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There are increasing conflicts of use of water between different stakeholders’ interests. In dry climate areas the needs of water are increasingly become an objective of military action or an instrument of war. There exist upstream and downstream conflicts over (scarce) water resources within watersheds (within states and between neighbour states); conflicts over abundance; conflicts of interests in water use: from irrigation communities, industrial enterprises, domestic use, all these actors have different objectives and resources; water without quality causes problems of public health risks; the scarcity or over abundance of water threatened ecosystems (in all space scales); and finally there exist conflicting visions for watermanagement.
Integrated watermanagement means putting all of the the pieces together. Social, environmental and technical aspects must be considered. Issues of concern include: providing the forums; reshaping planning processes; coordinating land and water resources management; recognizing water source and water quality linkages; establishing protocols for integrated watershed management; addressing institutional challenges; protecting and restoring natural systems; reformulating existing projects; capturing society’s views; articulating risk; educating and communicating; uniting technology and public policy; forming partnerships; and emphasizing preventive measures. The challenge is to guide watermanagement decision-making into flexible, holistic, and environmentally sound directions (Ballweber, 1995; Bulkley, 1995; Deyle, 1995; Viessman an d Welty, 1985). Water resources professionals must be prepared to offer credible guidance to those who need it, at the right time, and in a comprehensible form. The Universities Council on Water Resources (UCOWR) and the university community are ideally suited to assist in that role.
Abstract Over the past decades, the Dutch people have been confronted with severe water-related problems, which are the result of an unsustainable water system, arising from human interventions in the physical infra- structure of the water system and the watermanagement style. The claims of housing, industry, infrastructure and agriculture have resulted in increasing pressure on the water system. The continuous subsidence of soil and climate change has put pressure on the land. Hence, the nature and magnitude of water-related problems have changed. Longitudinal research of relevant national policy documents reveals that the watermanagement regime has changed its watermanagement style over the past 30 years from a technocratic scientiﬁc style towards an integral and participatory style. We have investigated if the historical development in Dutch Water manage- ment can be characterized as a transition. Based on longitudinal research through an integrated systems analysis, document research and expert interviews, we have reconstructed the historical narrative by using the transition concepts of multi-level and multi-phase. This research indicates that the shift in Dutch Water man- agement can be characterized as a transition. This transition is currently in the take-oﬀ stage and near the acceleration stage. This is a crucial stage as long as the considerable gap between the strategic macro-vision and the practical implementation at the micro-level remains. As long as these levels are not compatible (modulation), the transition will not be completed successfully. Tran- sition management as multi-level governance model should therefore be adopted to facilitate the modulation. Keywords Watermanagement Æ Transitions Æ
This report is the finishing product of my bachelor assignment, conducted at IITAAC in Guadalajara (Mexico). During a period of four months, I have worked here on my bachelor thesis and a research for the minor ‘Sustainable Development in Developing Countries’. Together, they form a research on the water related problems of Guadalajara: the bachelor a technical research on storm watermanagement and the minor a more socially oriented research on the awareness of water related problems and the influence these have on people. A special aspect of my time at IITAAC is that they were founded very recently. This means I have seen the very beginning and have even helped with organising and installing the office. I am honoured that I have been part of the beginning of IITAAC and happy to see that they are already growing. Furthermore, I learned a lot during my research. Not only in terms of general working experience but also more specifically about doing research, working with hydraulic models and sustainable watermanagement. And I had a great time. For both, I want to thank a number of people. First Arturo Gleason, for his supervision, his help and advice and for giving me the opportunity to attend a rainwater harvesting course in the United States. Next, Esmeralda Mendoza: thank you for explaining your work, for help with finding new information and for our cooperation in general. You were not only invaluable during my work, but it was also really nice working together. Apart from these two persons, I also want to give my general thanks to everybody at IITAAC: on the job for the help and the great atmosphere, outside the job for teaching and showing me more of Mexico and the great time we had.
The water cycle is a contiguous system, cycling renewably through the atmosphere, landscapes and water bodies, and carrying with it solutes, energy, suspended matter and biota. Living organisms use and modify these flows, forming elaborate and resilient ecosys- tems comprising both living and non-living elements that are integral to the efficiency and sustainability of the overall cycle. Humanity is one of these living organisms, albeit one with a disproportionate impact on the Earth’s biosphere, including the water cycle. It is for this reason that many observers define this as the Anthropocene epoch – the age when human impacts predominate over the self-regulatory capacities of the Earth system – bringing to an end a Holocene epoch defined by wholly natural processes (Crutzen and Stoermer, 2000). The need to moderate and modify human pressures has resulted in a range of approaches to integrated management of the water cycle. Prominent examples include catchment management planning (CMP, also known as river basin management), and represent a first step towards integration of management disciplines within river basins. A wider systemic approach is embraced by the concept of integrated catchment management which expands in vision to a strategic approach to land and watermanagement designed to help multiple stakeholders make informed decisions and take coordinated action to manage a complex environmental system (Mitchell and Hollick, 1993). Its successor, integrated
It is my firm belief that the objective of Sabka Saath Sabka Vikas can be fully achieved once the benefits of the interventions reach the last mile. In this context, the renewed emphasis of the Government on outcomes has proved to be a potential tool and the same is also being included as part of the Union Budget. As a step beyond the measurement of outcomes, NITI Aayog has come out with various indices that not only fulfill its mandate of cooperative and competitive federalism but also challenge States and Union Territories (UTs) to meet the aspirations of the new India. NITI Aayog has recently launched an Index of Health that seeks to capture the annual progress of States/ UTs on a variety of health indicators. As a major leap in this direction, NITI Aayog has come out with a Composite WaterManagement Index as a useful tool to assess and improve the performance in efficient management of water resources. It’s a matter of concern that 600 million people in India face high to extreme water stress in the country. About three-fourth of the households in the country do not have drinking water at their premise. With nearly 70% of water being contaminated, India is placed at 120 th amongst 122 countries in the water
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World oceans cover about three fourth of earth’s surface. Although it is surprising but true that 70% part of the world is covered with water but still we are thirsty. Out of 97% of earth's water is found in ocean, 2% is frozen as ice in poles etc and remaining 1% is available to us in the form of fresh water in rivers, lakes and ground water and which is used for human beings for their daily needs, irrigation and Industries. Mankind can’t do anything without water. Unfortunately, with a galloping population growth, urbanization and ever increasing demand on it, water resource of world over are fast depleting. Excessive tapping of ground water through numerous bore wells and tube wells has led to a decline of water level, whose means of replenishing itself has been greatly hampered. The crisis about water resources development and management thus arises because most of the water is not available for use and secondly it is characterized by its highly uneven spatial distribution. Accordingly, the importance of water has been recognized and greater emphasis is being laid on its economic use and better management. Global water consumption has been raised ten told since 1900 and many parts of the world are now reaching the limits of their supply. UNIESO has predicted that by 2020 water shortage will be a serious worldwide problem. Third world war will be battled for water. One third of the world's population is already facing water problem due to water shortage and poor drinking water quality.
It was also observed that although the water agencies in the three states are said to be privatized, actual funding attention, staffing, supervision and other logistical supports all come from their respective governments. Not even any document has been tendered to the effect that the water companies operate as independent private organizations despite media claims. As other government parastatals and agencies, the study observed that the water agencies are characterized by daily bureaucratic and management problems including corruption, inadequate funding attention, and absence of staff capacity, among many other problems. There is a general confusion as to the role and status of the respective water agencies in the three states. This confusion manifested clearly in the contradictory presentation fielded during interview with agency experts and management staff. While the state water agencies depend solely on the scanty national institutional framework, we observed that none of the national institutional framework actually reflected debates and realities of water privatization. Most of the experts and staff seemed not quite informed and clear on the true situation on this in their respective states. This was reflected in the contradictory and inconsistent responses to information from some officials in the three state water agencies. There was an observable general trend of weak and uncoordinated institutional arrangements across the study areas. Because there were no clear institutional guidelines and standards, issues bordering on service regulation, tariff, water quality monitoring, water resources development, among others remain very weakly regulated and enforced. Consequently, private sector activities in the water sector function in unregulated environments posing challenges to standard and service quality.
for three factors was based on the explained variance of the first four factors before rotation that displayed with 53, 8, 6 and 1 % a cut-off after the third factor that was supported by qualitative information from the interviews. Table 1 and the radar charts presented in Fig. 5 show how an individual would rank the items if that person were representing that factor 100 %. For example, Statement 9 (“Citizen Science enables the collection of large amounts of measurements”, Theme III Purposes of Citizen Science) would be placed un- der most agree (column + 4) by a person with Factor A, un- der agree (column + 2) for Factor B and under neutral (col- umn 0) for Factor C. None of the viewpoints disagrees with Statement 9, but the difference between Viewpoints A and C is evident. Except for Statement 2 (“Citizen Science is im- portant, since it contributes to increasing water awareness”), with which all viewpoints fully agree, and Statement 35 (“If citizens are structurally contributing, they should be compen- sated for that”), differences were found between the view- points that will be further discussed below. The factors pro- vided a quite clear separation of the participating practition- ers in groups given Table 2. Out of 33 participants, 21 loaded significantly and uniquely on Factor A, 4 on Factor B and 2 on Factor C. Three participants loaded significantly on Fac- tors A and C, one on Factors A and B and one on Factors B and C. One participant did not load significantly on any of the factors.
\~ter is essential for plant growth, Seeds need water to germinate aOO seedlings need \I"ter to ••••. erge. \~ater provides the rranspor c Illl!chan- 1111ll for plant nutrients snd the products of photosynthesls. Lr r Lga t ion is the application of water to the soil to supply water essential for plant grouth that is not provided hy natural precipitlltion. lJeId re- sponses to water applicationa occur only where soil water and precipita- tion are not adequete to prevent plant water 'tress, When enoush water is p~ovided to eliminate plant water stress. there is normally no benefit from applying grester a.aunts, Excessive water applications, Nay produce water logging, reduced crop productiun. and increased salt load in the return flow water. lr~igating a new land area with i'ftportedwater causes a large change in the hydrology of the a~en, Lilllitednatural subsurface drainace often muat he increaaed just to I~ndle unavoiliable seepage and the .inilllumlea<:hing requirl!fllent,
access, consumption (irrigation, etc), usufruct rights (for activities that allow obtaining benefits from water without consumption), management rights and exclusion of users, sanctions, etc). This text uses the term ‘uses and customs’ to refer to the elements of management of access and distribution of water and includes the rights mentioned . In Bolivia the distinction between right to water and right of water is made. The first refers to access to clean water as a human right , whilst the second considers the access to the water source.
Though the Storm water is treated by using stabilization ponds it is required to store treated Storm water in large ponds for longer duration. Therefore it needs long term treatment which will keep the stored water clean and to avoid unhygienic conditions. Hence one of the natural technique can be used i.e. FTW Floating Treatment Wetlands an Innovative Option for Storm water Quality.Ponds and wetlands have become widely accepted as urban Storm water treatment devices over the past two decades and are increasingly being integrated into water sensitive urban design practices. This growing popularity has been largely due to the fact that pond and wetland based systems offer the advantages of providing a relatively passive, low-maintenance and operationally simple treatment solution whilst potentially enhancing habitat and aesthetic values within the urban landscape. Floating Treatment Wetlands (FTWs) are an emerging variant of constructed wetland technologies which consist of emergent wetland plants growing hydroponically on structures floating on the surface of a pond-like basin.They represent a means of potentially improving the treatment performance of conventional pond systems by integrating the beneficial aspects of emergent macrophytes without being constrained by the requirement for shallow water depth. Despite the potential advantages of FTWs for the treatment of Storm water and other wastewaters, there has been very little information published to date about their design, construction and performance.
Nitrate Vulnerable Zones cover 60% of country’s territory and around 7% of UAA. The lack of effective manure storage capacity and sewer systems in majority of farms contributes significantly to the persistence of the problem. Only 0,1% of livestock farms possess safe manure-pile sites, around 81% of them use primitive dunghills, and 116 thousands holdings have no facilities at all (MAF). Serious environmental challenge has been also posed by inadequate storage and disposal of expired and prohibited pesticides 15 as 28% of all polluted localities in the country are associated with these dangerous chemicals (EEA). Furthermore, the number of illegal garbage dumps in rural areas has noticeably increased reaching an official figure of 4000, and farms contribute extensively to waste “production” bringing about air, soil and water pollution (EEA).
Nanostructured catalytic membranes are widely used for water contamination treatment. It offers several advantages like high uniformity of catalytic sites, capability of optimisation, limiting contact time of catalyst, allowing sequential reactions and ease in industrial scale up. Nano-filtration membranes are already widely applied to remove dissolved salts and micro-pollutants, soften water and treat wastewater. The membranes act as a physical barrier, capturing particles and microorganisms bigger than their pores, and selectively rejecting substances. Nanotechnology is expected to further improve membrane technology and also drive down the prohibitively high costs of desalination getting fresh water from salty water. Several functions which include decomposition of organic pollutants, inactivation of microorganisms, anti-bio fouling action, and physical separation of water contaminants are performed by nanostructured TiO2 films and membranes under UV and visible-light irradiation. The N-doped “nut-like” ZnO nanostructured material forming multifunctional membrane is very efficient in removing water contaminants by enhancing photo degradation activity under visible light irradiation. It also showed antibacterial activity and helped in producing clean water with constant high flux benefiting the water purification field. Various studies have been done regarding immobilisation of metallic nanoparticles in membrane (such as cellulose acetate, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polysulfone, chitosan, etc.) for effective degradation and dechlorination of toxic contaminants which offers several advantages like high reactivity, organic partitioning, prevention of nanoparticles, lack of agglomeration and reduction of surface passivation.Nanocomposites films have been prepared from polyetherimide and palladium acetate and specific interactions between hydrogen and the Pd based nanoparticles have been studied providing the efficiency in water treatment.