physiology and molecular mechanisms of pedi- atric prelingual profound SNHL may contribute to the development of new treatment modalities. Adverse oxidative reactions may occur follo- wing an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical, and hydrogen peroxide. These agents are secreted in metabolic and physiological pro- cesses in the organism or due to inadequate enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant mec- hanisms that detoxify the toxic effects of ROS [5-7]. Oxidative stress (OS) can trigger cell death by damaging deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), proteins, and lipids [5-7]. Oxidative stress markers, such as totalantioxidantstatus (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) are markers to recognize the oxidant/antioxidant balance in individuals . Oxidative stress is characterized by increased ROS, which results in injury to intracellular bio- chemical metabolism. It is a significant deter- minant in the pathophysiology of various kinds of SNHLs, including Meniere's disease, tinnitus, age-related hearing loss, noise-induced hearing loss, and drug-induced hearing loss [8-14]. By different mechanisms, ROS-induced oxidative damage may disturb the inner ear cells such as hair cells and auditory nerve cells [8,15]. Expe- rimental studies suggest that superoxide anion radicals may damage the inner ear structures of experimental animals [11,14]. Ciorba et al. rev- ealed the presence of ROS in the perilymph fluid of the inner ear during cochlear implan- tation . Another study investigated TAS,
Background: Oxidative stress injury has been linked with some clinical conditions in newborn. This cannot be readily measured. Measuring placenta and birth weight along with other features may help in predicting likelihood of oxidative stress injury babies have suffered. Aim : to measure birth and placenta weight of new born babies as well as determining cord blood totalantioxidantstatus and malondialdehyde (product of oxidant injury) Methods: Study site was labour ward of Ladoke Akintola University of Teachnology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. Sixty four term newborn babies were recruited into the study. Plasma extracted from cord blood of subjects was used for the laboratory determination of totalantioxidantstatus, malondialdehyde and uric acid. Totalantioxidantstatus and malondialdehyde were measured using methods of Koracevic et al and Satoh et al respectively. Uric acid was measured by enzymatic method. Results: There were positive correlations between placenta weight and TAS(r=0.115;p>0.05), between placenta weight and Uric acid(r=0.075;p>0.05), between birth weight and TAS(r= 0.233,p=0.064), between birth weight and Uric acid(r=0.172;p>0.05). There were significant negative correlations between placenta weight and MDA(r=-0.25;p<0.05),between birth weight and MDA(r=-0.56;p<0.05).
Conclusions: Level of oxidative stress assessed by total oxidant status (TOS), totalantioxidantstatus (TAS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) showed a significantly higher oxidative stress and diminished antioxidant process profile in the sexual abuse group. TOS and OSI values were significantly higher while TAS values were significantly lower compared to the controls. Since oxidative stress mechanism accelerates the cell cycle, it leads to premature cell death which may result in many neuropsychiatric illnesses that have been described in this study of abused adolescents. A more detailed study of oxidative stress mechanisms in adolescents in terms of an increase in the risk of physical disease, as well as possible adverse effects on life span and deterioration in the quality of life and increased risk of acquiring a chronic illness, would be meaningful in seeking answers to epigenetic questions. Keywords: Adolescent, oxidative stress, psychopathology, sexual abuse, total oxidant status, totalantioxidantstatus
oxidative stress can cause deterioration in the hypotha- lamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and thus FMS can occur (22). Oxidative stress can lead to mitochondrial damage and the deterioration of the energy balance and antioxidant de- fense system by affecting the protein kinases. Mitochon- drial damage also takes place in FMS etiopathogenesis (23, 24). In the study of Neval et al., it was shown that total oxidant status and oxidative stress status were higher and totalantioxidantstatus was lower in FMS patients when compared to the controls (25). The study by Fatima et al. showed that lipid peroxidation levels of FMS patients were higher and levels of antioxidant defense system enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione re- ductase in FMS patients were lower than the controls (21). However, there are studies stating that oxidant and anti- oxidant capacity of FMS patients were similar with the control group. Akbas et al. showed that GPx enzyme levels were similar in both FMS patients and healthy individu- als (26, 27). Similarly, Toker et al. indicated that the isch- emia-modified albumin levels were also similar in FMS patients and controls (26). Bozkurt et al. found that the oxidant status and oxidative stress index values of FMS patients were higher than controls but totalantioxidantstatus and paraoxonase-1 levels were similar in patients and controls (28). Regarding these results, there are con- tradictory findings in the literature.
The totalantioxidantstatus of the serum was determined using an automated colorimetric mea- surement method for totalantioxidantstatus de- veloped by Erel . In this method, antioxidants in the serum (plasma) reduced dark blue-green colored 2, 2 ′ -azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6- -sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical to colorless de- creased ABTS form. The alteration of absorbance at 660 nm is related to the totalantioxidant con- centration of the serum. The method identifies the antioxidative effect of the serum against the po- tent free-radical reactions initiated by the gener- ated hydroxyl radical. The results are shown as the micromolar trolox equivalent per liter.
Background: Diabetic peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy is the most common complication seen in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Oxidant system plays a crucial role in its physiopathology. We investigated the changes in the serum levels of totalantioxidantstatus (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and oxidative stress index (OSI) to evaluate the antioxidant efficacy of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) and/or gabapentin in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN).
Each patient’s complete blood count was evaluated using an automatic blood counting device (Abbott Cell Dyn 3500; Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA). Blood samples taken for biochemical analyses were centrifuged at 3,500 rpm for 5 minutes, and the cellular components were discarded. Serum samples were stored at - 80 ° C until analysis. The serum totalantioxidantstatus (TAS) and total oxidant status (TOS) were measured using a colorimetric autoanalyzer (Abbott Aeroset; Abbott Laboratories), and these levels were used to calculate the oxidative stress index (OSI). Plasma S100B levels were measured using an ELISA kit (BioVendor Laboratorni Medicina, Brno, Czech Republic).
Materials and methods: A total of 284 patients who underwent curative resection for primary stage III gastric cancer were enrolled. Total oxidant status, totalantioxidantstatus, and oxida- tive stress index (OSI) were evaluated within 24 hours before surgery, and compared with 120 healthy donors. The correlation between the OSI and survival outcome was analyzed by the Kaplan–Meier method with log-rank test and Cox’s regression methods, respectively. Results: Mean OSI of gastric cancer patients was higher than healthy controls (1.41±0.96 vs 0.78±0.42, P,0.001). All patients were stratified into two groups using the optimal cutoff value (1.42) of OSI using a sensitivity of 94.1% and a specificity of 64.0% as optimal conditions from receiver operating curve analysis. Patients with an OSI $1.42 had poorer mean overall survival (45.6 vs 29.8 months, P=0.022) and mean recurrence-free survival (43.3 vs 28.1 months, P=0.011) than patients with an OSI ,1.42 in univariate analysis, and OSI was also confirmed as an independent predictor for survival for gastric cancer in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 0.541; 95% CI: 0.127–1.102; P=0.01).
decreased the clearance, Vd markedly as compared to control group. In intestinal and liver microsomes BA at 10µM has shown CYP3A4 inhibitory activity significantly (p<0.01), compared with the vehicle group. In pharmacodynamic studies, the combination of metformin with BA provided significant protection against the diabetes induced alterations in the biochemical parameters. In addition, the combination of metformin with BA also improved the totalantioxidantstatus and decreased lipid peroxide levels significantly in diabetic rats compared with BA and metformin alone treated groups. The results revealed that BA led to the PK/PD changes have been due to metformin increased bioavailability, decreased volume of distribution and clearance by inhibiting the CYP3A enzyme. In conclusion, add-on preparations containing boswellia may increase the bioavailability and hypoglycemic action of metformin, and hence should be cautiously used.
Lipid peroxidation induces disturbance of cellular membrane organization, functional loss and modification of proteins and DNA bases, and it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases such as atherosclerosis. Under oxidative stress conditions, the oxidized low- density lipoproteins are unregulated uptake by macrophages with the subsequent foam cell formation and atherogenic development. The aim of the present work was to investigate the impact of Lipofundin 20% on lipids peroxidative processes and its role in atherogenic process in New Zealand rabbits. Malondialdehyde, total hydroperoxides, lipid peroxidation susceptibility and totalantioxidantstatus were determined using spectrophotometric techniques. The eosin/hematoxylin staining was used in order to examine the atherosclerotic lesions formation. The administration of Lipofundin 20% (2 mL/kg) enhanced the plasma lipid profile and consequently the malondialdehyde and hydroperoxides levels. Also was observed a decreased totalantioxidantstatus and a high susceptibility to lipid peroxidation in the treated animals. The results showed that high levels of lipid peroxidation products correlated with atherosclerotic lesions formation in this animal model of atherosclerosis.
Aspirin is irreversibly acetylates cyclooxygenase, thus inactivating this enzyme and blocking prostaglandin synthesis,is rapidly deacetylated by esterases in the body, yielding salicylate, which has anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic effects and anti thrombotic , antioxidant and anti diabetic effects. Diabetes was induced in neonatal rats by streptozotocin (STZ). Rat pups (neonates) were divided in to three groups consisting of six each. It was found that only by 8 weeks of animals and thereafter n5 STZ rats showed mild hyperglycemia. The first group served as control group, second group was treated only with streptozotocin (90mg/kg, i.p) and third group was treated with aspirin (1mg/kg/day, p.o) for one week (0-7days) before streptozotocin. On day 8 th , blood samples were collected and estimated fasting serum glucose levels (10 weeks), total anti oxidant status and lipid profiles for two weeks (8 th and 10 th ). Aspirin treated groups showed no increase in blood glucose levels following STZ treatment when studied for 10 weeks. Totalantioxidantstatus was decreased in STZ treated group and increased in aspirin treated group similarly there was a significant influence on lipid profile following aspirin protection. The present study indicates that aspirin pretreatment seems to protect pancreas from damage caused by STZ and maintains good lipid profile in diabetic rats and increases insulin sensitivity. It also brings about improvement of antioxidantstatus in diabetes mellitus.
Methods: A preliminary study was carried out prior to the actual study to establish the alkali chemical injury on rabbit ’ s cornea and we found that alkali chemical injury with 2 N NaOH showed severe clinical inflammatory features. In actual study, alkali injury with 2 N NaOH was induced in the right eye of 10 New Zealand White rabbits’ cornea. The rabbits were divided into two groups, Group A was given conventional treatment and Group B was treated with both topical and oral Tualang honey. Clinical inflammatory features of the right eye were recorded at 12 hours, 24 hours, 72 hours, 5 th day and 7 th day post induction of alkali burn on the cornea. The histopathological inflammatory features of the right corneas of all rabbits were also evaluated on day-7. The level of totalantioxidantstatus and lipid peroxidation products in the aqueous humour, vitreous humour and serum at day-7 were estimated biochemically. Fisher’s Exact, Chi-Square and Mann-Whitney test were used to analyse the data.