World Heritage Site Studies

Top PDF World Heritage Site Studies:

Everyday World Heritage

Everyday World Heritage

Yin (1994: 6) suggests that different types of research questions correspond to different strategies. In this case, where I have attempted to determine in what ways World Heritage implementation is implicit in the relationships formed through managing the site and perceptions of an adjacent population the research, as defined by Yin, is explanatory. Thus, a case study approach consisting of the full variety of available evidence, including documents, artefacts, interviews, and observations, has a distinct advantage over other strategies (Yin 1994). The literature on case study as a method generally begins with a caveat outlining the past and current criticism aimed at several flaws the method is perceived to have. The most vehement critics of the case study, mostly non- qualitative researchers, claim that it is not 'scientific' enough (Tellis 1997) or weak in the areas of validity, theory and reliability (Flyvbjerg 2006). In the mid 1930s sociological methods in general were under attack and, as a result, the case study was little used for almost 30 years (Tellis 1997). Support for the case study as a legitimate method in quantitative and qualitative research and detailed explanations of the strategy can be found in Yin, (1984, 1994) and Miles and Huberman (1994). In particular Yin, according to Miles and Huberman (1994), has mitigated much of the criticism surrounding case studies by striving to use the method along with fully codified research questions, standardised data collection procedures and systematic analysis (Miles and Huberman 1994: 8). Miles and Huberman (1994) advocate the use of multiple case studies as providing a deeper understanding of processes and outcomes of cases however, I have chosen to limit my research to one case for the sake of depth, but I am aware that it may come at the expense of breadth.
Show more

324 Read more

RISK MANAGEMENT AT HERITAGE SITES A CASE STUDY OF THE PETRA WORLD HERITAGE SITE

RISK MANAGEMENT AT HERITAGE SITES A CASE STUDY OF THE PETRA WORLD HERITAGE SITE

Risk management methods have been studied and used in other disciplines for many years, mainly as reactive measure to disasters. Based on these studies, risk management approaches for museums have been developed, based on assessing and reducing the risk to collections and artifacts as preventive measure. The present proposal for a risk management methodology in Petra is based on this approach for museums, but has been enhanced and adapted for Petra and other heritage sites. The risk assessment part of the methodology was applied and tested in the pilot area based on visual inspection. Mitigation strategies were suggested for each identified risk. As this is a developing field, this methodology has provided a preliminary under- standing of its impact in identifying disturbances and threats. We feel it offers an appropriate platform for evaluating risks on archaeological sites. However it requires further development. This should include testing and monitoring change at different times of the year, testing it in a larger and more comprehensive area, as well as testing it as a whole, in order to identify its practical strengths and limitations. This effort would benefit not only the site managers at the PAP but also other national and international stakeholders concerned with the management of cultural and cultural landscape sites.
Show more

172 Read more

Conservation and Livelihood Conflict of Kaziranga National Park: A World Heritage Site of Assam, India

Conservation and Livelihood Conflict of Kaziranga National Park: A World Heritage Site of Assam, India

livelihood for the local people. Earlier famous as a game reserve, the conservation process of KNP began in 1908. Killing animals for sport and exploitation of natural resources of the park was prohibited. KNP was crowned a Wildlife Sanctuary in 1950 and was eventually declared a national park in 1974. UNESCO recognised it as a World Heritage Site in 1985. Later, KNP was given ‘maximum protection under Indian conditions’ at all levels of administration under the Biodiversity Conservation Act, 2002, and was segregated according to zones and conservation strategies were applied (Mathur et al., 2005). Timber harvesting and use of forest produce were banned for local people as conservation efforts took a strict turn (Das, 2017). Despite this, official reports and relevant studies suggested the death of around 567 rhinos between 1980 and 2005 due to poaching, with their regeneration rate on a declining trend (Mathur et al., 2007). Over the years, the anti- poaching network has been effectively strengthened with more than 200 monitoring camps spread across KNP which includes floating camps as well. An outcome of the conservation efforts was positively witnessed when the latest rhino count was observed to be 2,413, an increase of a dozen rhinos since the last 2015 census. It is imperative to mention here that in 1905, Indian rhinos were merely 75.
Show more

9 Read more

Non-spatial and spatial characteristics of international tourists’ behaviour in Melaka World Heritage Site

Non-spatial and spatial characteristics of international tourists’ behaviour in Melaka World Heritage Site

Numerous studies have recognised the relationship between the various aspects of behaviour that is relevant to tourism management as well as its theoretical understanding (Cohen et al., 2014; McKercher et al., 2015; Xiang et al., 2015; Ozdemir and Yolal, 2016). For the past few decades, the rise of mass tourism has made significant waves in the economic, spatial, and social aspects of destinations (Arnegger and Job, 2010). The potential positive economic effects of tourism on cities have been quickly recognised, which in turn led to the rise of the city as a tourism destination and the introduction of new urban tourism spots, apart from the existing tourism in cities (Ashworth and Page, 2011). Recently, researchers have shown growing interest in tourist preferences and behaviour due to the increasing volume of tourism and urban tourism. Hall and Page (2014) added that tourism is mainly a geographic activity. Spatial sources are the essential information needed in tourism planning. Shoval and Isaacson (2010) also added that one of the ways to describe and understand tourist spatial behaviour is through time geography. Time- space constraints and the path that tourists take define the effective reach of the individual.
Show more

64 Read more

Mercury contamination in the ambient media in and around the World Heritage Site: Indian Sundarbans

Mercury contamination in the ambient media in and around the World Heritage Site: Indian Sundarbans

Ms. Nabonita Pal, Research Scholar in the Department of Oceanography, Techno India University is a post graduate in Biotechnology. Ms. Pal is credited to have 10 publications in National and International journals of repute. Ms. Pal has experience in working in the mangrove ecosystem of Indian Sundarbans. On behalf of Techno India University, she attended several National and International seminars. Ms Pal was honoured with Young Scientist Award in 2014 by the Centre for Ocean and Environmental Studies (COES), New Delhi.

7 Read more

Closed House of Wonders museum: Implications to the tourism of Zanzibar Stone Town, UNESCO World Heritage Site

Closed House of Wonders museum: Implications to the tourism of Zanzibar Stone Town, UNESCO World Heritage Site

These results perfectly accord with previous studies (Chaudhary and Aggarwal 2012; Huh 2002; Hou 2009; Mensah 2013) which found out similar results on the variation in the level of attribute satisfaction in different tourism attributes. These results further suggest that the difference in the level of tourists’ satisfaction with the House of Wonders Museum might have a significant adverse impact on the tourism cycle in Zanzibar Stone Town. The higher number of tourists (53.3%) who revealed not satisfied with House of Wonders which closed for reconstruction can have the significant negative influence to the tourist touching loyalty to the Zanzibar Stone Town UNESCO World (Chami 2018b; Alsaqre 2011). The closed House of Wonders Museum can influence the tourists to lack the sense of willingness to revisit the site or even not to recommend Zanzibar Stone Town to their relatives in the future (Ijeomah and Esaen 2011; Nowack 2013). For example, Nowack (2013) argued that revisit intention can be subjective or somewhat influenced by a specific site or attribute in any heritage site. We can further discuss that intention to the tourist revisit, and loyalty with the Zanzibar Stone Town can be severely affected by the closed House of Wonders museum as one of the attributes in this site if government bodies will take no action.
Show more

7 Read more

Appreciating a World Heritage Site using Multisensory Elements: A Case Study in Kinabalu Park, Sabah, Malaysia

Appreciating a World Heritage Site using Multisensory Elements: A Case Study in Kinabalu Park, Sabah, Malaysia

Studies on visual sense are most being carried out. This sensory element deprives a visitor from other senses such as sound, smell, taste and feels or touches [4, 5, 10, 11]. This is due to emergence of mass tourism in which visitors will spend a short holiday break by riding on a tour bus most of the time. Their interaction with the surrounding is limited to the views from a bus window. If the bus is air conditioned, it will be worst as they won’t be able to experience the sound and smell of the surrounding [5]. Many scholars disagree with giving visitors only the visual experience. [5, 10, 11], believe that visitors’ experiences should be extended to being exposed to other senses other than visual sense. These senses are equally important to visitors’ experience [2, 11, 21] and this includes mobility [22].
Show more

9 Read more

Factors influencing destination food image in Penang World Heritage Site

Factors influencing destination food image in Penang World Heritage Site

Many studies have explored the role and influence of destination image in tourist behaviour, and destination image has been identified as a key component of destination loyalty. As one part of destination image, unique food images, which depend on tourist perceptions of cognitive attributes, need further study. Destination food image can significantly motivate tourists, so tourists’ food consumption behaviour should be affected by the image that they have of destination foods. Amore favourable destination food image will lead to higher consumption intentions among tourists. Moreover destination food experience has emerged as a major tourist attraction, so tourists will more likely consume destination foods with stronger positive images.
Show more

24 Read more

A Comparison of Local Residents' Perceptions Toward Tourism Impacts: The Case of Chengde, A World Heritage Site in China

A Comparison of Local Residents' Perceptions Toward Tourism Impacts: The Case of Chengde, A World Heritage Site in China

Many studies reported some perceive negative impacts of tourism development in destinations e.g. having problems to park the vehicle in the place (Sheldon & Abenoja, 2001); huge traffic (Bujosa & Rosselló, 2007). To look at from social viewpoint, tourism may increase vandalism, serious crime, delinquency, and theft, drug abuse, consumption of alcohol (Diedrich & García, 2009) and increases prostitution (Sheldon & Abenoja, 2001). Socio-cultural impact of tourism in the residents have been studied widely although many of them provided different and contradictory findings. Few researchers reported that local people have the intention to see more of negative sociocultural aspects (Andereck et al., 2005). On other hand, other residents may see tourism provides wide range of benefits for the community (Besculides et al., 2002). Study also showed direct positive relation between the positive evaluation of sociocultural impacts and support for tourism developments (Besculides et al., 2002). Nonetheless, some studies reported that tourism provides benefit for the local community along with social costs (Gursoy et al., 2002). As a result, it is hard to find consensus on this impact. So, it depends on the context and circumstances to see a greater or lesser extent of sociocultural impacts.
Show more

8 Read more

Evaluating tourist sensory experience in melaka world heritage site

Evaluating tourist sensory experience in melaka world heritage site

8 own perceptions about the attractions, in which crucial for the applied land use planning. On top of that, the cognitive mapping that was emphasised by Powell (2010) has strengthened the use of mapping method for sensory studies. Zainol et al., (2013) employed the 0 to 3 points to assess the appreciation values of urban sensory experience based on the tourists’ viewpoints for which has set a new approach to the technique of understanding the form of sensory values in appreciating the urban sensory elements. Therefore, this study sought to fill the gaps in the methodological approach by bridging these two perspectives to form the sensory values by using the survey mapping technique based on the tourists’ views. The richness of information based on the sensory values provides the knowledge of the ‘tourist space’ form and sensory profile of the areas of study. Moreover, the previous studies have highlighted that the unique factors of cultural heritage attractions (Aziz et al., 2011, Shamsuddin et al., 2012, Samadi et al., 2012, Jaafar et al., 2012, Jusoh et al., 2013, Zainol et al., 2013) are based on the cultural landscape of Melaka such as the unique architecture of religious buildings (the mosques, Chinese temples, Hindu temple and the churches), the authentic taste of the local food and the unique characteristics of the history and lifestyle of the Peranakan Baba and Nyonya community. Hence, these unique factors are the cultural heritage elements that contribute to the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) for Melaka. Thus, by integrating these unique factors into the survey mapping technique, the present study would provide a method to evaluate the tourist sensory experience which that could be implemented in the assessment of sensory quality for urban heritage destination.
Show more

68 Read more

Electrochemical Characterization of Patinas Formed on a Historic Bell from the Cathedral Museum of Campeche-México, World Heritage Site

Electrochemical Characterization of Patinas Formed on a Historic Bell from the Cathedral Museum of Campeche-México, World Heritage Site

Visual examination of the body of the bell showed evidence of atmospheric corrosion on the metallic alloy. Uniform reddish-brown patina cover external areas of the artifact, while the presence of compact dark greenish film is mainly localized in the crown and ornamental motives, such as relieves and bead line cordons, where appear some cracks. Under the sound ring, superficial dissolution of metal is noticeable (Figure 3). Also some white earthy deposits can be observed in several sections of the bell, which is probable consequence of environmental exposure [2, 10]. On internal area, relatively protected from direct environmental factors, patina acquires predominant dark greenish aspect. These surface structures are usually called noble patina due to their very protective properties, its aesthetic and pleasant aspect [11]. Color of patinas refers a particular formation of environmental condition. Studies carried out in closer areas of the Cathedral of San Francisco de Campeche City categorized the atmospheric aggressively such as medium category for Cu, Zn, and Fe, and medium to high for Al according to ISO International Standard (time of wetness of 3721 hours per year, SO 2 1.47 mg/m 2 *d
Show more

15 Read more

Crowdsourcing for 3D cultural heritage for George Town UNESCO World Heritage Site

Crowdsourcing for 3D cultural heritage for George Town UNESCO World Heritage Site

The uniqueness of George Town as a complex living web of social, cultural and economic activities embedded within built environments presents a challenge for 3D digital documentation, and this even for organisations with large financial resources. This challenge presents a barrier when digital cultural products are needed to enhance site documentation and conservation, facilitate accessibility for academic studies and research, and fuel the creative economy, and many more benefits which usually accompany digitalisation activities globally. Whilst digital transformation may appear daunting, present technologies are sufficiently developed for quick adoption and use by both individuals and small organisations. This paper gave argument to the use of 3D technologies in combination with crowdsourcing mechanisms suited for the World Heritage Site and the benefits that should follow if George Town’s cultural heritage is digitised and subsequently digitalised.
Show more

18 Read more

Geostatistics and Digital Social Networks - A study of tourism dynamics in “Alta and University of Coimbra” (UNESCO world heritage site)

Geostatistics and Digital Social Networks - A study of tourism dynamics in “Alta and University of Coimbra” (UNESCO world heritage site)

ABSTRACT – Spatial modeling in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) always involves choices. The exis- tence of constraints, either of a financial nature or related to the specifics of the software itself, to the algorithms, the uncertainty and even the reliability of the data, the purposes and the applications of the studies, make this a kind of guiding compass for GIS analysts. Building on a previous exercise of data ac - quisition (check-ins) based on two Digital Social Networks (DSN — Facebook and Foursquare) and on the awareness of the use of voluntary geographic information generated by tourists sharing their topophilic ties through DSN, the present analysis aims to evaluate the contribution of modern techniques of spatial analysis applied to tourism in the “Alta and University of Coimbra” area. Concepts and procedural tasks related to density determination, cluster analysis and identification of patterns associated with regional- ized variables have thus been implemented with the purpose of evaluating and comparing the results obtained through the application of two techniques of spatial analysis, Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) and Optimized Hot-Spot Analysis (OHSA) & Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) Interpolation.
Show more

10 Read more

World Heritage Information Kit

World Heritage Information Kit

Recognizing that partnerships should be joint undertak- ings between partners in pursuit of common goals, the World Heritage PACT operates around key principles such as common purpose, transparency, bestowing no unfair advantages upon any partner, mutual benefit, respect and accountability. As well, UNESCO’s policy framework for partnerships derives from the Global Compact guidelines adopted by the United Nations in 2000, whose nine universal principles provide a frame- work for businesses to integrate social values into the production of commercial goods and services. By working with the World Heritage Centre, partners can share their expertise and management skills and gain a competitive advantage by integrating heritage protection into strategic planning. In turn, partners will receive public recognition for sharing UNESCO’s values and high standards for business in areas of human rights, work conditions and the environment. Furthermore, partners will have the opportunity to identify their business with an outstanding cause – working towards the preservation of our Planet’s diver- sity and the sustainable development of communities.
Show more

32 Read more

World heritage site management: a case study of sacred sites and pilgrimage routes in the Kii mountain range, Japan

World heritage site management: a case study of sacred sites and pilgrimage routes in the Kii mountain range, Japan

WHSs must keep improving their management and conservation plans even after WHS inscription (Bianchi, 2002; Smith, 2002). Kii has been enhancing its plan and practices since WHS listing, as evidenced by the findings from this research and the documents from WPO. Conservation activities on the pilgrimage routes have blossomed (TCO, SCO & WPO). The ‘michi-bushin’ (footpath maintenance) programme organised by regional and local governments is an excellent example of such activities. Any individual or company can be involved in the programme as a volunteer or part of a company’s CSR activities (TCO & WPO). Site visits and observations confirmed that Daimon-zaka was in good condition. NTA states that residents of Nachi Katsuura, where Kumano Nachi Taisha is situated, have started to do whatever they can for Kii WHS (e.g. planting flowers, keeping the fronts of their houses clean, and cleaning up Daimon-zaka).
Show more

28 Read more

World Heritage Information Kit

World Heritage Information Kit

Ensuring the day-to-day management of the Convention is the primary function of the World Heritage Centre. In accordance with Article 14 of the Convention, the World Heritage Centre assists the World Heritage Committee, notably by organizing its statutory meetings, developing and proposing policy on its behalf and actively ensuring the implementation of activities in accordance with its decisions and in cooper- ation with the States Parties and the Advisory Bodies. It provides advice to States Parties on the preparation of Tentative Lists and nominations to the World Heritage List and assures their receipt, registration, archiving and transmission to ICOMOS and/or IUCN. It also coordi- nates studies and activities in support of the Global Strategy for a balanced, representative and credible World Heritage List. The Centre organizes International Assistance from the World Heritage Fund upon request, coordinates the Periodic Reporting exercise and the reporting on the state of conservation of World Heritage properties as well as the emergency action undertaken when a property is threatened. It organizes technical seminars and workshops, and updates the World Heritage List and database.
Show more

32 Read more

MANAGING NATURAL WORLD HERITAGE

MANAGING NATURAL WORLD HERITAGE

From a practical point of view, the more complex the legal protective status of the World Heritage site, the more complicated management can become, and conflicts can arise at regional or local levels from a lack of harmonization of legal tools. Commonly protected areas at national level are subject to a wide range of laws. For example, in the Republic of Korea, ten different laws govern the different types of protected area in the country. A further ex- ample of this is serial sites, which comprise a series of (often disconnected) protected areas within one or more countries, and may have very different protective status between sites: for example the Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and the Ancient Beech Forests of Germany, a transboundary site of forests in Germany, Slovakia and Ukraine, include various forms of protected area such as primeval forest reserves and national parks, as well as biosphere reserves. The details of rules and regulations differ between the three countries. In these cases special measures, such as an international agreement, may be needed to ensure that the legislative basis of protected area operations are consistent with each other and thus the management requirements of the World Heritage listing are adequately met. The Trilateral Cooperation on the Protection of the Wadden Sea between Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands is another example of cooperation in cross- border protection of a shared ecosystem on the basis of a common management plan and a harmonized monitoring programme, both of which were a precondition for designation of the Dutch-German Wadden Sea as a World Heritage site. For serial properties the Convention calls for adequate coordination and overarching mechanisms to ensure consistency of protection and the protection of values which are a sum of the parts.
Show more

101 Read more

Africa, Archaeology and World Heritage

Africa, Archaeology and World Heritage

Of course, none of these issues are new, and there is a long history of growing awareness of the need to replace the rationale of Western knowledge, upon which recognition for heritage was founded, with a more inclusive approach that takes into account other heritage concepts and priorities. This dates back to the 1990s, when UNESCO introduced the ‘Global strategy for a representative, balanced and credible World Heritage List’. Around that time new States Parties from Asia, in particular Japan, contributed to a radical redefi nition of the concept of authenticity as well as to the introduction of cultural landscapes as a new heritage category and of intangi- ble heritage as a priority to be dealt with (see Esposito and Gaulis, 2010; Jokilehto et al., 2005; Labadi, 2005; Rao, 2010; or UNESCO, 2008: section IIB). The latter has been addressed by a separate treaty, the UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage that came into force in 2006. Although anthro- pologists sometimes have a different opinion, and it remains a subject of ongoing debate (compare, for example, Baillie and Chippindale, 2007, and Nas, 2002), intan- gible heritage remains one of the ten criteria that can be used to establish what is called Outstanding Universal Value, although it should be used in conjunction with other criteria. 2
Show more

14 Read more

The future of World Heritage in Australia

The future of World Heritage in Australia

Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) was a significant leading edge in strong World Heritage protection. It is perhaps not surprising given that some of our early iconic sites were identified at least as much by the threats to their existence as to any existing protected area status. For example who can forget the tensions over oil exploration and mining of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) that inspired the community to support its protection against large and powerful vested interests. Of course inspirational and brave politicians were needed but they stood on the shoulders of hundreds of extraordinary citizens. A similar political and legal battle was ‘midwife’ to the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area and for the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. The history of World Heritage in
Show more

7 Read more

'Value in Change': What do World Heritage Nominations Bring to Chinese World Heritage Sites?

'Value in Change': What do World Heritage Nominations Bring to Chinese World Heritage Sites?

or governments’ narratives over local discourse (Yan 2015:65). Chinese national heritage management is multi-layered: the Ministry of Education is the department responsible for communicating with the UNESCO World Heritage Centre, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development (MHURD) is responsible for the management of natural heritage sites whereas the SACH takes charge of cultural heritage. They are both in charge of Combination Sites and Cultural Landscape management. Wall and Su (2011) note that there is a second layer of governmental management which includes the department of forestry, water resources, environmental protection, religion, ethnic affairs and tourism, all of whom are potentially involved in management, depending on the specific natural, cultural and social characteristics of a heritage site. The third level involves local government, site management officers, visitors, local communities and tourism entrepreneurs. The specific management affairs of heritage sites are implemented by local governments, which are authorised by the MHURD or the SACH. This multi-department and multi-level management structure means that profits and responsibilities overlap, which creates management difficulties for World Heritage application and management. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the extent to which WHL changes the interrelation between Chinese national governments, and in particular the key heritage authorities, the MHURD and the SACH. At a local level, local governments, which have administrative jurisdiction over World Heritage sites, have regarded such sites as new sources of income more than anything else, which may ignore other stakeholder’s interests or values, such as those of local communities (Tao and Luca 2011). Yan (2012, 2015), and Su and Teo (2009) have identified that local governments tend to utilise ‘World Heritage’ as a cultural tool to impose legal hegemony on local communities, in order to ensure site management confirms to government and UNESCO policies. However, little attention has been paid to the process of local governments uses of the World Heritage brand and policies as a tool to construct local narratives during and after the World Heritage listing; and how the government officials and experts formulated the nomination dossier and their purposes in seeking World Heritage listing and their understanding of heritage.
Show more

401 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...