Integrated WaterResourcesManagementWater is critical, but often overlooked element in sustainable development. If effective, long lasting solutions to water problems are to be found a new water governance and management paradigm is required. Such a new paradigm is encapsulated in the Integrated WaterResourcesManagement (IWRM) concept, which has been defined by GWP as ‘a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximise the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital eco-systems’.
Efficiency of economic tools; The use of economic instruments is on the increase but has far from reached its full potential. Until now most governments have relied primarily on direct regulation in waterresourcesmanagement. However, economic tools may offer several advantages, such as providing incentives to change behaviour, raising revenue to help finance necessary investments, establishing user priorities and achieving management objectives at the least possible overall cost to society. Prerequisites for successful application of most economic instruments are appropriate standards, effective admini- strative, monitoring and enforcement capacities, institutional co- ordination, and economic stability. Designing appropriate economic instruments requires simultaneous consideration of efficiency, environ- mental sustainability, equity, and other social concerns, as well as the complementary institutional and regulatory framework. Some notable examples of economic instruments include water prices, tariffs and subsidies, incentives, fees and fee structures, water markets, and taxes.
Abstract: Waterresourcesmanagement consists in the initial planning and matching of water availabilities and demand. Water is a basic ingredient in economic and social development, and should be one of the main components of national and regional planning. Planning of waterresources is usually carried out at three levels: (i) long term overall planning on national level, with time horizons of about 50-100 years (ii) medium term planning with time-horizons of 15 to 25 years (iii) short term project planning with varying time-horizons (usually 5 to 10 years) according to each specific project. It is important to be able to assess availabilities and demand and to define proper criteria for this assessment so that the conclusions may be trustworthy. This assessment must cover water availabilities, include both surface waters and groundwater, consider the aspects of quantity and quality and refer to both present and future situations. This paper explains how on the one hand the waterresources were evaluated through a simulation of reservoir performance, while water demand was estimated using several scenarios for consumption. The results from these two basic objectives helped in formulating a Master Plan for the development of waterresources in Mauritius. Implementation is presently being carried out, which gives the opportunity to discuss a post analysis of the simulation carried out.
3. Researcher-Agency Integration - The premise behind organizing this effort was that researchers and agencies are not working together as effectively as they should to promote waterresourcesmanagement. Peterson noted that institutional change comes through windows of opportunity created by episodic events, and these have ranged in this century from major disasters to the rise of the environmental movement. Johnson observed that the exhaustion of reservoir sites has coupled with environmental concerns to cause Federal watermanagement agencies to change their missions even as they must also change personnel because of retirements. Similar changes are occurring in the universities. Both sides need to become proactive for greater two-way integration between researchers and agency professionals. Campbell presents technological development that agencies must deploy to routinely gather information to support both operations and research, and the resulting changes in the needed data base can facilitate needed change.
We are pleased that UCOWR provided us with a forum to discuss the implications of global warming for waterresourcesmanagement. We should remind the readers that we view this forum as a debate about the respective viewpoints of scientists, policymakers, and waterresources decisionmakers about key issues surrounding adaptation, rather than as a scientific appraisal of the facts about whether there is evidence for climate change. To that end, we assembled a group of experts to address the issues of adaptation to global warming and climate change within the waterresources sector. This group of very knowledgeable individuals, who were asked to contribute their thoughts in this issue of WaterResources Update, have all been involved in various aspects of the evolving climate change debate at the highest national and international levels for at least the past decade. Yet, we must remark on a glaring deficiency - the “rank and file” water managers and operators, i.e., the true waterresources decisionmakers, are not represented in this forum even though we tried very hard to elicit their views. In fact, climate change issues seem only recently to have become of concern to the operating watermanagement community, coincident with the greater attention devoted to El Niño in the press, and the salience of proposals to control greenhouse gas emissions and their economic consequences. This should not be interpreted to mean that water managers are oblivious to the potential serious consequences of global warming. Their apparent indifference may stem from their intuitive understanding that the coping strategies for dealing with contemporary climate variability and those suggested for potential climate change are virtually the same. We believe that the views of the watermanagement community must be more actively sought after by the climate change impacts community, particularly on the subject of adaptation, because the success of whatever
IWRM is not just about managing physical resources, it is also about reforming human systems to enable people, women as well as men, to benefit from those resources and to protect and manage them. Integrated waterresourcesmanagement is a compre- hensive process for the sustainable development, allocation and monitoring of waterresources and their use in the context of social, economic and environmental objec- tives. The integration of groundwater into the IWRM paradigm can provide important benefits for both the water managers and the societies that they serve.
practices in the basin. The implications included high water treatment cost, loss of biodiversity, loss of liveli- hoods and income, high disease prevalence rate and water use conflicts. The WaterResources Commission of Ghana started implementing Integrated WaterResourcesManagement (IWRM) in the basin in 2002. The major step was to establish a Densu Basin Board to coordinate activities within the basin and manage it on a holistic manner. This paper highlights the improvement in water quality as a result of activities initiated in the Densu River Basin during the past few years. The activities are ongoing; hence, the results reported here should be considered preliminary and may be enriched as new experience emerges from the Densu Basin complemented with similar interventions in other river basins.
Received July 19, 2010; revised August 9, 2010; accepted August 18, 2010
Quantification of water quality (WQ) is an integral part of scientifically based waterresourcesmanagement.
The main objective of this study was comparative analysis of two approaches applied for quantitative as- sessment of WQ: the trophic level index (TLI) and the Delphi method (DM). We analyzed the following features of these conceptually different approaches: A. similarity of estimates of lake WQ; B. sensitivity to indicating disturbances in the aquatic ecosystem structure and functioning; C. capacity to reflect the impact of major management measures on the quality of waterresources. We compared the DM and TLI based on results from a series of lakes covering varying productivity levels, mixing regimes and climatic zones. We assumed that the conservation of aquatic ecosystem in some predefined, “reference”, state is a major objec- tive of sustainable waterresourcesmanagement in the study lakes. The comparison between the two ap- proaches was quantified as a relationship between the DM ranks and respective TLI values. We show that being a classification system, the TLI does not account for specific characteristics of aquatic ecosystems and the array of different potential uses of the water resource. It indirectly assumes that oligotrophication is iden- tical to WQ improvement, and reduction of economic activity within the lake catchment area is the most ef- fective way to improve WQ. WQ assessed with the TLI is more suitable for needs of natural waterresourcesmanagement if eutrophication is a major threat. The DM allows accounting for several water resource uses and therefore it may serve as a more robust and comprehensive tool for WQ quantification and thus for sus- tainable waterresourcesmanagement.
Yemen - a country located in a dry and semi-arid region of the Middle East is facing a severe water crisis, especially in agriculture sector. The irrigated agriculture is using increasing quantities of both surface and groundwater. These requirements put pressure on the available water services and resources. Rapidly growing population particularly in the urban areas requires basic necessities like water and sanitation. Integrated WaterResourcesManagement with particular reference to Water Demand Management approach for coping with water scarcity is suggested. Treated waste water and desalination is a focus area in many water scarcity regions and should be encouraged. Climate Change is one area where in all the specialists are needed to have a comprehensive idea and offer adaptation and mitigation measures about the impact on waterResources, Agriculture and Environment. Waterresources is a multi-disciplinary subject and an integrated approach is needed to address various issues pertaining to sustainability of waterresources.
In order to alleviate the problems on agricultural outputs and other water users, sustainable and reliable development and proper use of the waterresources of Ethiopia becomes an imperative. Obviously this calls for a priority setting and judicious waterresourcesmanagement policy and associated finance. Development activities carried out so far in the water sector in totality or individually reveal a very low level of performance. The cause for this poor achievement and the dillema for the failure of the country's waterresources to significantly contribute to the overall socio- economic development of the Ethiopian peoples lies mainly in the absence of a well defined coherent policy and the lack of the required huge investment.
Others 0.04 0.1 0.04 0.81
Total 3.39 100 4.15 1.22
4 WATERRESOURCESMANAGEMENT ISSUES
Afghanistan is predominantly an agrarian society with 80 percent of the population living in rural areas, and directly dependent on natural resources for livelihoods (small scale farming, pastures and forest products). Since rainfall is scanty and highly variable over most of the country where topography and soils are suitable for agriculture, there are few areas where rainfed crops can provide a reliable basis for livelihoods. The surveys of 1978 have indicated that 80 percent of wheat and 85 percent of all crops were produced on irrigated lands. This is also reported to be true for the present day situation. Hence the evolution and growth of agriculture and food security in Afghanistan is very much dependent on the development of irrigation.
The sequence above can support the development of a strategic financial plan for waterresourcesmanagement. The OECD has advocated Strategic Financial Planning for water supply and sanitation.
Extended to waterresourcesmanagement, strategic financial planning, conceived as an iterative process, can help in several ways. First, it anticipates financing needs in the medium term. Typically, it considers operation and maintenance costs on top of investment costs, when new infrastructures are built. Second, it matches policy ambitions with financial resources. For example, when the costs of achieving policy objectives prove very high, one option is to reformulate these objectives (such as by adjusting quality objectives to different uses; stretching out implementation schedules; or downgrading water security for selected users, which will involve trade-offs). Another option is to consider alternative financial options, and allocate more financial resources.
MESSAGE FROM CHAIRMAN
WRMA takes this opportunity to introduce our roles and functions to County Governments.
Globally, best practices in managing WaterResources are based on river basin drainage system. Having embraced the Integrated WaterResourcesManagement Principles, Kenya’s waterresources are managed along major river drainage systems. These areas follow river basin drainage areas referred to as called water catchment areas, whose boundaries are river drainage based as opposed to the County Boundaries which are administrative based.
1.6. Integration of Upstream and Downstream Water-related Interests: An integrated approach to waterresourcesmanagement entails identification of conflicts of interest between upstream and downstream stakeholders. The consumptive “losses” upstream will reduce river flows. The pollution loads discharged upstream will degrade river water quality. Land use changes upstream may alter groundwater recharge and river flow seasonality. Flood control measures upstream may threaten flood-dependent livelihoods downstream. Such conflicts of interest must be considered in IWRM with full acknowledgement of the range of physical and social linkages that exist in complex systems.
and chemical sludge), solid waste and seawater intrusion, may widely affect all aspects of society, yielding some of the most systemic and most complicated feedbacks that frustrate human progress and sustainable development . The fact that IWRM is a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. Challenges of reforming enabling environment for waterresourcesmanagement in Indonesia can be categorized according to the eleven pillars (see Figure 3) of critical managerial elements that must be highly scrutinized by local and central governments in order to develop best practice. These pillars are grouped into two management approaches, such that: (1) an integrated approach consisting of watershed and forestry, agricultural land, flood and drought, water quality and pollution control, soil erosion and sedimentation as well as seawater intrusion should be put under authority of river basin agency supervision; and (2) a partial approach consisting of water and wastewater treatment, biological and chemical sludge, solid waste, groundwater withdrawal and land subsidence as well as night-soil should be put under responsibility of district/municipal authority. All of these pillars must be implemented by the local and central governments as well as by the private institutions and NGOs. The first step to starting IWRM is developing a river basin integrated waterresourcesmanagement plan (RBIWRMP) and then enacting it into official plan as the legal document. This document might guide all stakeholders corresponding program activities to the whole-of-government framework makes it possible to meet the IWRM targets.
200. We do not have any non-potable supply transfers between zones or to adjacent water companies. There are some non-potable supplies to farm properties, but these volumes are minor and have been excluded from this WRMP.
201. We review process losses every year and calculate the volume of water lost. Raw water losses for this WRMP are based on an investigation of raw water transmission system losses for 2010/11 and 2011/12. No losses were reported for the East SWZ. In the Grid SWZ we lost an average 2.01Ml/d during transmission of raw water, however a number of aqueducts gain water through ingress into the pipes. We therefore assume no raw water losses in the Grid SWZ due to transmission. We will continue to develop our approach to a total water audit and its measurement and analysis of raw water losses.
z z - - the social and environmental side- the social and environmental side -effects of infrastructure effects of infrastructure
z z Regulatory approaches to pollution control Regulatory approaches to pollution control
z z - - product pr oduct policy, process standards, emission standards or water policy, process standards, emission standards or water quality standards?
Being one of the most important key element influencing social health, wellbe- ing, the preservation of ecosystem, and the economic development of a country, water is a natural, yet limited resource. Due to Global warming effects and its ad- verse impact on climate many countries of the world will be facing serious shortages on this limited resource. Thus, planning, management and preservation of water on a basinwide scale is essential. Engineering and supporting interdisciplinary studies and activities performed for the purpose of utilizing and controlling water for pre- servarion and for the benefit of the society is commonly referred to as waterresources planning and management. Fundamental to waterresources planning and manage- ment is an understanding of the availability of water and a notion of how much of it will be needed, in what quantity, for how long, and for what purposes. This requires an evaluation of the regionla resources data coupled with projections of population change, agricultural and industrial activity, economic growth or decline, and so on.