The study was approved by the Ethical Committee of the University La Sapienza. Written consent was obtained by patients and controls. 15 CF patients and 18 CT, with an average age of 27 ± 7 and 28 ± 7 years, respectively, were enrolled in the study. Only non smo- kers, or subjects that had not smoked for at least 1 year, were admitted to the study. Diagnosis of CF was con- firmed by at least two abnormal sweat tests. The CF genotype and general characteristics of the patients are reported in Table 1. All patients were in a stable medical condition, under standard CF therapies such as pancrea- tic enzyme and vitamin supplementation and did not have acute infection (negative C-reactive protein). None of them were taking corticosteroids therapy. None of CT subjects were on pharmacologic therapies and/or dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation.
Eight fatty acids were identified and quantified from the GC analysis followed by GC- MS analysis (Table 2). Two peaks remained unidentified (Figure 1). The fatty acids present in the mixture commonly found in plant seed oil, Oleic acid is present (relative amount, 38.51 %) as the major unsaturatedfatty (mono unsaturatedfattyacid: MUFA) acid (Table 2). Another mono- unsaturatedfattyacid, Eicosenoic acid has been found to be present (relative amount, 1.17 %) in the oil. Good amount of mono unsaturatedfattyacid in the oil is desirable nutritionally since they do not accentuate serum cholesterol levels 12 . One
Repeated frying until 15 batches caused changes in fattyacid composition. Poly-unsaturatedfattyacid (PUFA) (e.g. linoleic and linolenic) drastically decrease, meanwhile there is only a slight increase in trans fattyacid content. Oil composed mainly with unsaturatedfattyacid (soybean and corn oil), have higher deterioration rate compared to palm oil (which is composed from a balance mixture of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids) and coconut oil (which is mainly composed of short chain saturated fattyacid). The deteriorations are also exhibited in the gradual increase of the FFA, Totox values and the formation of secondary oxidation products (conjugated diene and triene). Color change in palm oil, expressed in Yellowness Index, steadily increased during repeated frying. However, the color change did not occur in other cooking oils.
Abstract – The aim of this study was to analyze in detail the changes produced by the enzymatic interesteriﬁcation of BT/RBO blends (beef tallow/rice bran oil) at different proportions, as an alternative for production of trans free fats. It was observed that the increase in the oil content produced a range of the content of saturated fatty acids from 20 to 38% in the blend and a range of polyunsaturated fatty acids from 35 to 18%. In TAG composition, the SUU and SSS type (S: saturated fattyacid; U: unsaturatedfattyacid) increased in concentration as a result of interesteriﬁcation process and this effect was more noticeable when the blend was richer in oil, arriving at 19 and 4% respectively in 50:50 BT/RBO blend. These variations in composition greatly improved the plastic range of BT. The process studied produced new trans free fatty materials with improving suitability as food ingredients. Therefore, promising new materials were developed.
The epoxidation of vegetable oils is more confounded than the epoxidation of unsaturatedfattyacid esters on the grounds that the epoxidized items can be significantly more various (i.e., mono-, di-or tri- epoxides) contingent upon the seed oil birthplace.  Hence the selection of the correct epoxidation technique is significant to create the coveted item. Aside from the conventional strategies to think about epoxidation, techniques like epoxidation using a tungsten-based catalyst, Ti(IV)- joined silica catalyst or Mo(VI) complex catalyst, epoxidation in conventional solvents and neoteric ionic fluids (ILs) are considered.
The most common degradation products generated from unsaturatedfattyacid oxidation are aldehydes, ke- tones, alcohols, and carboxylic acids . These compounds result from cleavage that occurs at unsaturated bond sites. The mixture of oxidation products may be analyzed by instrumental methods such as gas chromatography with mass selective detectors . These methods are very sensitive but require skilled technicians and costly equipment. Sample preparation and analysis time can also be significant. Alternative methods are based on colo- rimetric or spectroscopic techniques . The aldehydes, for example, generally do not contain strong chromo- phores but can be derivatized by reaction with 1-methyl-2-phenylindole and then detected . The biochemi- cally important unsaturated oxidation product, 4-hydroxy nonenal, exhibits absorbance in the ultraviolet (UV) range and may be measured by high performance liquid chromatography using a UV detector .
The leaves and fruit of Blepharis repens observed for the presence of important secondary metabolites like fatty alcohol, unsaturatedfattyacid, diterpene, triterpene, flavonoid, steroid and vitamin-E. These act as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, diuretic, antiasthma, antiarthetic, antiinflamatory, antifertility, anti-stroke, chemo-preservative, immunostimulent and perfumery. This shows the importance of leaves and fruit of Blepharis repens, which can be utilized in various fields of research in near future.
When purified t-VA was added to cultures of mixed ruminal microbes, the concentration of SA initially decreased and subsequently increased. Perhaps the concentrations of t-VA used were high enough to reveal quantitative patterns not only of metabolism, but also of toxicity, which is relevant to microbial ecology and nutrition  (Jenkins, 2008). At the initial period of culture, on the one hand, some kinds of ruminal bacteria do not adapt to the in vitro con- dition. On the other hand, ruminal bacteria inhibited by t-VA did not exist in the t-VA medium. This is the primary reason that biohydrogenation product of t-VA in the t-VA treatment was decreased (Figure 1). After numerous transfers, t-VA in the medium was converted into SA according to the enrichment of hydrogenated bacteria. The ratio of t-VA transformed to SA showed that enriched ruminal bacteria partici- pated in biohydrogenation and had performed this transformation (Figure 2). However, the concentration of t-VA in the treatment group was slightly increased. It is possible that the ruminal inoculum contains amounts of unsaturatedfattyacid as precursors of t- VA like cis-9-18:1  (Harfoot and Hazlewood, 1988) (data was not provided). This effect was negligi- ble in this study.
, the hydroxyl group may be positioned on all carbons except for the terminal carbon. Correspondingly, 4290 structures with saturated hydroxyl fatty acids and satu- rated or unsaturatedfattyacid esters were defined, and their in silico spectra were created based on the reference spectra of 9-PAHSA acquired with 1 spectrum/s MS/ MS method. Due to a lack of published spectra or com- mercially available standards, modeling for unsaturated hydroxyl fattyacid residues was excluded. To further verify the position of the hydroxyl group we used rela- tive retention time information. For the elution order of three commercially available OAHSA isomer reference standards, we observed increasing retention times when the hydroxyl group was positioned closer to the carbox- ylic acid moiety, with 12-OAHSA eluting at 6.07 min, 9-OAHSA at 6.21 min and 5-OAHSA eluting at 6.45 min under the conditions described in the experimental sec- tion. For building a reliable retention time database or even predicting retention times for other FAHFAs, a larger range of authentic reference standards would be needed.
In the current study, no correlation was found be- tween contact toxicity and AChE inhibition. The flavo- noids karanjachromene, pongamol, and pongarotene strongly inhibited mosquito larval AChE. Karanjin was 4.8-fold less pronounced at inhibiting AChE than karan- jachromene, although the toxicity of the two flavonoids did not differ significantly. The two flavonoids had no ef- fect on cAMP levels. These findings indicate that AChE is the main site of action of karanjin and karanjachro- mene. The unsaturatedfattyacid oleic acid and the satu- rated fattyacid palmitic acid strongly and weakly inhibited AChE, respectively. The cAMP levels induced by the fatty acids were lower than that induced by oc- topamine alone. These findings indicate that AChE is the main site of action of oleic acid and palmitic acid. The unsaturatedfattyacid elaidic acid and the saturated fatty acids arachidic acid and behenic acid were ineffect- ive at inhibiting AChE and caused a considerable in- crease in cAMP levels, indicating that the mechanism of insecticidal action of elaidic acid, arachidic acid, and behenic acid might be due to interference with the octo- paminergic system. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid mod- erately inhibited AChE and caused a considerable increase in cAMP levels. This finding indicates that lino- leic acid and linolenic acid might act on both AChE and octopaminergic receptor. Detailed tests are needed to fully understand the exact modes of action of the flavo- noids and the fatty acids. It has been also reported that karanjin suppresses ecdysteroids and, thereby, it acts as an insect growth regulator and antifeedant .
regarding un-saturated fattyacid profile. Among unsaturatedfatty acids, the linoleic and oleic is dominant in classical sunflower. There is an important genetic variation regarding the fattyacid composition of the sunflower oil. [7,8]. In this study UFA varied 47.67-91.68 percent which found in the inbred line GP- 04038(2) and BHAC-04038(1) respectively. The inbred lines BHAC-04028 (91.0535%), Entry no.P-S-2(1) (90.4485%), BHAC- SH-037 (90.3701%) and Sun-W-103 (90.1689) contain more than 90% unsaturatedfattyacid. Other inbreed contain 80-90% unsaturatedfattyacid except only one inbreed GP-04038(2) which contain 47.66% UFA. Kostik and Bauer; Skoric et al.  reported sunflower oil contain the highest percentage of long chain mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids than other vegetavles oil sources. According to FAO/WHO  UFA especially Poly UnsaturatedFattyAcid (PUFAs) is essential on human health in the prevention of particularly, cardiovascular disease (DVD), coronary heart disease. Oleic Acid
The animals were anesthetized by an intraperitoneal injection of 10% chloral hydrate (0.3 ml/100 g), and the dorsal surface of the rat was shaved and the underlying skin was cleaned with povidone iodine. An acute 1.5 cm diameter circle full thickness excision wound was created by using a scalpel blade on the back of each animal. All the animals were divided into three groups randomly (30 animals in each group). Animals in groupIwere treated by fattyacid extracts of dried Lucilia sericata larvae 0.1 g per wound. Animals in groupIIwere treated by vaseline ointment 0.1 g per wound and served as negative control. Animals in groupIII were treated by JingWanHong oint- ment (a kind of traditional Chinese patent medicine to treat wounds, Tian Jin Darentang Daer Pharmacy Co,. Ltd, China) 0.1 g per wound and served as positive con- trol. All drugs were applied topically every other day until the wounds completely healed.
Current processes design is strongly computer oriented then, consideration was also given to how accurate different prediction methods work. An enormous quantity of chemicals may be found in vegetable oils (free fatty acids, phenols, peroxide, monoacylglycerols, diacylglycerols, flavonoid polyphenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and many other complex substances). The triacylglycerol molecule is often considered the main chemical structure to develop estimative studies on thermophysical properties . The Rackett equation described by Halvorsen et al. [2-4] was tested for density estimation. This method requires the critical properties of the fatty acids and considers their composition as input. The Collision Factor Theory  was applied for ultrasonic velocity estimation. Accurate results were obtained despite of geometrical simplifications and use of estimated critical magnitudes by group contribution method.
This paper illustrates the steps of eco-conception in the de- sign of processes for generating functional products, such as PA and AA. The starting material was first enriched in OA by plant breeding and varietal selection. This material was then hydrolyzed and subjected to a green catalytic process for the production of two molecules of interest. Hydrogen peroxide was the oxidant chosen for this process, because it is eﬀective, nontoxic, widely available and cheaper than other conventional oxidants. A peroxo-tungsten complex formed in situ was able to transfer oxygen from the aqueous phase to the lipophilic phase. The formation of an oil/water emulsion (stabilized by the fatty acids) then increased the area of contact between the two phases. This process presents only one step (after the hy- drolysis of oil) and includes an e ﬃ cient post-reaction treat- ment for catalyst recycling. It has also been successfully used for the oxidative cleavage of unsaturated compounds (linoleic acid) and other fattyacid derivatives (ethyl oleate, ricinoleic acid, epoxide derived from OA and α-hydroxy compounds).
Brown adipose tissue in newborn lambs accounts for 4.52% of total body weight, then during postpartum period it intensively decreases, reaching 1.5% after a week, and finally it is gradually adsorbed or replaced with white adipose tissue. Fatty acids composition of lamb brown adipose tissue includes 17 unsaturatedfatty acids (53.23%) and 11 saturated ones (46.95%).
Additionally, a direct effect of ethanol on maternal fattyacid metabolism could indirectly alter the fattyacid supply to the fetus. In this study, maternal plasma fattyacid content was determined. After con- trolling for maternal fattyacid status as covariates, AADD remained independently associated with AA content in umbilical veins and arteries and with DHA in umbilical arteries. Therefore, differences in umbilical vessel fattyacid status among the different prenatal alcohol exposure groups are likely due to changes in fetal fattyacid metabolism and/or pla- cental fattyacid metabolism or transfer rather than to differences in the supply from maternal blood. The influence of alcohol on fetal fattyacid metabolism has been discussed previously, 61 and the effect of
RAW264.7 had shown similar mitochondrial CL incorp- oration effects . Without macrophage activation, the mitochondrial activities were not affected. Once the macrophage was KDO2-Lipid A (KLA)-activated, the fattyacid-modified mitochondria can resist from the KLA-induced mitochondrial activity loss. Furthermore, 18 carbons are the most common CL acyl chains in vari- ous species. This is the same in RAW264.7 cells, but not as dominant as the heart and liver tissues, where most CLs are in symmetrical CL forms . Symmetrical CL containing either 18:1 or 18:2 is critical for maturation . However, the species in other tissues and most cell lines, including RAW cells, are shown in groups. The reasons and causes of the CL symmetry require further clarification. The saturation of fatty acids affects the hydrophobicity and structure of fatty acids, as well as CL, which may cause the specificity of these fatty acids in CL remodeling. In the experiments, we observed the saturation effects of exogenous 18-carbon fatty acids on CL remodeling. Here, 18:1 was a good substrate of the remodeling enzyme tafazzin, which transfers supplemen- tary fatty acids to generate symmetrical CL72:4. The substitution likely targeted the short-chain acyl chain, and the number of double bonds was not the priority. There- fore, the 16-carbon fatty acyl chain became the first target for 18:1 and 18:2 for the exchange. From the pattern, CL70 and CL72 were converted from CL68 and CL70, re- spectively. Few species of CL72 containing 20-carbon fatty acyl chains may convert to CL74. Although the levels of symmetrical CL(18:2) 4 increased, there was only approxi-
The effect of refrigerated storage on the quality of freshwater fish oil Jarko (Wallago attu) was evaluated by measuring fattyacid profile, free fatty acids (FFA), peroxide value (PV), acid value (AV), sponification value (SV), iodine value (IV) and poylene index (PI) up to the time period of 120 days. After 120 days storage, mono unsaturatedfatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) contents were decreased by 24.89% and 33.70%, respectively. While, saturated fatty acids (SFA) content was found to be increased by 26.82%, against the actual value. The change in polyunsaturated fatty acids during refrigerated storage was measured by the PI value. The PI decreased during storage due to lipid oxidation, but remained nearly constant after 90 th day of
One of the ways of solving the problem of CN deter- mination is to develop models to predict the CN when some parameters are known. Since it has been established that the composition of FAME affects CN, models can be developed relating CN to the composition of FAME. Ramadhas et al. (2006) used artificial neural network (ANN) models to predict the CN of some fuels based on their FAME composi- tion. The FAME composition of biodiesel and the experi- mental CN values were used to train the networks. The fattyacid composition, in percentage of various esters in pure form as well as mixtures of esters (biodiesel) and their experimental CN, are taken into account for developing the present model (Ramadhas et al., 2006). A computer code was developed in MATLAB to implement the present ANN models. Four types of networks have been chosen to predict
ABSTRACT: Fattyacid composition of plant food (oil) is important for its economic and nutritional value. Assessment of fattyacid contents of two Nigerian masticatories cum traditional snacks: African walnut kernel (AW) and African elemi pulp (AE) were carried out. Samples were subjected to graded wet heat contact time based on their traditional methods of processing and their oil extract evaluated for fattyacid (FA) contents using chromatographic method. The processing methods had no statistically significant effect on both the oil and FA contents of the samples. Both samples contain nutritionally relevant levels of fat ranging respectively from 49.8±1.08 to 52.8±2.70g/100g sample and 41.93±6.03 to 42.8±4.61g/100g sample in AW and AE. A total of six fatty acids including two essential ones namely omega-6 (C18:2) and omega-3 (C18:3), were identified and quantified in the two plant foods. The predominant FAs in the plant foods were oleic acid (16.12±1.86 - 17.11±1.31g/100g fat), linoleic acid (16.88±1.66 - 18.80±1.52g/100g fat) and linolenic acid (55.95±5.68 - 57.08±6.57g/100g fat) in AW and palmitic acid (48.59±4.35 - 50.51±3.29g/100g fat), oleic acid (32.02±3.27 - 35.74±1.46g/100g fat) and linoleic acid (15.15±3.57 - 15.40±3.82g/100g fat) in AE. The study shows that on the average, one serving of AW could supply about 41.52% and 647.09% of the Recommended Daily Intakes (RDIs) for the essential FAs Linoleic and Linolenic acids respectively, while that of AE will supply about 29.13% of the RDI for Lineleic acid. Based on their essential FAs contents the plant foods apparently have potentials for applications as nutraceuticals.