vitamins A and D

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Beta-lactoglobulin Complexed Vitamins A and D in Skim Milk: Shelf Life and Bioavailability

Beta-lactoglobulin Complexed Vitamins A and D in Skim Milk: Shelf Life and Bioavailability

HTST skim milk with various type of fortification, indicating vitamin D is more stable than vitamin A in fortified skim milk as shown in other studies (Indyk, 1996). Package materials did not affect shelf life of either vitamin when the homogenized samples were stored in a refrigerator. BLG-vitamin A was stable in HTST-processed skim milk during storage while Roche dry vitamin A (a starch-based emulsion) was not stable after 2 weeks of shelf life. Surprisingly, oil-based vitamin A fortifier was stable in fortified skim milk after thorough homogenization and HTST pasteurization in the NCSU dairy plant, which disagreed with other studies reporting sorption of vitamins onto the polyethylene material of plastic or paperboard containers (Smith, 1988; Paredes, 1996). Efficient homogenization may play an important role in preventing vitamin loss from degradation, separation, or adherence to the container. In UHT-processed skim milk, BLG-vitamin A dropped to 1/3 of the targeted fortification level right after UHT processing, possibly due to partial denaturing of the protein and vitamin A deposition to the sterilization system. In this trial, BLG-vitamin D exhibited good stability while oil-based vitamin D dropped to half the original level at the end of the 6-week shelf life. The slow decrease of both vitamins in UHT processed skim milk might be caused by oxidative degradation of vitamins by residual hydrogen peroxide from the sterilization procedure or sorption of vitamins onto the polyethylene material inside the paperboard cartons. Additional research is needed to fully define the causes for vitamin A and D loss from skim milk during shelf life studies.
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The impact of homocysteine, B12, and D vitamins levels on functional neurocognitive performance in HIV positive subjects

The impact of homocysteine, B12, and D vitamins levels on functional neurocognitive performance in HIV positive subjects

According to the main endpoint of the study, the sample size determination was based on the prevalence of hyperho- mocysteinemia in HIV population based on previously observed data and published results [17]. Assuming a prevalence of 70%, with a precision of 10% and a 95% confi- dence interval, at least 57 patients were needed. Quantita- tive variables were summarized as mean and standard deviation (SD) or median and interquartile range (IQR) according to their distribution; qualitative variables were summarized as frequency and percentage. A Shapiro-Wilk’s test was performed to evaluate the departures from nor- mality distribution for each variable. Mann-Whitney U-test was performed to evaluate differences of Homocysteine, B 12 , and D vitamins between patients with and without
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The effects of multi mineral-vitamin D and vitamins (C+E) supplementation in the prevention of preeclampsia: An RCT

The effects of multi mineral-vitamin D and vitamins (C+E) supplementation in the prevention of preeclampsia: An RCT

Some studies indicate poor nutrition (especially protein, calcium (Ca), sodium, magnesium (Mg), and vitamins )A, C, E) as factors that exacerbate PE. Furthermore, in some researches diets including calcium supplements have been rejected regarding prevention of PE (11-13). Kanagal et al and Jain et al concluded that serum levels of multimineral-vitamin D (Zinc (Zn), Mg, Ca and vitamin D3) during pregnancy can affect the preeclampsia. However, this was not significant in the study of Vafaei et al (14-16).

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The importance of the analysis of vitamins a, d and k in the pediatric population in the intensive care unit: commentary on clinical research and literature review

The importance of the analysis of vitamins a, d and k in the pediatric population in the intensive care unit: commentary on clinical research and literature review

According to Bechard et al., (2013), children who are obese are at increased risk for infection, prolonged lengths of stay and probability of death. In the last years, Vitamins A, D and K has been the focus of several scientific researches due to their role in health, and in prevention or treatment of disease. In view of the above, this manuscript presents a brief commentary on clinical research and literature review articles that address studies involving vitamins A, D and K in pediatric patients in a treatment unit. It is extremely important for physicians, nurses and other health professionals to be up to date with new alternatives for patient care. This manuscript aimed to report new information on the impact of vitamin A, D and K deficiency in ICU pediatric patient Although there are impositions of several health organs suggesting the supplementation of vitamins A, D and K, there is little evidence of supplementation and efficacy in patients of Intensive Care units.
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Study the interaction of hydrophobic vitamins (vitamin e and vitamin d) with hsa using spectroscopic techniques

Study the interaction of hydrophobic vitamins (vitamin e and vitamin d) with hsa using spectroscopic techniques

It is generally accepted that infrared spectra of proteins in films and in solution may display distinct differences, but these differences are due to the presence or absence of the water or buffer molecules that imprint their mark on the spectra. It has been shown that the structural information content is of the same quality in films and in solution with an (error of < 1%) for both systems [31]. The reduction of α-helix intensity percentage in favor of the increase of β-sheets percentage are believed to be due to the unfolding of the protein in the presence of vitamin E or vitamin D as a result of the formation of H bonding between HSA and the hydrophobic vitamins . The newly formed H-bonding result in the C–N bond assuming partial double bond character due to a flow of electrons from the C=O to the C–N bond which decreases the intensity of the original vibrations [46,47]. It seems that the H-bonding affects more of the original bonding in α- helix than in β-sheets depending on the accessibility of the solvent and on propensities of α- helix and β-sheets of the HSA [57].
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THE DETERMINATION OF FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS, CHOLESTEROL
CONTENT AND THE FATTY AC?D COMPOS?T?ONS OF SHABUT
(Arabibarbus grypus, HECKEL 1843) FROM KEBAN DAM LAKE,
ELAZIG, TURKEY

THE DETERMINATION OF FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS, CHOLESTEROL CONTENT AND THE FATTY AC?D COMPOS?T?ONS OF SHABUT (Arabibarbus grypus, HECKEL 1843) FROM KEBAN DAM LAKE, ELAZIG, TURKEY

Abstract: The aim of the present study is to determine the content of fatty acids (FA), fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) and cholesterol in the muscle tissue of shabut (Arabibarbus grypus, Heckel 1843) from Keban Dam Lake. For this purpose, 40 specimens were obtained between December and March (2013). Muscle samples (without skin) taken from each fish were homogenized. Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) and cholesterol were analysed simultaneously using HPLC (High-performance liquid chromatography) system. The fatty acids, grouped as saturated fatty acid (SFA), mono unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyenoic fatty acids (PUFA), were analysed by gas chromatography as the methyl esters. The results of present study showed that MUFA was the highest followed by SFA and PUFA. The highest fatty acid levels found in Shabut throughout all months (December – March) were 16:0, 18:1, 22:6 n-3 (DHA) and 20:5 n-3 (EPA). Shabut had low cholesterol level. Among the fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) analysed in all months, the vitamin E content was highest followed by K, D and A. In conclusion, it can be stated that Shabut (A. grypus) has comparatively good fatty acid composition, fat-soluble vitamins content and low cholesterol level. Shabut (A. grypus) can therefore be recommended for human consumption as a comparatively good source of nutrition.
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Effects of vitamins C and D in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Effects of vitamins C and D in type 2 diabetes mellitus

The availability of supplements enables a convenient method of reaching a prespecified serum vitamin C and D level. However, as with many other nutrients, the maximum health benefit is probably obtained by achieving the recom- mended daily intake of vitamin C as part of a balanced diet, and maintaining vitamin D status by regular sun exposure. Further studies – in particular, randomized controlled trials – are needed to determine if there is a benefit of rou- tine supplementation with these vitamins in diabetes or for its prevention.

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Determination of Vitamins A, C and D Status Using Serum Markers and a 24 Hour Dietary Recall among Maasai Women of Reproductive Age

Determination of Vitamins A, C and D Status Using Serum Markers and a 24 Hour Dietary Recall among Maasai Women of Reproductive Age

We previously reported that the prevalence of oral thrush among Maasai women of reproductive age in Ngorongoro Conservation Area was abnormally high (32%) in the absence of immune-com- promising diseases such as HIV. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that Maasai women of reproductive age are prone to oral thrush because they are deficient in micronutrients such as Vitamins A, C, D, and B12, as well as iron and folate which are known to have immune modulating functions. Method: The study recruited 210 participants out of which 180 agreed to donate blood for serum separation and analyses. A total of 107 participants (including 28 with oral thrush and 79 without oral thrush) were assessed for dietary intake of iron, folate, Vitamins A, C, and B12 using a 24 hours dietary recall method. Further, 40 serum samples randomly selected from the 180 serum samples were tested for concentrations of Vitamins A and C using commer- cially available HPLC kit while the concentration of Vitamin D was tested using the commercially available 25-OH Vitamin D ELISA Assay kit. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Sta- tistics 20™, where descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to demographic, socioeco- nomic and biochemical variables. Student’s t-test was used to test for significant differences among variables at 95% confidence level. The proportion of women with deficiency was calculated for single and multiple micronutrients. Results: Results from the 24-hour dietary recall method revealed that with the exception of folate (p = 0.000), there were no significant differences in iron, Vitamins A, C, and B12 intake between participants with and without oral thrush. Of note, the in- take of these four micronutrients was below the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI). A similar trend was observed for serum vitamin concentrations as established by HPLC and ELISA testing. While there was no significant difference in serum concentration of Vitamins A, C, and D between participants with and without oral thrush (p > 0.05), the serum levels were all below normal sig-
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Serum levels of vitamins A and D, and zinc in children with acute diarrhea: A cross-sectional study

Serum levels of vitamins A and D, and zinc in children with acute diarrhea: A cross-sectional study

Methods: In this cross sectional study performed in a referral teaching hospital, we measured and compared baseline vitamin A, 25-hydroxy vitamin D 25OHD, and zinc serum levels in 25 chi[r]

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RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF VITAMINS A AND D IN OIL AND IN WATER

RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF VITAMINS A AND D IN OIL AND IN WATER

Liver storage of vitamin A by A-depleted rats fed graded doses of vitamin A in aqueous, emulsion or oily form.. Units stored are plotted on logarithmic scale5[r]

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Vitamins D Toxicity in Paediatric Age Group: A Retrospective Cross Sectional Study

Vitamins D Toxicity in Paediatric Age Group: A Retrospective Cross Sectional Study

None of them had signs and symptoms of vitamin D intoxication; 46.7% were observed for eight hours and received activated charcoal. Additionally, 53.3% were hospitalized and treated by activated charcoal and fluid therapy. All cases were discharged without any complications. All patients were taking vitamin D regularly. We recommended them to discontinue consumption of vitamin D supplements, keep low-calcium and vitamin D diet, take more liquid for at least one month, and recheck 25-OH vitamin D levels. Unfortunately, most of the patients did not refer for follow-up checkups.
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Concentrations of Fat soluble Vitamins of Trema guineensis Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts and Rats Supplemented

Concentrations of Fat soluble Vitamins of Trema guineensis Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts and Rats Supplemented

Abstract This study was undertaken to determine vitamins A, D and E composition of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Trema guineensis and effect of supplementation of these extracts on serum concentrations of these vitamins. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Trema guineensis were obtained by decoction and maceration of leaves powder, respectively. Then, they were administered to animals at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight against a control group treated with distilled water for two weeks. Composition of vitamins in extracts and serum concentrations of vitamins A, D and E were performed by HPLC. Results showed that Trema guineensis extracts contained high concentrations of vitamins A, D and E. Thus, vitamins A and D serum concentrations were weakly influenced while that of vitamin E increased strongly during administration of Trema guineensis extracts. This study therefore showed that extracts of Trema guineensis had vitamins A, D and E and a beneficial effect on serum concentrations of these vitamins.
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Vitamins D, C, and E in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: modulation of inflammation and oxidative stress

Vitamins D, C, and E in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: modulation of inflammation and oxidative stress

design is an issue to consider when assessing the efficacy of antioxidants in reducing the risk of developing cardiometa- bolic diseases. Intervention trials should be designed with sufficient power to measure T2DM as a primary, rather than a secondary, outcome. Furthermore, these studies should investigate the effects of antioxidant vitamins and trace ele- ments in representative populations so that the results are applicable to high-risk groups, and they should take into account genetic variation accounting for interindividual differences in response to supplementation. Consideration should be also given to the antioxidants given in specific studies, as different antioxidants exert their effects through different mechanisms. 169
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Evaluation of a Pediatric Multiple Vitamin Preparation for Total Parenteral Nutrition II. Blood Levels of Vitamins A, D, and E

Evaluation of a Pediatric Multiple Vitamin Preparation for Total Parenteral Nutrition II. Blood Levels of Vitamins A, D, and E

In premature infants, an intake of 4.6 mg of a- tocopherol per day maintained blood levels in pre- term infants within a range currently believed to be safe and adequate.3’ In home total[r]

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The Determination of Fat-soluble Vitamins, Cholesterol Content
and The Fatty acid Compositions of Shabut (Arabibarbus grypus,
Heckel 1843) From Keban Dam Lake, Elazig, Turkey†

The Determination of Fat-soluble Vitamins, Cholesterol Content and The Fatty acid Compositions of Shabut (Arabibarbus grypus, Heckel 1843) From Keban Dam Lake, Elazig, Turkey†

Five ml supernatant was taken to 25 ml tubes with caps and 5% KOH solution was added and immediately vortexed for 20s. The tubes were placed in a water bath at 85°C for 15 min. The tubes were then taken and cooled to room temperature and 5 ml of distilled water was added and mixed. Lipophilic molecules, that did not saponify, were extracted with 2x5 ml hexane. The hexane phase was evaporated with nitrogen flow. It was dissolved in 1 ml (50+50%, v v-1) acetonitrile/methanol mixture and then was taken to auto sampler vials and was analyzed. The analysis was made with the Shimadzu brand HPLC device. HPLC conditions were as follows: mobile phase 60:38:2 (v/v/v): acetonitrile/ methanol/water; The mobile phase flow rate was determined to be 1mL A UV detector was used for the analysis and as a column the Supelcosil LC 18 (15x4.6cm 5μm; Sigma USA) column was used. For vitamin E and cholesterol 202 nm, retinol, 326nm and for vitamin D and K, 265 nm was used (L’opez-Cervantes et al., 2006; Katsanidis and Addis, 1999).
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Biosynthesis of food constituents: Vitamins  1  Fat soluble vitamins   a review

Biosynthesis of food constituents: Vitamins 1 Fat soluble vitamins a review

Fat-soluble vitamins include biologically active members of vitamin A (diterpenes), vitamin D (modified triterpenes), vitamin E (tocochromanols), and vitamin K (naphthoquinones) families, and related compounds, of which some act as their precursors. Vitamin A and vitamin D and the corresponding provitamins (provitamins A and provitamins D) are biosynthesised as products of the mevalonate and deoxyxylulose phosphate pathways leading to terpenoids and steroids. The biologically active compounds derived from qui- nones with phytyl or isoprenoid side-chains include members of the vitamin E and K families as well as structurally related plastoquinones and ubiqui- nones. Vitamin E, vitamin K, plastoquinones, and ubiquinones principally arise as products of the shikimate pathway that further produces aromatic
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COVID-19 Perfect Storm (Part I): Cytokine Release Syndrome in Aged People

COVID-19 Perfect Storm (Part I): Cytokine Release Syndrome in Aged People

Our current knowledge concerning the immunopathogenesis of SARS-CoV- and SARS-CoV- 2- mediated disease suggests that both the type and the quality of the immune response against these pathogens represent crucial factors during the course of this disease and may have a strong impact on the final outcome of the affected subjects 62 . Therefore, the re-modulation and the regulation of the inappropriate and exhuberant pro-inflammatory response observed during SARS-CoV-2 infection may be a key point in the strategy to counteract this virus and to prevent its life-threatening effects. All these considerations may contribute to explain the differences in clinical course and severity of illness in patients with COVID-19 infection and may constitute a conceptual basis for the development of novel therapeutic and/or preventive approaches. As previously reported, in the last years a large series of epidemiological studies have underlined that some fatsoluble and watersoluble vitamins (A, D, E and C) are essential elements for the normal immune system function 43-46, 70, 71 and in individuals suffering from a wide spectrum of diseases, including chronic viral infections. It has been suggested that the deficiency of these micronutrients may impair the host’s antiviral defenses and favour the persistence of several viruses-mediated infections 21 . In particular, some studies have been carried out in patients with
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Algae Need Their Vitamins

Algae Need Their Vitamins

17. Eichinger, L., J. A. Pachebat, G. Glockner, M. A. Rajandream, R. Sucgang, M. Berriman, J. Song, R. Olsen, K. Szafranski, Q. Xu, B. Tunggal, S. Kummerfeld, M. Madera, B. A. Konfortov, F. Rivero, A. T. Bankier, R. Lehmann, N. Hamlin, R. Davies, P. Gaudet, P. Fey, K. Pilcher, G. Chen, D. Saunders, E. Sodergren, P. Davis, A. Kerhornou, X. Nie, N. Hall, C. Anjard, L. Hemphill, N. Bason, P. Farbrother, B. Desany, E. Just, T. Morio, R. Rost, C. Churcher, J. Cooper, S. Haydock, N. van Driessche, A. Cronin, I. Good- head, D. Muzny, T. Mourier, A. Pain, M. Lu, D. Harper, R. Lindsay, H. Hauser, K. James, M. Quiles, M. Madan Babu, T. Saito, C. Buchrieser, A. Wardroper, M. Felder, M. Thangavelu, D. Johnson, A. Knights, H. Loul- seged, K. Mungall, K. Oliver, C. Price, M. A. Quail, H. Urushihara, J. Her- nandez, E. Rabbinowitsch, D. Steffen, M. Sanders, J. Ma, Y. Kohara, S. Sharp, M. Simmonds, S. Spiegler, A. Tivey, S. Sugano, B. White, D. Walker, J. Woodward, T. Winckler, Y. Tanaka, G. Shaulsky, M. Schleicher, G. Wein- stock, A. Rosenthal, E. C. Cox, R. L. Chisholm, R. Gibbs, W. F. Loomis, M. Platzer, R. R. Kay, J. Williams, P. H. Dear, A. A. Noegel, B. Barrell, and A. Kuspa. 2005. The genome of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Nature 435:43–57.
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Assessment of Vitamin and Mineral Intakes in
Paralympic Athletes in Tabriz, Iran

Assessment of Vitamin and Mineral Intakes in Paralympic Athletes in Tabriz, Iran

them full guidance and support during the 3-day period by the sports dietitian. Participants recorded food type, amount and cooking method (like fried, grilled and so on), and the time of the intake of materials and drinks in all their meals and snacks. They were also asked to record the brand name and amount consumed of all vitamin/ mineral supplements. Food-record data were analyzed in Nutrition IV software (Diet Analysis Module Version 3.5.2 N-squard computing and first DataBank Division The Hearst Corporation IIII BayHill DR. SAN BRUNO. CA 94066). Food amounts were recorded by the athletes as either household measures or grams. The same mea- sure was then entered into Nutrition IV to calculate Wa- ter-soluble vitamins (Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, acid pantothenic, Vitamin B6, Folate, biotin, Vitamin B12, Vi- tamin C), fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) and miner- als (sodium, potassium, iron, calcium, magnesium, phos- phorus, zinc, fluorine, cooper, molybdenum, chromium, manganese). All data were considered by age and gender because DRIs are not the same for vitamins and minerals in males and females in different ages. There are several dietary reference values. The RDA and adequate intake (AI) are the values used in this paper. 10 RDA is designed
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A randomized trial of multivitamin supplementation in children with tuberculosis in Tanzania

A randomized trial of multivitamin supplementation in children with tuberculosis in Tanzania

height and weight in children supplemented with multi- ple micronutrients [26]. On the other hand, the pooled analysis cited above found that infants receiving a daily micronutrient supplement had significantly greater weight gain, whereas there were no differences in height gain [27]. In another meta-analyses of effects of micro- nutrient interventions on growth of children under five years of age, Ramakrishnan et al. found that multiple micronutrient interventions improve linear growth only and had no effect on weight gain [18]. Additionally, a few studies of multiple micronutrient supplementation in adults with tuberculosis have also been equivocal in their results on weight gain. For example, a study in Mwanza, Tanzania, found that multiple micronutrient supplementation (vitamins A, B-complex, C, D, and E, selenium, copper, and zinc) for the first two months of TB treatment led to reduced weight gain among the HIV-infected TB patients; the HIV-uninfected TB patients demonstrated a non-significant increase in weight at the end of follow-up [29].
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