Local involvement in energy projects is an important step in providing incentives for local change. This involvement needs to go beyond the level of ‘consultation’ and toward ownership and control. Some advocates of community power projects want them because state and corporate actors were not moving quickly enough toward renewable energy development. In this sense they are an entrepreneurial attempt to be first movers in energy innovations. Others are more concerned with ensuring economic development opportunities for citizens of affected areas. With wind this is an important consideration as the wind resource is free, and geographically tied to an area. Thus, it is just that citizens near a proposed project are given the opportunity to develop their own resource, rather than letting others do so. Developing windprojects thus becomes a foundation for ‘community power’, injecting much needed resources into community groups and local landowners. As a result of these broader developments, the B.C. Alberta Social Economy
As the investment test will not be passed by most windprojects (or only if they omit the tax incentives, as has been done by a project that achieved registration), project developers will use the barrier test. The barrier of higher capital cost compared to fossil fuel power plants is not really credible due to the abundance of capital for wind power in India and thus is mentioned only rarely. More credible barriers are low capacity utilization factor, and possible reduction in feed-in tariffs. The former depends on the siting of the project. The latter is very important as shown by the policy of Rajasthan (see Table 4) and other states 4 . Moreover, feed-in-tariffs may be replaced by the Availability Based Tariff (ABT) in which the generators with firm delivery of power against commitment will start getting more prices for the generated power, whereas wind power producers cannot guarantee supply of electricity and will be thus receive lower rates. For the projects that substitute grid electricity at industrial tariffs, there is the risk that the wind power benefit will melt down as liberalization permits industrial electricity consumers to choose the supplier in a competitive environment. Some projects have also highlighted the technological risks associated with new types of wind turbines. Lack of familiarity and experience with such new technologies can lead to perceptions of greater technical risk than for conventional energy sources.
Reflecting previous studies (BVG Associates, 2015b; Noonan and Smart, 2017; RenewableUK, 2017; Whitmarsh, 2018), we find that UK firms were mostly involved in project development and O&M, but much less involved in capital expenditure, such as turbines, foundations, etc. It remains unclear what new opportunities floating wind may present the UK to increase its content of the offshore wind supply chain. Nor can we safely assume that the coverage of UK firms today across the two current projects will be representative of much larger sector tomorrow, which may have accumulated significant skills and capacity across the supply chain. Even so, today the overwhelming majority of non-UK firms involved in delivering the UK’s projects are either from the EU or the EEA (e.g. Norway). Brexit therefore raises serious questions about how leaving the single market and the customs union may impact negatively on the prospects of future UK floating windprojects, due to tariffs, supply- chain disruption and lack of access to skilled labour. It also raises concerns about the health of the UK firms involved in floating wind, which currently export products or services to EU countries. A weakening of these firms may erode the UK’s capacity to deliver its current pipeline of floating windprojects. In parallel, Brexit may mean that the UK is unable to access a wealth of demonstration grant funding made available by the EU (e.g. Horizon 2020, EU Innovation Fund, etc).
The challenge for India is to strike a balance between increase in coal power growth on the one hand and the need to address climate issues on the other. It needs to identify a target or limit for GHG gases so that climate does not change. It can also think of concentrating on greenhouse gas sinks instead of actual GHG concentrations. Some of the other activities that can be undertaken are a forestation, use of energy efficient equipment. It is found that an incandescent lamp of 60W gives CO2 emission of 65gm/Hr& a CFL uses 1/4th the energy used by incandescent lamp of 15W while it gives 16gm/Hr CO2 emission. There should be widespread awareness and proportional activities regarding energy conservation practices. We could resort to non-conventional energy sources like windprojects, solar projects etc., using supercritical pulverized coal technologies with higher efficiency, using pollution control technologies like flue gas de-sulphurises .
He has been part in building up the organization and sits on the Board of some of the subsidiaries. He has participated in the bid processes for negotiating offshore wind contracts and followed closely the company’s first implementation of offshore windprojects; Riffgate, BARD Offshore, O&M projects for Siemens and lately installing the demonstration project for Alstom in the Bellwind OWP.
incremental performance gains and higher costs of larger turbines [11,12,13,14]. The united offshore wind provides higher capacity factors than other variable renewables. In 2018, the average global capacity factor for the offshore wind turbines was 33% compared with 25% for the onshore wind turbines and 14% for solar PV . Further, the new offshore windprojects are expected to have capacity factors of over 40% in moderate wind conditions and over 50% in areas with high quality wind resources. Other variable renewable energy technologies are also likely to see improvements, but not to match the expected capacity factors of new offshore windprojects [11,12,13,14]. For example, technology improvements are raising expected capacity factors for the onshore wind to between 30% and 40% in most regions as shown in Figure 10 . The capacity factor describes the average output over the year relative to the maximum rated power capacity. The wake loss refers to the effect on the space behind a turbine that is marked by decreased wind speed on a downstream wind turbine since the turbine itself used the energy in turning the blades.
areas, costs of wind power are higher than electricity pro- vided by a coal plant projects thus be additional at any rate. The unit cost of electricity generation is 0.05 €/kWh for coal and 0.06 €/kWh for fuel oil based system whereas in case of wind, the unit cost of electricity generation is 0.07 €/kWh in the best locations. The problem with this reasoning is that if windprojects are used to displace expensive grid electricity for industrial consumers (priced at 0.09 €/kWh ), they are invariably the most attrac- tive alternative unless they are built in locations with low wind speed. The situation for windprojects that supply to the grid at the state-guaranteed feed-in tariff is less clear; the attractiveness depends on the level of the tariff. As the investment test will not be passed by most windprojects (or only if they omit the tax incentives, as has been done by a project that achieved registration), project developers will use the barrier test. The barrier of higher capital cost compared to fossil fuel power plants is not really credible due to the abundance of capital for wind power in India and thus is mentioned only rarely. More credible barriers are low capacity utilization factor, and possible reduction in feed-in tariffs. The former depends on the siting of the project. The latter is very important as shown by the policy of Rajasthan (see Table 3) and other states. In 2001, Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB) changed its policy and froze the power purchase tariff for wind energy at Rs 2.70 per kWh with no escalation till 2006 and had informed that this power purchase tariff would be reviewed at 2006 and a new tariff would be fixed then. This was a major barrier for establishing new wind farms as other renewable energy plants continued to get a higher tariff. For instance, the power purchase tariff for electricity from an industrial waste/municipal waste based generation was Rs 3.49 for the year 2005 as against Rs 2.70 for wind energy. This policy encourages investors to invest in other renewable energy plants. Reduction in power pur- chase tariff was a major investment barrier. Moreover, feed-in-tariffs may be replaced by the Availability Based
European countries (the Netherlands, the U.K and France for instance) large onshore wind parks have started gaining public resistance. According to Member States` NREAPs for 2015-2020, offshore wind power in the EU would need to have a compound annual growth rate of 39 per cent per year (EEA, 2016). Large-scale offshore projects are gaining popularity among institutional project finance lenders: during the first six months of 2015 new offshore capacity installations were more than twice the capacity installed during the same period the previous year. Nevertheless, at this point, offshore windprojects are still classified as immature and expensive to build. Significant constraints from both technical and policy design perspectives and high costs make offshore wind too risky for many risk-averse lenders, such as universal banks.
Although integrating wind energy into the energy portfolio mix may sound like a futuristic concept, harnessing the power of the wind is hardly a new idea. Small turbines on individual farms and ranches were commonplace before the advent of rural electrification. Windprojects in rural America may be a return to the past that could help preserve rural communities and the family farm. Making a living on the family farm has never been easy, but harnessing wind energy as the cash crop of the future is a viable way to ease the financial burdens of farmers, ranchers, and rural communities and preserve the rural way of life.
It is certified that 50% or more than 50 % of WTG locations of the installed / to be installed wind power project are having / will have mean sea level elevation difference of more than 60 m with reference to the mean sea level of wind mast location mentioned above. Therefore, we are / will be submitting project specific annual mean WPD report of C-WET. It is certified that the information given above is true and correct. If it is found that the information is incorrect or false, then I am / We are / the Company is liable for legal action. I / We / the Company hereby agree / agrees and undertake / undertakes to abide by the procedure / directions issued by MEDA / MERC from time to time in respect of wind zone classification.
Achieving these objectives requires, among other measures, a large-scale transformation of the energy system, including power generation, transportation systems and fossil fuel exploration and extraction. In its 1.5°C scenarios the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projects a rapid decrease of the share of fossil fuels in the global energy supply and suggest that renewables should supply 70–85% of all electricity by 2050 (IPCC, 2018). Similarly, in its REmap Case, a scenario for the global energy system which is consistent with the “well below 2°C” target, the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) envisages 86% of power generation coming from renewable energy sources (RES) by 2050, compared to 24% in 2016, while the share of electricity in final energy would increase to almost 50% by 2050 from just 20% today (IRENA, 2019). Moreover, large-scale transformations are required in the transport sector. For example, in its 2°C scenario the International Energy Agency foresees that 90% of all cars on the road will be electric by 2060 (IEA, 2017). Massive investments in infrastructure to support the electrification of the transport sector as well is in the development of low-carbon public transport systems will be required.
The proposed project will enable the Government of Kiribati to establish a facility needed for a biofuel plant which will include a completely independent biofuel testing facility that can assure the Power and Transport sector that the delivered biofuel meets the standards that have been set for CNO to be used as a diesel replacement. The project will include purchasing of a 2 megawatt dual fuel engine for PUB and a 500kW for Kiritimati Island plus a biofuel production facility in Tarawa, Kiritiamti Island and Teraina. The development of biofuel, which was one of the key results from the IRENA RRA, will complement the solar and wind development projects and will help the Government achieve its imported fuel reduction targets by significantly reducing the use of imported petroleum in the transport and power sectors.
Economic regulation theory expresses governmental actions that have the objective of limiting the freedom of choice of the economic agents, especially of the companies that hold high levels of market power. Thus, when a regulating agent (an agency responsible for some sector of the economy, such as electricity, telecommunications, etc.) sets a tariff for a particular service, it is restricting the freedom that a company has to set the price for its activity. (PINTO JR, FIANI, 2013). As is known, regulatory practices go far beyond tariff intervention, they also act on quality issues, raising the level of competition in the industry, evaluating mergers, acquisitions or other forms of combined acts, etc. The Brazilian electricity sector has a specific regulatory body, ANEEL, whose most detailed evaluation of its attributions will be made throughout the work, has, as its main attributions, regular generation (production), transmission, distribution and commercialization of electric energy; it is supervised, directly or through agreements with state agencies, concessions, permits and electric energy services; it implements the policies and directives of the federal government regarding the exploitation of electric energy and the use of hydraulic potentials; it establishes tariffs; it resolves differences at the administrative level between the actors and between those actors and consumers; and, it promotes the activities of granting concessions, permits and authorization of electric power projects and services, by delegation of the Federal Government. 1 In order to evaluate some of these attributions, we will briefly discuss below some theoretical and conceptual approaches on the functioning of markets and on regulation.
It is evident from examples in Europe and around the world that subsidies have had significant impact on the development of community wind. Mr Ashby indicated that subsidies are a fairly definite way of increasing the development of SSW, he said “if you look around the world, countries such as Germany have had some pretty aggressive subsidy policy, yes they are a bit distorted, but in saying that they have put up a huge amount of renewable generation” (pers. comm. Ashby, 2007). Mr Freear believes it is evident that wind will continue to develop in New Zealand with or without subsidies but whether community wind will have a role in this is unlikely at the present and uncertain in the future “it depends how fast you want to go. It is no doubt that the finish line has lots of wind energy in it, no one is arguing about that. It’s really just how fast you want to get there and if community wind is wanted to help towards this” (pers. comm. Freear, 2007). Mr Cameron believes that the negative effect of subsidies on the consumer would be negligible to the consumer, “Sure it costs them (the government), but at the end of the day it’s the consumer that’s paying for the power. At the end of the day you could double the price for power for the consumer and it’s not going to make a huge difference to most people. I think the average New Zealander could not care about how much power they are using. Look at the price of petrol...that had doubled in the last three to four years, and people deal with that” (pers. comm. Cameron, 2007).
The Ecosystem Approach introduced in 1994 through the Convention on Biological Diversity, together with related Ecosystem-based Management and Landscape Approaches are frequently called upon to improve ecological impact assessment. Current practice typically does not have such a systems focus and we explore the potential for explicitly adopting an Ecosystem Approach in the Environmental Impact Assessment process using wind energy development on peatland, in Scotland, as a case study. Based on a review of 21 windfarm projects (>50MW) approved by the Scottish Government we provide an overview of current practice and identify and discuss how the 12 principles of the Ecosystem Approach can help identify options for more appropriate impact assessment. These include defining functional units of analysis that reflect the spatial and temporal linkages of peatland elements through hydrological connections, rather than a focus on individual vegetation types and simple distance buffers. Our conclusions are not limited to peatland and are relevant wherever meaningful functional management units can be defined, including in marine environments. Our results also show that environmental statements for wind energy development in Scotland largely ignore ecosystem services and the people that benefit from them. As for threatened species and other biodiversity features, an Ecosystem Approach is a prerequisite to the meaningful inclusion of ecosystem services in impact assessment.
Pakistan opened its gates for foreign direct investment (FDI) in 1970s. The power sector was regulated by government itself. Considering public sector limitations and energy shortfall, later in 1994, Pakistan allowed independent power producers to install private power projects by providing them one-window operations through private power infrastructure board. After realizing alternative renewable energy (ARE) resources (wind, solar, biogas, and small hydel projects up to 50 megawatt), Pakistan established alternative energy development board with plan to install projects with ARE technologies by 2030 to produce up to 5% of total national power generation capacity. Pakistan has provided various incentives to attract investors including FDI. This qualitative inductive study focuses on to identify the indigenous potential of entrepreneurs and adopting a policy of self-reliance in wind power sector to avoid dependency on FDI. The sample is drawn from wind power projects/companies for conducting semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions. The participants’ views were converted into five broad themes. It was found that establishing wind power project is easy to install and it necessarily not relies on FDI, but rather policy framework is required to attract indigenous entrepreneurs, which will ultimately lead to self-reliance and overall sustainable socio-economic development.
North Dakota has substantial natural resources, including coal, natural gas, oil, wind, and hydroelectric power. The American Recovery & Reinvestment Act (ARRA) is making a meaningful down payment on the nation’s energy and environmental future. The Recovery Act investments in North Dakota are supporting a broad range of clean energy projects, from energy efficiency and the smart grid to clean coal, wind, and carbon capture and storage. Through these investments, North Dakota’s businesses, the University of North Dakota, non‐profits, and local governments are creating quality jobs today and positioning North Dakota to play an important role in the new energy economy of the future.