This JRC report on The Changingnature of work and skills in the digitalage was edited by Ignacio González Vázquez, Santo Milasi, Stephanie Carretero Gómez, Joanna Napierała, Nicolas Robledo Bottcher, Koen Jonkers and Xabier Goenaga, collecting contributions from Eskarne Arregui Pabollet, Margherita Bacigalupo, Federico Biagi, Marcelino Cabrera Giráldez, Francesca Caena, Jonatan Castaño, Isabel Clara Centeno Mediavilla, John Edwards, Enrique Fernández-Macías, Emilia Gómez Gutiérrez, Estrella Gómez Herrera, Andreia Inamorato Dos Santos, Panagiotis Kampylis, David Klenert, Montseratt López Cobo, Robert Marschinski, Annarosa Pesole, Yves Punie, Songül Tolan, Sergio Torrejón Perez, Cesira Urzi Brancati and Riina Vuorikari.
Finally, studies analyzing the development of soft skills more in-depth should be carried out by not only referring to schooling education but also by consider- ing an individual’s upbringing. As potential inequality might rise over time due to changes in skills and knowledge required for new types of tasks and jobs in an increasingly computerized working world, hence, up-skilling and re-skilling opportunities to provide individuals with the appropriate skills might be deemed necessary for the future.
Dynamic models of economic growth and wealth production - clusters of digital technologies epitomized by Silicon Valley’s giant global companies such as Apple, Google, and Amazon – can be characterised as an elite entrepreneurial ecosystem model (Hodgson and Spours, 2018). The Hamburg G20 Final Communiqué aimed to ‘bridge digital divides along multiple dimensions, including income, age, geography and gender’, and to ‘ensure that all our citizens are digitally connected by 2025’. However, the focus on private wealth production; the exploitation of prime geographical sites and acting as talent magnets for graduates from elite universities has worked in an increasingly exclusionary way – a detached relationship with education; the generation of economic inequalities and urban social displacement. Elite ecosystems link the worlds of work, living and learning, but in a regressive manner, do not bridge the social divide, and consequently are potentially unstable.
Because careers in the creative industries are not linear young people must be able to constantly re-invent themselves as workers. They are unlikely to find an entry- level job that translates into a career. They need to constantly gain new skills to stay employed. This may include moving from project to project rather than moving up the management structures in a company. They need to stay abreast of new technologies, digital developments and consumer trends just to stay employed. This often involves new technological developments for example in live events, legal requirements like health and safety legislation and modern foreign languages because it is likely than international work and opportunities will be on offer. The linear educational paradigm of ‘school -college or university -career’ has always been challenged by the creative industries. Qualifications, other than specific vocational qualifications for performers and visual artists who study at Drama School, Conservatoire or at the higher levels of Art and Design and then use their careers to hone their practice, rarely relate directly to those who work in other parts of the creative industries. The creative industries thrive on innovation, problem-solving and collaboration and so ‘natural’ ingenuity, creativity and questioning from young people with no qualifications can be as important than academic learning. Equally a model whereby young people gain national qualifications and launch themselves on a national ‘market’ on graduation looking for entry-level jobs has resulted in mass migration of graduates to London in the hope of work in the creative industries resulting in young people being saddled with high living costs and local and regional centres being deprived of talent.
Historically, it has been the case that the different ways of working co- exist alongside, rather than replace, one another. Not everyone will be an artificial intelligence (AI) specialist but can become adequately competent to be able to use and apply the technologies critically. Employees will need to feel comfortable working in AI environments supporting a continuing role for creative human intervention, rather than “technological scientists.” A well-designed TVET system should therefore both promote social skills and high-level technical skills. The types of skills taught in vocational training need to broaden: from narrow technical skills associated to a specific occupation to a wider set, such as socioeconomic skills that can prepare workers to navigate an ever- changing labor market (OECD, 2018b; Barber, Fernadez-Coto and Ripani, 2016). Communication between employers and TVET providers needs to be enhanced to ensure the supply of such skills.
The findings revealed a minority of respondents (14 out of 70) believe that that more than ICT, it is the mindset of accountants which needs to shift to be able to cope with the concept of IR. This implies that there is a demand for employees with generic skills for an accounting career success. Generic skills are high-order, transferable skills that are common to most complex endeavors. They include skills such as communicating, problem-solving, patience, flexibility, persistence, resilience, courage and creativity that apply across all specific fields. They help to organize, adapt, and strategically apply technical skills in new situations and circumstances. They are important today because work and life are in flux. Both are getting more complex. Both require flexibility, initiative, creativity, emotional mastery and the ability to take on many different tasks. Consistent with prior studies, this group of respondents prioritized generic skills for career success above ICT and reporting skills. This has been backed by the following quotes:
41. In non-craft occupations, predominantly within the service sector, it is far more difficult to present general movements in job content. For some areas, such as hairdressing, chefs, sales reps and estate agents, there have either been few technological changes or a lack of research into the changingnature of their jobs. In many areas the high proportion of women employed in particular occupations may have led jobs to be considered at lower levels than intermediate skills, for example childcare or secretarial, clerical and administrative work. The expansion of the service sector has increased the demand for employees at the intermediate level. However, there is evidence in some areas of a polarisation of the workforce, with divisions into a larger group of lower skilled workers undertaking routine operations and fewer, more highly skilled workers with more specialised knowledge.
Managing the reactions of others forms a part of the role of individuals with disability. These students are provided with the skills needed to undertake adaptive work. Adaptive work is defined as engaging with others in order that they or the organisation, adapt in some way to meet the needs of those with disability (Werth, 2013b). Because students need to develop skills which enable them to seek adaptation both for their studies and their future careers, the disability support workers provide training and support to develop skills in resilience and ways to manage the perceptions of others regarding their disability. We know that individuals with high levels of power are more successful in achieving the adaptations they require, while at university this ‘power’ is available through the support and advocacy from Disability Resources. Students commented on the value of this support:
According to Mckinsey Global Institute , by the year 2030 globally almost 375 millions of people have to learn and master fresh skills as their current jobs may evolve or perish along with the rise of automation and capable robots/machines. With automation dynamically growing in the years to come, organizations have to change along with the tide/ upgrade themselves to digital, which results in the creating new type of jobs demanding for new skill sets & careers. At the same time, industries which lack forward-thinking and fails to keep up in pace with the latest technology may experience huge layoffs, the best example being Intel laying off people working on 5G projects and Qualcomm hiring in large scale. Automation and advancement in technology shall be the major source for growth of productivity and prosperity of organizations and result in creation of blended business models, varied occupations, and diverse work activities.
Accordingly, management techniques have also changed. A number of writers have described one of the important emerging skills as coaching (Drucker 1992; Ghoshal & Bartlett 1997; Hogarty 1993; Moss Kanter 1989), where managers work with employees and provide inspiration and guidance rather than direct and close supervision of tasks. Without an intimate knowledge of the tasks being carried out by their employees, managers have found other ways to manage performance and achieve goals and targets. Managers must ensure that they have well-established contacts and networks within an organisation in order to get things done; Moss Kanter (1989, p. 89) suggested that ‘The ability of managers to get things done depends more on the number of networks in which they’re centrally involved than in their height in a hierarchy’. Dainty and Kakabadse (1992, p. 4) described the most senior management team as the most important influence in the company as it sets ‘the agenda’ for the whole organisation.
demands for all dimensions except sensory requirements, which nevertheless increase less for more educated workers than for lower educated workers. Second, we find that most of these changes over time are due to changes in occupational requirements within occupation rather than due to changes in the national economy’s composition of occupations. For example, the required proficiency level for written skills increased more than fourfold for construction laborers between 2003 and 2018, while construction workers’ share of jobs in the national economy increased from 0.89% to 1.44% over the same period. Finally, we find that differential changes in occupations’ functional ability requirements translate into differential changes in individuals’ work capacity by
Our results show an increase in the time children and parents spent together at the same location. We found that this increase was over- whelmingly composed of more time spent at home, which is consistent with earlier theoreti- cal accounts and empirical evidence around the potential of technology to enhance the home environment and bring family members together (Daly, 1996; Ogburn & Nimkoff, 1955; Rainie & Wellman, 2012). These results provide further support for the argument that changes in mobile technologies have led to children and young people increasingly spending time at home (Twenge, 2017). These findings also broadly align with recent time-diary research showing increases in the time parents are copresent with children (Genadek et al., 2016, Neilson & Stanfors, 2017). However, decomposing this time showed that this increase did not stem from an increase of copresent time, that is, time of closer interaction of family members. In fact, we found that copresent time has remained constant between 2000 and 2015, whereas alone-together time has significantly increased. Our finding that children explicitly reported being “alone” during alone-together time sheds further light into the nature of this type of time, whereas our finding that device use was also disproportion- ately concentrated within alone-together time strengthens our claim about an association with recent technological change.
Holding formal qualifications is commonly used as a proxy for skills, but as people age they become a decreasingly reliable measure, since most are acquired before, or in the early years of, working life. On one hand, qualification levels are likely to underestimate the capability of those who continue to work in the sector and deploy the skills and knowledge, possibly enhancing them by experiential learning, and further unaccredited training. On the other hand, qualification levels will overestimate the capability of those who have never deployed the skills, or who moved into other kinds of employment. Figure 1.13 shows that significant numbers of older people have qualifications defined by ONS as “other”, which may be equally relevant, but cannot any longer be classified. It also shows that older people are less likely than their younger peers to have formal qualifications of any kind, partly because in the past, many young people were not encouraged to take qualifications.
in the Natural History Unit (NHU) based in Bristol. NHU is in charge of creating and producing the BBC’s nature documentaries (e.g., Animal Planet, Frozen Planet). NHU not only provides world-class video content to BBC audiences, but also represents one of the most extensive efforts to produce adequate metadata about its video content which is even available online. 21 This has created the possibility of producing new online archives such as Wildlife Finder 22 (Evans 2011). Since the early 1980s, NHU deployed an internal database system to organize its archive. The system, InFax, was developed in MS-DOS (a precursor to the Windows operating system) and was one of the first relational databases that associated video content with formal text-written classifications. At that time, NHU had a scientific classification approach, as most of its researchers and producers were trained natural scientists. Their method of categorizing information on video content was based in biological classifications, such as genus or species. Biological classification has strong roots in the work of physician, botanist and zoologist Carolus Linnaeus (c. 1735), whose binomial nomenclature grouped species according to shared physical characteristics. InFax's use of this type of categorization also builds upon established classifications in the life sciences that exhibit considerable consistency (and therefore, predictability) through time. Even by today’s standards, in which MS-DOS is quite a rudimentary platform (see Figure 7, next page), InFax is still considered throughout the BBC to be the best practice in metadata management software for classifying video content 23 . Initially, NHU’s use of InFax aimed specifically at the content that they worked on: they sought to be able to find the correct content and provide both technical and general descriptions about it. Another practice was the potential to reuse the contents’ archive and thus reduce costs as it would not be necessary to shoot some content again. It is important to take in account that the content shot by NHU is in many cases unique due to the technical complexity that it demands (for an illustrative case refer to subsection 8.2.1). It may also not be possible to shoot the same material again since some species may have already disappeared or certain places may no longer exist.
Interviews were transcribed and managed within QSR International’s NVivo software. Fifteen interviews were not recorded due to sensitivities and non-disclosure agreements but note-taking was permitted throughout the interviews. These notes, along with other field notes, were transcribed and included in the dataset. Two of the authors separately coded the dataset around the following key themes: the benefits of digital data and the challenges of digital data. Through discussions between the authors, it was clear that interviewees perceived both benefits and challenges at each stage in the research process. Here it was notable that while digital technologies might be assumed to save time and effort, many of the benefits have created new tasks. It was also clear that, in completing these tasks, researchers saw their traditional roles and ways of working change. Rather than describe a requirement for technical skills and digital literacy, interviewees described a requirement for interpretative skills and explained how traditional divisions among teams, methodologies and levels of seniority are being redrawn to incorporate digital data into marketing research practice.
technology has created new spaces, platforms, and activities for public memory. These new locations of public memory are, by their nature, democratizing the space of public memory because they allow for increased access to individual and group memory as well as increased ability to broadcast one’s own personal experiences, thoughts, and memories. New media, rather than creating the debate about what is and is not included in collective memory, draws attention to the question of what is and is not included in public memory. The increased access to individual accounts as well as the ever-increasing ability to store these accounts makes this debate visible and tangible. Which accounts do we believe? Which do we relate to? Which do we retain? The nature of new media can appear to support the concept of a postmodern conundrum of infinite individual experiences, of relative and equal standing memories. However, the spaces of memory on the Internet do not show the characteristics of unending relativism. Rather, they show an attempt to create a shared reality in which collective consciousness can strike a new balance with individual particularity and individual control.
Immediate strategies are needed to offset the loss of staff and clinical expertise resulting from impending large-scale retirements and urbanization in the rural workforce. This study did not include nurses under the age of 30 years. However, age was identified as a significant factor for recruitment and retention in the study hospitals. Canadian research has previously noted that younger rural nurses are more likely to be employed part-time and have multiple employers 37 . In addition, high levels of perceived stress and dissatisfaction with scheduling processes have been associated with intent to leave among rural nurses 1 . Similarly, the nurses in this study indicated that multi-site employment, limited full-time opportunities and continual scheduling conflicts are a source of frustration and dissatisfaction for their younger counterparts.
Indian Government has made use of technology in the best possible way and launched Pradhan Mantri Gramin Digital Saksharta Abhiyan (PMGDISHA)‡ under its Digital India initiative. It has been initiated to make at least one individual from each household digitally literate so that they develop the skills which will be needed to link with the rapidly growing digital world. This scheme aims to target the rural population including the disparaged sections of society like minorities, Below Poverty Line (BPL), women and differently-abled people.
An extensive academic literature documents the overall growth in institutional equity ownership as well as the changing composition of the types of common stocks in which they invest. Because institutional investors differ in many ways from retail investors, knowledge of the differences in composition of portfolios held by these two types of investors has implication for corporate governance, informational efficiency of prices, stock market liquidity, public policy, and model development, to name a few. In this paper we study U.S. institutional stock ownership by comparing the composition of institutional portfolios to the composition of the market portfolio, and how this comparison differs between large and small stocks and also how it changes over the 1980 to 2010 period. We examine institutional portfolio allocations (based on 13F filings) across deciles of equal-market capitalization, a feature that distinguishes our paper from much of the other academic literature.
It is easy to arrange contracts as and when a particular job needs doing. It is often cheaper to subcontract work to a contractor who can provide ready trained staff and expertise for a limited period. On the other hand, contract workers may sometimes not be as well motivated as directly employed staff and contract workers may have a different working 'culture' from those directly employed.The status of some subcontract workers - especially where self-employed workers are involved - may give rise to difficulties. Simply labelling workers 'self-employed' does not mean that they will be considered self-employed under the law. Many important rights and duties hinge on whether a particular individual is a 'worker' or an 'employee', including the right to claim unfair dismissal and the extent of an employer's duties under Health and Safety legislation. The