Waterquality in the open channel can be improved using application of nano- materials. Nano-materials in terms of coated powder have offered great promise for developed environmental technology products by exhibiting their enhanced reactivity towards targeted contaminants and mobility performance in the environment media. It was emphasized by Kwaadsteniet (2011) that a new contribution to this field is the application of nanotechnology in the design and fabrication of coatings. Nano-materials may prohibit biofouling either by repelling microorganisms through hydrophobic nano-structures or killing of microorganisms in direct contact with surfaces containing nano-biocides. Danabas, D. and Altun, T. (2011) also found that zeolites, one of the groups of the most important raw material in present industry, on especially environmental pollution and purification, and herbal and animal production, have attracted attention. This zeolite material has the potential to support the other materials in order to increase quality of water bodies. Innovation in the development of nanotechnology in purifying water are among the most promising. It had been researched by Savage N. & Diallo M.S. in 2005 about the nano-materials and water purification and in their understanding, recent advances suggest that many of the issues involving waterquality could be resolved or greatly ameliorated using nano-particles, nano- filtrations or other products resulting from the development of nanotechnology. The intelligence evaluation of Nanova fractal film behaviors, location, size and other characteristic is important to optimize its performance for waterquality improvement. There are several intelligence approaches such as fuzzy set theory, swarm intelligence, artificial intelligence, etc applied in industrial areas.
SK03 32 mg / l is almost close to the standard of waterquality class III. While the COD value for the downstream area (SK05) is very high that is equal to 468 mg/l far exceeds the waterquality standard required by the government. The downstream region requires the greatest amount of oxygen compared to other regions for chemical reaction processes to decompose the contaminants. Level of am- monia (AN) at sample point SK 02 to SK 04 has increased with highest AN concentration occurring at sample point SK 04 = 0,16 mg/l but not exceeding recommended quality standard based on PP. 82, 2001 that is equal to 0,5 mg/l. In this area the dominant activity is the settlements whose effluents are directly discharged into river bodies and poor sanitation of the people. This is in accordance with the statement of Effendi (2003) which states that high ammonia level is an indication of the contamination of organic materials de- rived from domestic waste, industries and run-off agricultural fer- tilizers . SS (Suspended Solid) parameter of Way Kuripan River at sample point SK01 up to SK05 sample point has the same value that is 1 mg/l. Concentrations of SS from upstream to downstream enter the waterquality standard of class I and Class II based on PP no. 82, 2001 so that suspended solids content of river water of Way Kuripan not affect the allocation of raw water, facilities / infrastructure of recreational water, animal husbandry and fishery
The present study deals with the physico-chemical characteristics of winery waste water and Pond Waste Water. The results of the analysis were compared with the waterquality standard (BIS) and WaterQuality Index. The WaterQuality Index (WQI) of the collected winery waste water was calculated to arrive at the level of pollution. In the analysis various physico-chemical parameters like pH, electrical conductivity, total solids, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, total hardness, sodium, calcium, magnesium, sulphate, carbonate, bicarbonate, phosphate, chloride, nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand were determined, presence of heavy metals were also anlaysed and WaterQuality Index (WQI) was calculated. The quality of water samples were discussed to the parameters and thus an attempt were made to ascertain the quality of water used for domestic purposes.
Turbidity in water is because of suspended solids and colloidal matter. It may be due to eroded soil caused by dredging or due to the growth of micro-organisms. High turbidity makes filtration expensive. If sewage solids are present, pathogens may be encased in the particles and escape the action of chlorine during disinfection. In the present study turbidity ranged between 11 and 19 NTU. Maximum value recorded in July and August and minimum value in December month. Seasonally more values recorded in monsoon. High turbidity signify presence of large amount of suspended solids , this is again indicate the high rate of siltation so as to decrease the depth of the water body. Total dissolved solids denote mainly the various kinds of minerals present in the water. Dissolved solids do not contain any gas and colloidal etc. The concentration of dissolved solids is an important parameter in drinking water and other waterquality standards .
precipitation can also add significant amounts of sulphate to surface waters. The concentration of the sulphate value ranged from 403 to 437mg/L which is within the tolerable limits of 500mgL -1 (WHO, 2004). The computed overall WQI was ranged from 143.64 during 1999 to 136.27 during 2000 and therefore can be categorized as “poor water” during 1999 and 2000 to “Poor water”, and during this study were sampled collected seasonally during 2009, computed waterquality index values ranged from 115.36 during winter, 115.65 during spring, 117.79 during summer and 118.03 during. The high value of WQI has been found mainly from higher value of EC, Alkalinity and Hardness. This could be attributed to improper disposal of wastes, cottage activities, and large quantity of agricultural and urban run-off, sewage, over application of inorganic fertilizer, improper operation and maintenance of septic system (WHO, 2004). During the last decade, Duhok Lake has been subjected to a rapid decline in waterquality status which is possibly due to the increase in the population and human activities. It is clear that the domestic discharge and agricultural activities in addition to the last ten years of drought are the major threats to Duhok Lake’s waterquality.
1.2.1 Waterquality index (WQI) Estimation The waterquality index (WQI) is regarded as one of the most effective ways to communicate water quality8.The waterquality index (WQI) is a mathematical instrument used to transform large quantities of waterquality data into a single number which represents the waterquality level . The objective of the index is to turn complex waterquality data into information that is understandable and useable by the public. In a number of national wide studies, waterquality of different natural resources has been assessed on the basis of calculated waterquality indices.
Dissolved Oxygen (DO):The DO level of any water body is important for the survival and distribution of aquatic organisms. The dissolved oxygen (in mg/L) varied from 0.9-8.2 (mean 4.06±1.99l), 4.4-16.5 (mean 9.39±3.20) and 4.4-14.1 (7.73±2.76) in the ponds 1, 2 and 3 respectively (Tables 2-4). Minimum DO in Pond 1 was due to high rate of contamination occurring due to addition of contaminating agents during different uses of pond water as well as inflow of water from the surroundings carrying sediments during rainy season. This agreed with the findings of Shukla (2016) in Mohan Ram pond, Shahdol District, Madhya Pradesh, India. WaterQuality Index value is very much dependent on DO. DO level is related to clearness of water. Clear water shows more DO than unclear water (Kumar &Dua, 2009). Except Pond 1, the DO level was higher than standard level (Tables 2-4) in the other two ponds and thus was found to be suitable for different uses.
2.2 Electrical Conductivity is associated with major waterquality parameters due to dilution effect of stream flow and can be used as indicator in determining the suitability of water for irrigation. Electrical conductivity is also considered to be a rapid and good measure of dissolved solids which reflects the pollution status as well as tropic level of the aquatic body ; ; . Higher value of conductivity was due to presence of higher concentration of dissolved salts of cations such as calcium, magnesium and sulphate during the rains. The low conductivity might be responsible for the soft nature of the water and the significant changes in conductivity may be an indicator that a discharge or some other source of pollution has entered a stream .
weight assigned to each parameter ranged from 1 to 4 based on the importance of the parameter for aquatic environment and human health. The analyses of variance (ANOVA) of data revealed significant differences between different periods of sampling (p<0.01). Therefore we assigned the results in two categories: very poor and inappropriate, which make it not suitable for human uses such as drinking. The most important factor in assessment of waterquality in this study was BOD 5 . The result of
The key task of collective water supply sys- tems is to provide inhabitants with healthy water [Act of 7 June 2001]. However, this objective is not always achieved. This is observed in deterio- rating waterquality in distribution systems for many years. There are various causes of second- ary contamination of water delivered to custom- ers. They may occur individually or coexist and interact, thus deteriorating the quality of water transferred in distribution systems. The thor- ough analysis allowed identification of the cru- cial factors involved. When classifying them the full range of causes of secondary contamination in the network was considered and the factors of especially strong influence on waterquality (ac- cording to its severity) were highlighted [Kwiet- niewski et. al. 2012]. When considering the above assumptions the following division has been pro- posed, as presented in Table 1.
The systematic study has been a carry over to assess the waterquality index (WQI) of Kali River in and around the Uttara Kannada district. Water samples are collected from six stations along the stretch of Kali river. Considering the physical, chemical and biological perature, pH, Turbidity, Total Hardness (TH), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Alkalinity (TA), Total Acidity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), ), Sulphate (SO 4 ), Iron (Fe). The observed values of the
This paper will demonstrate the successful implementation of an internet-based approach to measuring waterquality and usage on a real-time basis. A flow sensor for measuring of quantity supplied, eliminating the drawbacks of traditional water metering systems. Future enhancements can include prepaid billing and automatic treatment of water based on the nature of contamination. Water metering system will be used for automated billing, eliminating the drawbacks of traditional water metering systems. This novel idea can be further extended to other areas like oil and natural gas monitoring systems.
The methods used to estimate pollutant loadings are technically challenging, and the results contain considerable uncertainty that must be taken into account when considering potential management actions. Estimation methods have improved over time, thanks to technological refinements that increase the sensitivity and accuracy of monitoring instru- ments, and due to improvements in managers’ understanding of the transport and fate of different types of pollutants in the aquatic environment. However, certain categories of sources, such as dry atmospheric deposition and subma- rine groundwater discharge, remain difficult to measure and are continuing sources of uncertainty. Recent USGS research (Kroeger and others, 2007; Swarzenski and others, 2007a; box 5–1) has made important advances in the estimation of submarine groundwater discharges to the bay. Similarly, the Bay Region Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) study, a collaborative multiagency research effort (Atkeson and others, 2007; box 5–2), along with a recent NOAA atmospheric modeling study (Dennis and Arnold, 2007), have provided updated estimates of dry and wet atmospheric deposition of N and other water-quality constituents to the bay and its watershed.
Support for development of this publication was provided by the USDA Cooperative State Research and Extension Service (CSREES) under agreement 2003-51130-01733, the Integrated Soil Nutrient and Pest Management Project (iSNAP). Mary Staben, iSNAP project coordinator at Oregon State University, assisted the publication team. University and private industry participants from the CSREES Multistate Research and Extension Project WERA-103, Nutrient Management and WaterQuality, provided helpful review comments on draft versions of this publication. We recognize the following individuals for their helpful suggestions, which increased the technical merit of the publication:
In aquaculture, different kinds of organic and inorganic compounds (e.g. formulated food, manures, and fertilizers) are added to the water body to increase fish production. But, a large part of these inputs are not utilized by the fish and are decomposed / disintegrated in the water. The microbiological decomposition of the organic matter is a critical factor for waterquality control and nutrient recycle.
The Transit Zoning Code (SD 84A and SD 84B) area is located within the San Diego Creek Watershed, which covers 112.2 square miles in central Orange County. It includes portions of the cities of Costa Mesa, Irvine, Laguna Woods, Lake Forest, Newport Beach, Orange, Santa Ana, and Tustin. The existing storm drain system adjacent to and serving the project is the San Diego Creek. Its main tributary, San Diego Creek, drains into Upper Newport Bay. Smaller tributaries include Serrano Creek, Borrego Canyon Wash, Agua Chinon Wash, Bee Canyon Wash, Peters Canyon Wash, Sand Canyon Wash, Bonita Canyon Creek, and the Santa Ana Delhi Channel. The Santa Ana Regional WaterQuality Control Board (RWQCB) has identified Newport Bay as impaired by nutrients, sediment, pathogens, pesticides, metals, and priority organics. The United States Environmental Protection Agency, Region IX established Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and sediments for the San Diego Creek/Newport Bay watershed. In addition, it is generally recognized that Newport Bay is significantly impaired by trash.
number of socio-economic and cultural issues. Some of those reasons attribute it to its advantages over ordinary tap water served by the municipality, huge advertisements praising bottled water’s qualities, relative convenience by an individual, communal prestige and taboos for bottled water appealing to many people as being far more convenient than tap water. This is besides bottled water safety and purity. As such, bottled water is available virtually everywhere in supermarkets, sales points, service stations, cafeterias and restaurants, vending machines, etc. There are many different kinds of bottled waters, and each one has specific requirements regarding its source, composition, treatment and quality. This research project reviewed the quality of bottled water furnishing a baseline survey for its production and management in the Eastern Region of KSA; stressing upon characteristics and extent of bottled water used for drinking purposes and comparing its quality with acceptable standards and guidelines. Samples were drawn from different factories, localities and sales points for laboratory investigations for physical, chemical and bacteriological quality over a period of around 6 months during a final year research project task. Carried out research showed that most bottled waters from KSA factories are safe and proved to be of high quality and relatively free of contaminants. Nonetheless, the quality of some brands was spotty, however, and such products may pose a health risk, primarily for people with weakened immune systems. When comparing results of environmental laboratory for various waterquality parameters with drinking water standards set by various regulatory bodies, levels of different physical parameters such as pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, NO3, chlorine, and SO4 have been registered disparity for some bottled water.
Rivers are the veins of land with cultural and economical significance and monitoring and maintenance of river in this presence scenario is of primary importance. The river water is being utilized for drinking and irrigation purposes. Waterquality in Imphal valley is not satisfactorily, heavily contaminated as rivers are exposed to domestic and industrial effluent. Since water pollution is very essentially a biological phenomenon, the degree of pollution can be estimated either from physical and chemical characteristics or from biological properties of water. The present paper includes biological estimates, their taxonomic composition along with chemical assessment of the Iril River water. The river is one of the most important big meandering feeder of Imphal river start from Lakhamai village of Poumei Naga (Senapati District) situated along the bank of the River. The river runs through Saikhul, Sagolmang areas and flows through Lamlai, Top, Naharup, Pangong and Irilbung respectively in Imphal East District before it joins with Imphal River at Lilong. It is fed with fresh water from the streams very clear. The water supplies plant located in Porompat, Imphal East District. The Iril River recorded a large population of indigenous fish particularly Labeo bata (Ngaton), Osteobrama belangeri (Khabag), Wallagu attu (Sareng) etc. were captured by local fisherman mostly in the month of July and August, floating of dead fishes were also observed during rainy season on the water surface simultaneously, present number of such fishes declined thus the present work has been established.
Water can be used for recreation, drinking, fisheries, agriculture or industry. Each of these designated uses has different defined chemical, physical and biological standards necessary to fulfil the respective purpose. For example, there are stringent standards for water to be used for drinking or swimming compared to that used in agriculture or industry. 1.2 What is WaterQuality Analysis?