1. How the blockchain works
This JRC report on The Changingnature of work and skills in the digitalage was edited by Ignacio González Vázquez, Santo Milasi, Stephanie Carretero Gómez, Joanna Napierała, Nicolas Robledo Bottcher, Koen Jonkers and Xabier Goenaga, collecting contributions from Eskarne Arregui Pabollet, Margherita Bacigalupo, Federico Biagi, Marcelino Cabrera Giráldez, Francesca Caena, Jonatan Castaño, Isabel Clara Centeno Mediavilla, John Edwards, Enrique Fernández-Macías, Emilia Gómez Gutiérrez, Estrella Gómez Herrera, Andreia Inamorato Dos Santos, Panagiotis Kampylis, David Klenert, Montseratt López Cobo, Robert Marschinski, Annarosa Pesole, Yves Punie, Songül Tolan, Sergio Torrejón Perez, Cesira Urzi Brancati and Riina Vuorikari.
Yasmin Danuser, Michael J. Kendzia *
ZHAW, Winterthur, Switzerland
Technological advances in the field of artificial intelligence, machine learning and robotics are highly likely to change the nature of work for individuals in the developed world. In line with that, the latest research points to the im- portant role of socio-emotional or soft skills. Investing in these skills enhances the individual’s labor market productivity. Accordingly, the paper seeks to develop an adequate skill set to meet future demands at the workplace. The results reveal four main areas to play a significant role in the future work- force. This holds in particular for areas of human-machine collaboration, where both parties are allowed to demonstrate their comparative advantages.
complexity and the power of existing neo-liberal ‘skills settlements’ in the private sector that have thwarted innovation in workplaces (Buchanan et al., 2017).
What is now needed is a conceptual step-change towards a more comprehensive ecosystem model that emphasises education/employer co-production of skills for an inclusive and more equal community that also links working and living. In making this step-change the first challenge for the G20 is ‘conceptual’ –seeing not only beyond the elite entrepreneurial narrative, but also advocating the role of mission-led innovation (Hodgson and Spours, 2018; Mazzucato, 2016). The second is ‘systemic’ – a global narrative that identifies the different factors/forces that the social ecosystem model is seeking to synergise and to transform skill development, workplaces and living spaces in city regions. The third is ‘techno-political’ – understanding that social ecosystems will be essentially forged at the local level, but that such devolution requires supportive actions from a ‘facilitating state’ and the integrative role of digital technologies. The fourth and final challenge for the G20 is that of ‘time’ – social ecosystems cannot erupt overnight, but require long-term processes of construction.
Education systems have increasingly become aligned to centralised national views of what young people should learn whereas local business growth is not evenly spread across countries. Regional differences arise from local policies, investment opportunities and suitability for growth in particular industry sub-sectors. The creative industries provide a good case study for new sectors that operate differently from traditional industries, require different skills and tend to develop in ‘clusters’ rather than evenly throughout a country. By the ‘Creative Industries’ I follow here the UK Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport’s sectors: advertising and marketing, architecture, craft, design, film and TV, creative tech, publishing, museums and galleries, music and the performing arts, video games and heritage (1) although some studies use other definitions (which are flagged in the notes). These industries offer a model for a ‘place-making’ approach bringing the cultural sector, the commercial creative industries and education together to create more opportunities for local growth and development. They also contribute more than economic value, a point that is often lost when researching industry sectors: cultural activity has social benefits too. Managing young people’s understanding of and entry into the job market can benefit from a detailed understanding of the local economy. This model may be useful beyond the creative industries.
demands for all dimensions except sensory requirements, which nevertheless increase less for more educated workers than for lower educated workers. Second, we find that most of these changes over time are due to changes in occupational requirements within occupation rather than due to changes in the national economy’s composition of occupations. For example, the required proficiency level for written skills increased more than fourfold for construction laborers between 2003 and 2018, while construction workers’ share of jobs in the national economy increased from 0.89% to 1.44% over the same period. Finally, we find that differential changes in occupations’ functional ability requirements translate into differential changes in individuals’ work capacity by
While the principal also acknowledged Compass’ usefulness as a behavioural management resource, he elaborated on how it offered him communicative capacities and “efficiencies”:
It will visualize my schedule; it will visualize automatically any room changes I have; it will flag any meetings that I might have. When I go to mark my role, if a kid’s got trumpet practice, it’ll actually have “trumpet practice”, and I can go to you, “hey, shouldn’t you be in trumpet practice? Oh yeah, see ya!” It’ll give me all the medical alerts for students; it’ll give me connections to student home profiles; it’ll give me resources for my teaching. I can use a module called Learning Tasks, so I can do all my lesson preparation, I can archive all my documents in this program, and then the students can access it—effectively it replaces my chronicle as well because I can keep a lot of my marks there; when students submit work electronically it will produce a list of the kids’ names with green, red or yellow dots which will just tell me which kids have electronically submitted the work. It lets me automatically email parents; it will let me email groups, so I can email all the teachers. It’s a really nice mixture of communication and record keeping. It gives me a whole lot of efficiencies.
Guidelines would feel paternalistic. … I trust that the professionals master their field – ethically as well. (Survey respondent No. 140, photo editor, Data 1)
Online News Videos
One major turning point in photojournalistic work occurred during the period 2000-2006, when newspapers in Europe and the United States began producing video material. This has meant a dramatic change for news photographers, who have suddenly become video journalists as well. According to the interviews, there were divisions among photogra- phers regarding how they reacted and adapted to this new form of expression in their daily work. This is closely connected to the question of how they identified themselves as photojournalists in the first place. While some were enthusiastic about the possibility of broadening their skills and finding more scope in their work, almost all the interviewed photographers had doubts about mastering both forms at once (also Singer 2004: 11). Also, some photographers clearly still identified themselves as photographers and did not want to work with moving images.
(Moss Kanter 1989, p. 91).
Accordingly, management techniques have also changed. A number of writers have described one of the important emerging skills as coaching (Drucker 1992; Ghoshal &
Bartlett 1997; Hogarty 1993; Moss Kanter 1989), where managers work with employees and provide inspiration and guidance rather than direct and close supervision of tasks. Without an intimate knowledge of the tasks being carried out by their employees, managers have found other ways to manage performance and achieve goals and targets. Managers must ensure that they have well-established contacts and networks within an organisation in order to get things done; Moss Kanter (1989, p. 89) suggested that ‘The ability of managers to get things done depends more on the number of networks in which they’re centrally involved than in their height in a hierarchy’. Dainty and Kakabadse (1992, p. 4) described the most senior management team as the most important influence in the company as it sets ‘the agenda’ for the whole organisation.
them on permanent contracts or on a full-time basis and entry wages are likely to be lower to account for time spent on training in the first job. In addition, as young people lack previous experience, employers who cannot fully observe their productivity and skills may hire them on jobs that require less than their qualifications. There may even be a link between the availability of temporary, part-time and low-pay jobs for young people and their employment rates. In other words, there could be a trade-off between accepting a job with these characteristics or remaining unemployed much longer. However, while the stepping-stone nature of these jobs would be welcome, temporary work and low-pay traps – i.e. young people unable to move to more stable employment or better paid jobs – could pose a problem. For instance, temporary jobs tend to give fewer training opportunities than permanent contracts and low pay and precariousness may lead young people to delay emancipation from their parents as well as their own family formation.
A qualitative approach was used to provide deeper insights into the studies presented in the literature. The aim of the exploration was to validate the research variables and develop the proposed conceptual framework, through an interpretivism perspective. According to the literature, there are voluminous skills that can be sought among potential candidates for employment. Knowledge work tasks are usually dominated by intellectual demands, technical know-how, creativity, interaction, mobilization, networking, and innovation. Thus, the research needed to downscale and identify the relevant skills needed in the Egyptian content.
performance, low job retention rates and job dissatisfaction, as can be seen in the study on hospital nurse staffing, wherein nurses at hospitals with a greater patient to nurse ratio suffered from greater job dissatisfaction and were more likely to quit (Aikin et al., 2002, pg. 1990). For example, coders would want to have autonomy and variety of work related to coding and use the relevant skills in their job. Since the work is enjoyable to them, they would likely be highly motivated to come to work and complete his/her tasks well, yielding good job performance. Given that they possess the required skill set and are motivated to do the work we can infer that they enjoy their profession which would lead to a high overall job satisfaction. Research substantiates my point about these
What is observable in contemporary economies is first and foremost the need to revisit skills: the skills that were underpinned by a single qualification are no longer sufficient. Moreover, employees do not have to gather together to be productive. Factories can be replaced by smaller units; an individual can have a global reach once they have access to the internet. Both smaller units of production and extended reach require enhanced networking skills, such as well-developed interpersonal skills that are effective over a virtual medium. Barber (2016) argues that vocational learning will become much more collaborative as students debate and elaborate each other’s ideas in online environments. As routine cognitive tasks are increasingly automated, it is the qualities that make us distinctively human—empathy, storytelling, and connecting—
These diverse digital, online, and electronic tools pose compelling ethical issues for social workers.
Since social work ’s formal inauguration in the late 19th century, the profession has developed increasingly sophisticated and comprehensive ethi- cal standards (Banks, 2006; Barsky, 2009; Con- gress, 1999; Dolgoff, Loewenberg, & Harrington, 2008; Reamer, 2006b). The ﬁrst NASW Code of Ethics, implemented in 1960 —ﬁve years after the association was born and decades before the avail- ability of digital and electronic tools for service delivery —was one page long and consisted of 14 brief, ﬁrst-person proclamations concerning, for example, every social worker ’s duty to give prece- dence to professional responsibility over personal interests; respect client privacy; give appropriate service in public emergencies; and contribute knowledge, skills, and support to human welfare programs. In 1967, a 15th principle pledging non- discrimination was added.
Institutions such as the World Bank (WB) and the Organisation for Economic Co- operation and Development (OECD) placed less emphasis on the traditional relationships between education, learning and work, and more of a focus on the need for a new coalition between industry and education. Universities are traditionally centred around activities such as teaching and scholarship, but more recently universities are seen within society as a major contributor to economic growth (Duderstadt 2005). According to Peter and Humes (2003), education will play a prominent role in “determin[ing] the future of work, the organisation of knowledge institutions and the shape of society in the years to come” (p.5). This view is consistent with Leadbeater (cited in Naidoo, 2003) who claims that there seems to be a drive by nation states, through their skills development strategies, to increase the production of knowledge workers, who are highly educated through post-secondary school education, who will take up positions which will contribute significantly to the knowledge economy. Knowledge workers include those workers involved in technical, scientific and managerial work. In this new dispensation there is a stronger link between higher education which will produce the ‘knowledge workers’ and developments in the economy which will then create a demand for the knowledge workers.
While some unions withdrew from the Organising Academy to establish their own internal organising programmes (Parker and Rees, 2013) the role for the TUC however was in creating a space in which organisers and leaders could exchange thoughts and experiences in an effort to overcome shared challenges. It has been remarkably successful at that and there are certainly many more forums in which experiences are shared with an effort to exchange information and improve practices. Flowing from that has been a demand for more knowledge and learning about leadership and organising which has led to the development of advanced training programmes for those wanting to develop skills managing organising activities, as well as a plethora of organising training initiatives for activists and representatives. Stepping back to reflect on the broader effectiveness of the ‘turn to organising’, it is clear that it has had some important successes––and it is pretty clear that the situation would be much worse if this work hadn’t taken place. Overall, however, the approach has been limited in its effectiveness, but it has been hampered by some of the tensions that are inherent within organising activity––in particular in developing leadership roles that are able to push through transformative change within unions.
This study examined how journalists can survive in the newsrooms in Kenya in the digitalage. The study was guided by four research questions: (1) What are the emergent newsroom roles in the digitalage? (2) What retooling and reskilling do media workers need to survive in the digitalage? (3) How do journalists acquire the new skills? (4) What role has digital disruption played in the reorganisation of newsrooms? The study used two theoretical frameworks: The theory of disruptive innovations and de-professionalisation lens. The researcher conducted face to face in-depth interviews with eight journalists from four media houses namely: British Broadcasting Corporation (Nairobi office), Nation Media Group, Standard Group Ltd and Royal Media Services as well as two key informants. All the respondents were purposively selected. The study found out that digital disruption has created new roles in the Kenyan newsrooms which have been taken up by both journalists and non- journalists and that the disruption has necessitated reskilling and retooling of journalists and those who fail to adapt are eventually forced out of the newsrooms. The study also found out that most journalists are learning new skills on their own with media houses and media schools playing a peripheral role. This despite the fact that, as the study found out, the roles of ensuring journalists acquire new skills rest with individual journalists, media houses and Journalism Schools. Finally, the study found out that disruption has happened before in Kenyan media but digital disruption is different. While media houses have adapted well to past disruptions, this time around, digital disruption has not only forced some media houses to close down due to dwindling fortunes but has ended newsroom careers of many journalists. The study concluded that while most journalists are playing their part in responding to digital disruption, media houses and journalism schools are lagging behind. If this trend continues, it will keep hurting journalism more. The study recommends that media houses organise regular formal training for their journalists. Journalism schools should also update their training manuals to ensure their graduate transition seamlessly into the newsrooms. Media executives and administrators of journalism schools should also communicate regularly to ensure each side understands the needs of the other.
Chapter 1: Introduction
The digitalage or so-called information age or new media age is a remarkable period that has, since the 1960s, marked a significant shift from traditional media to information technology, or computer-mediated media. The invention of the Internet, and the digital revolution following it, has completely changed the way our society functions, just as the industrial revolution did about two centuries ago. The digital revolution has transformed the way we access information, our methods of doing research and the way we interact with other people by making communication faster and more convenient. Meanwhile, the digital revolution has also made access to information and communication more complex. Personal information and privacy issues, authenticity of news, concentration of power within media markets, media and democracy, etc. are among the most prominent issues we face today. Digital media developed during the digital era is often associated with digital democracy because it has facilitated the free flow of information and political engagement globally. It allows citizens to actively participate in political discussions, political elections, and express political views through online platforms such as blogs, social networking sites, and electronic newspapers.
Indian Government has made use of technology in the best possible way and launched Pradhan Mantri Gramin Digital Saksharta Abhiyan (PMGDISHA)‡ under its Digital India initiative. It has been initiated to make at least one individual from each household digitally literate so that they develop the skills which will be needed to link with the rapidly growing digital world. This scheme aims to target the rural population including the disparaged sections of society like minorities, Below Poverty Line (BPL), women and differently-abled people.
Discussion Main Findings
In today’s rapidly changing knowledge economy, 21st-century digitalskills are decisive for an organization’s competitiveness and innovation capacity. Given the rapid rate of change and the influence of technology, employees must develop 21st-century digitalskills (information, communication, collaboration, critical thinking, creativity, and problem solving) to cope and thrive. The development of these skills, however, requires a thorough understanding of how these skills interrelate; we cannot expect that all these skills will be developed independently. Yet, existing conceptualizations of both digitalskills and 21st-century skills often consider each skill separately. Although this might provide useful insights into the level of a specific skill, it remains difficult to actually design interventions without understanding what other skills are needed to perform well on a specific skill. For example, directly focusing on the improvement of collaboration skills will be less effective compared with programs that first focus on repairing insufficient information and communication skills, which are required for performing well on collaboration digitalskills. Thus, the purpose of this study was to reveal how the most important 21st-century digitalskills interrelate. The results of this study emphasize the importance of this idea; the 21st-century digitalskills under investigation showed gradients of difficulty and also have a sequential and conditional nature. In other words, the skills build on each other sequentially; a person who lacks one type of skill is also likely to lack another. Our empirically tested model begins with being able to manage and evaluate digital information, and it ends with being able to solve problems using the Internet. The intermediaries are collaboration, critical thinking, and creative digitalskills.
However, age was identified as a significant factor for recruitment and retention in the study hospitals. Canadian research has previously noted that younger rural nurses are more likely to be employed part-time and have multiple employers 37 . In addition, high levels of perceived stress and dissatisfaction with scheduling processes have been associated with intent to leave among rural nurses 1 . Similarly, the nurses in this study indicated that multi-site employment, limited full-time opportunities and continual scheduling conflicts are a source of frustration and dissatisfaction for their younger counterparts.