Pollution is an undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of our land, air or water that may or will harmfully affect human life or that of desirable species. India is rich in inland fisheries resource. But the indiscriminate use of heavy metals causes serious threat to such resources. Toxicity of a substance is known by its capacity to cause adverse effects on the living organisms. Toxic impact may br ing about physiological, biochemical or pathological alterations in the organisms; the signs of toxicity may reveal symptoms of illness varying from simple local effects - structural and behavioral (Shivakumar et al., 2005) to complex disorders resulting in mortality.The intoxication includes a sequence of events that start with the exposure of a substance to an organism. Subsequently, the toxic substances are absorbed into the viscera by various routes causing an internal exposure (Tilak et al., 2005). Iron is the fourth most abundant, by weight, of the elements that make up the earth’s crust. Common in many rocks, it is an important component of many soils, especially clay soils where it is usually a major constituent.
Given the fact that the patients’ profiles called for shorter scanning times, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which is the brain area frequently targeted by other authors as well, was focused on. Single-voxel spectra were acquired using a point-resolved spectroscopy; the echo time equaled 135 mil- liseconds, with a repetition time of 2,000 milliseconds and a spectral width of 10 ppm. The target area was scanned 128 times on average with a scanning time of 4:17 minutes. An appropriate automated procedure was used to optimize field homogeneity, radiofrequency pulse power, and water suppression, as well as to convert the lines into a Gaussian shape. A typical 1 H MRS spectrum is shown in Figure 1.
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To determine the effect of osmotherapy on the brain water and electrolyte content, we employed a rat in vivo model in which the plasma osmolarity was elevated by i.p. injection of NaCl (1.17 g/kg, 2 ml/100 g body weight). To isolate the effect of brain volume regulation, rats were functionally nephrectomized prior to the procedure, the success of which was evident from the increased plasma content of creatinine and urea in these animals com- pared to naïve rats, which had not undergone nephrec- tomy (Fig. 1a, b, see figure legend for values). The plasma osmolarity in the nephrectomized rats treated with isosmolar NaCl (303 ± 1 mOsm, n = 9, termed ‘control’ henceforward) was not significantly different from that of the naïve rats (298 ± 1 mOsm, n = 3, Fig. 1c), indicating that the extended experimental protocol in itself did not interfere with plasma osmolarity. Following a single bolus injection with hyperosmotic NaCl (termed ‘osmotherapy’ henceforward), the plasma osmolarity was increased to 355 ± 1 mOsm after 1 h (n = 9, p < 0.001, Fig. 1c), with an associated increase in the plasma content of Na + and Cl −
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The brain water content was also examined to confirm the protection of ketamine 24 h after TBI, as previously described (Figure 1A). The results showed that the TBI and TBI + vehicle groups had significantly increased brain water contents compared with the Sham group. Brain edema was attenuated in the ketamine-treated groups, which was consistent with the results of the neurological score. Specifi- cally, the treatment with 60 mg/kg of ketamine conferred a better effect than the treatment with 30 mg/kg of ketamine. Accordingly, 60 mg/kg of ketamine was used in the subse- quent experiments.
Identification of drowning in freshwater or saltwater still controversial. The recovered bodies form water and movement of cadavers made the task of differentiation of two types of drowning so difficult. To better understand the pathophysiology and PMI changes in drowning, we use 36 albino rats were exposed to induction of drowning in freshwater and or saltwater and recovered bodies were kept to 24 or 48 hrs for checking the changeable PMI markers between fresh or saltwater. Notably, brain of saltwater drowning show severe vacuolation in the brain parenchyma, heart is showing death of cardiomyocytes and increases in the interstitial spaces and lung displays pulmonary atelectasis and over distended alveoli with air with rupture of capillaries and cellular death of interstitial cells. While this pathological feature in freshwater is less prominent than saltwater. Fresh water drowned rats showed an increase in level of LDH, Albumin, total protein, sodium, potassium and chloride in postmortem time dependent manner.
Against general dogma that CO is poisonous, par- ticularly to the brain, accumulating evidence suggests that it might be associated with cytoprotection and maintenance of homeostasis in several organs and tis- sues [10, 23, 27, 28, 42–44]. Therefore, exogenous administration of CO at low levels (as inhaled CO gas or as CORMs) could be explored as a potential therapeutic method. It has been shown that low levels of inhaled CO provide benefit against ischemia-reper- fusion brain injury by attenuating ischemia-induced infarct volume, reducing edema formation, and restoring cerebral blood flow . A study that used a model of permanent ischemic stroke indicated that a low concentration of inhaled CO provided neuroprotective effect by activating the Nrf2 pathway . However, the application of CO gas presents several limitations, such as the potential for partial systemic hypoxia and toxicity and the need for CO inhalation facilities and monitoring of blood oxygen levels . Given these barriers, transition metal carbonyls are good candidates for delivering CO, as they function as CORMs in biological systems . Water-soluble CORM-3 has beneficial effects in many models of injury, such as hemorrhagic stroke, pul- monary hypertension, and ischemia-reperfusion injury during kidney transplantation [21, 22, 47]. However, the effect of CORM-3 on ischemic stroke and its mechanism of protection are still unclear. In this study, we treated tMCAO mice with CORM-3 at the time of reperfusion and investigated the therapeutic effects. We used a CORM-3 dose of 4 mg/kg because
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Abstract: The goal of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of neuroprotection by Icariin (ICA) treatment against brain ischemia in a rat stroke model via enhanced homing of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells and modulation of the CXCR-4/SDF-1α homing factor axis. Infarct size, brain water content, and neurological deficits by neurobehavioral scoring were evaluated in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats treated with ICA or saline as a control. mRNA expression and protein levels of SDF-1α and CXCR-4 were investigated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis was performed to determine the effects of ICA on bone marrow cells. Neurological scores, infarct size, and brain edema all significantly improved following ICA treatment (P < 0.05). In comparison with the saline control group, CD45 + /
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Effect of 4T1 and SCs Allograft Transplantation and Co- transplantation Transplant on Brain Water Content Transplantation of SCs cells three days prior to MCAO surgery decreased brain edema in right cortex, Pir-Amy, and striatum regions in comparison with the control group. Brain edema of the right cortex and striatum in 4T1+SCs treated group was reduced significantly while edema of Pir-Amy was not changed. No significant reduction was detected in 4T1 treated group compared to the control group (Figure 2).
mosmol/kg), but increases in the concentration of Na+, K+, Cl-, glucose, sorbitol, lactate, urea, myoinositol, and amino acids accounted for only about half of this increase. The unidentified solute was designated “idiogenic osmoles”. When plasma glucose was rapidly lowered to normal with insulin, there was gross brain edema, increases in brain content of water, Na+, K+, Cl- and idiogenic osmoles, and a significant osmotic gradient from brain (326 mosmol/kg H 2 O) to plasma (287 mosmol/kg). By similarly lowering plasma glucose with peritoneal dialysis, increases in brain Na+, K+, Cl-, and water were significantly less, idiogenic osmoles were not present, and brain and plasma Osm were not different. It is concluded that during sustained hyperglycemia, the cerebral cortex adapts to extracellular hyperosmolality primarily by accumulation of idiogenic osmoles rather than loss of water or gain in solute. When plasma glucose is […]
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The functional significance of AQP4 during hydrocepha- lus has previously been investigated by using AQP4-null mice that show accelerated progression of ventriculome- galy relative to wild type controls . This suggests that cerebral AQP4 is neuroprotective and accordingly, the increase in AQP4 expression as presented here might represent a host defense mechanism against kaolin- mediated pathology. A similar role of AQP4 is reported in a bacterial brain abscess coupled with vasogenic edema, in which AQP4-deficient mice show significantly higher ICP, brain swelling, and cerebral water content than their wild type controls . Also, in 3 different models of brain edema such as a freeze-injury model of cerebral vasogenic edema , a brain tumor model of edema  and a model of edema following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) , AQP4-deficient mice displayed increased CNS water accumulation, deteriorated neurological outcome and increased ICP when compared to those of wild type control mice [31-33]. Hydrocephalic edema however represents water accumulation different from both vaso- genic and cytotoxic edema, because of the absence of BBB disruption and cell swelling. A model of continuous intra- cerebral fluid infusion mimicking purely interstitial edema showed a poorer outcome in AQP4-null mice . AQP4 deficient animals thus have a poorer outcome in condi- tions with both vasogenic and interstitial (hydrocephalic) edema. All these data indicate a role for AQP4 in the cere- bral resolution of an established edema, in which the mechanisms likely involve astroglial clearance of excess brain water by transcellular routes and/or through the glia limitans. However, contrasting data are found in studies of other CNS disease models (such as ischemia, meningitis and trauma), in which AQP4-null mice display a better outcome, in terms of neurological score and brain water content, than wild type controls [34-36]. These studies indicate that altered AQP4 expression is rate-limiting for brain water transport and edema implying that altered AQP4 expression maybe functionally significant in cases of disturbed CSF circulation. Specifically, the results obtained in AQP4-deficient mice along with our data suggest that the dual regulation of AQP4 could serve as a
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In situ hybridization has indicated that Ngb mRNA is located inside the neuron cytoplasm . Immunohistochemistry demonstrates that Ngb-positive cells are widely distributed in rat cerebral tissues, with varying densities in dif- ferent regions and Ngb expression positively correlated with the degree of tolerance to hypoxia . In recent years, murine experi- ments have proven that in acute cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, the expression of Ngb at the mRNA and protein levels is increased, which indicates that Ngb is very sensitive to H/I and simultaneously produces protective stress responses . We have conducted the first study jointly applying hemin and Ngb recombi- nant plasmid to cerebral ischemia injury, pro- viding experimental evidence for the capability of exogenous Ngb to prevent H/I nerve dam- age, and laying the foundation not only for clini- cal trials, but also for related social and eco- nomic benefits . Wang et al. previously showed that Ngb expression increases during the acute phase of cerebral ischemic injury, which similar effects exist in the chronic phase, and that increased in expression can persist for 2 weeks. They also indicated that the induction Table 3. Comparison of rat brain water content
Water is a common chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of life. In typical usage, water refers only to its liquid form or state, but the substance also has a solid state, ice, and a gaseous state, water vapour or steam. Water covers 71% of the Earth’s surface .Water is a very strong solvent, referred to as “The Universal Solvent” dissolving many types of substances. Substances that will mix well and
of a high gas content (4.07 %) than in cases with a low gas content (1.15 %). The position of maximum erosion magnitude and the distribution of the pits on the hydrofoil remain constant for all the cases, since the cavitation number was constant (the topology of the cavitation structures does, in practical terms, not change when the gas content is altered). Comparing the distribution of the pits with the images of cavitation (Fig. 1 and 2) one can see that the maximum magnitude of the cavitation damage corresponds to the point where the cavitation cloud separates from the attached part of the cavitation. Figure 9 shows a diagram of EP as a function of water-gas content.
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15. Lashkari  this paper introduces a novel automatic brain tumor detection method that uses T1, T2 weighted and PD, MR images to determine any abnormality in the brain tissue. The proposed technique mainly consists of 4 stages- pre-processing, feature extraction, feature selection, classification. In pre-processing stage the increase in contrast between normal and abnormal brain tissue is done and DFT of the image is computed. In the next stage, feature extraction is done. Here non-statistical feature extraction namely Gabour wavelet is used and the feature selection is done by means of kernel-F score method. These selected features are then sent to the multilayer perception neural network for further classification. However the system is having the limitation of using all the 3 modalities such as T1, T2 weighted and PD MR Images. Its future works include the integration of features derived from fractural analysis which describes the local texture or ruggedness in terms of an estimated value called Hurst Coefficient. 16. Jafari and Shafaghi . In their paper presented a hybrid approach for the detection of brain tumor tissue in magnetic resonance image based on genetic algorithm and support vector machine. Proposed system consists of 4 stages. In the first stage –pre-processing: noise removal and contrast enhancing is done. The second stage is segmentation. Skull stripping is done with the help of morphological operations. The third stage is feature selection and extraction. Feature selection is done based on 4 categories- static features, Fourier and wavelet transforms histogram and the combination of prior set. Feature selection is done by means of genetic algorithm. In the fourth stage, the selected features are fed as input to the support vector machine classifier to detect normal and abnormal brain with an accuracy of 83.22%.The limitation of this work is that wavelet transform require large storage and its computational cost is high.
Fig.5a,b, the left vertical nanowire has a structure with random twins, while the right nanowire has no twins. The selected area electron diffraction pattern (Fig.5d) confirmed the formation of InP nanowires with Zinc Blend (ZB) structure. The preferential growth direction is  and the calculated value for (111) lattice spacing is 0.340 nm, which agrees well with the d-spacing for this plane in ZB InP. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy was applied for the analysis of nanowire composition (Fig. 6a,b). The EDX spectra were taken from rectangular areas depicted in Fig.5a. The oxygen content in nanowires was at the level of background concentration, indicating that the water in hydrazine does not alter the composition of indium phosphide. The XRD pattern (not shown in this paper) also confirmed the formation of InP nanowires with ZB structure.
 Dendy, J.S., Varikul, V., Sumawidjaja, K., Potaros, M. (1968): Production of Tilapia Mossambica Peters, plankton and benthos as parametres for evaluation of nitrogen in pond fertilizers. Proc. World Symposium on Warm- water Pond fish Culture, F.A.O. United Nation, Fish Rep. 44: 226-240.
A lack of understanding and experience over the decades has contributed to the ecotoxicity already present in the environment, and the past few years have exhibited a dangerous trend in how these pollutants affect the environment in which they are present. Several classes of drugs have been detected in recent years in different regions and water bodies 2 . These contaminants have found their
one of the most widely debated environmental agendas of the 21st century and one of the prominent challenges in the contemporary times. The subject requires urgent and immediate attention before the situations turns from bad to worse and aggravates beyond control. The focus and need for appropriate solid waste management largely stems from the concern over the environmental challenges posed by the rising waste generation and need to have an efficient waste management solution for a clean sustainable environment.Per capita generation of wastes in Local Self Governments in Kerala is higher than those in other States due to the peculiar consumption pattern in the State. Plastic wastes and e- wastes are on the increase. High water table areas particularly in the coastal region and in low lying areas pose a technological challenge. Though all the five city corporations and 27 out of 60 Municipalities have already been completed the construction of Solid Waste Processing Plants and made the Plants operational, they are facing difficulties such as lack of adequate land for disposal of rejects from the compost plants, inadequacies of processing facilities and odour nuisance excessive leachate generation, water pollution and other environmental issues from operation of the compost plants.In this study an attempt is made to investigate the effect of leachate leached out from the solid waste collected from the treatment plant at Chudukadu in Attingal on the soil water system. Keywords:- Municipal solid waste; leachate; percolation; effluent.
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arid climate in the Dead Sea region causes shrinkage of the water basin, where the inflow waters are much less than the evaporation rates. This decrease of the water level leads to increase the concentration of many elements. Therefore, different minerals started to precipitate, as Halite and some Gypsum. The Potash companies are fruitfully recruited this free solar energy to evaporate the brine waters in artificial ponds to precipitate Carnallite. Consequently, this process concentrates the Lithium and other rare elements in the residual brine.
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Such biofield is suggested by Ukrainian scientists as well. According to their data, good growth of rush is observed in the water with the presence of lead nitrate. For example, the 3-5 mg/L of such lead is very dangerous for humans and animals. Each leaf of this plant has 22,500 holes. Through these openings rush sucks in all harmful substances. However, it is known that field tortula and Far Eastern buckwheat absorb metals heavier than water. Planting seedlings in biofield is also considered favourable. They take a variety of substances out of water.