b) Governments should assure that their laws apply to cybercrimes National governments remain the dominant authority for regulating criminal behavior in most places in the world. One nation already has struggled from, and ultimately improved, its legal authority after a confrontation with the unique challenges presented by cyber crime. It is crucial that other nations profit from this lesson, and examine their current laws to discern whether they are composed in a technologically neutral manner that would not exclude the prosecution of cyber criminals. In many cases, nations will find that current laws ought to be updated. Enactment of enforceable computer crime laws that also respect the rights of
On a positive note, this unique convergence of digital gadgets like smart phones and internet helps us to communicate with others, family and friends instantly and frequently from anywhere in the world. We abundantly depend on internet provided information quite often either for office chores, e-commerce, banking, weather forecasts, business deals, fitness tips, share markets, entertainment, fun, satisfying psychological urges and emotions, and pass- time activity etc. Upload, share, download, Google it, Apps etc., are treated to be quite common jargons these days that are functioned at finger tips. Hence, it is no exaggeration to say that smart phones and other internet enabled personal electronic gadgets has entered every realm of life and opened gates for cybercrimes to flood in. Lack of awareness on such issues would end up in a severe damage on financial, emotional, moral, or ethical grounds. Under such dire scenario, besides tackling the cybercrimes, another issue that needs to be focused on higher priority is – creating awareness on “cybercrimes and security” among the internet users. Thus the current study focuses in finding out the answers to alarming questions – “Is the netizen really aware that he/she is vulnerable to various cybercrimes?”; “If netizen is aware, to what extent?”, “If not aware of cybercrimes, what measures can be adopted to make the nitzen more aware and updated.
intermediaries is concerned, the United States of America shows liberal attitude towards them as compared to United Kingdom and India. 42 Cheating by personation has not been defined and it is not clear whether it refers to cheating as referred under the Indian Penal Code, 1860 as conducted by communication device or whether it is creating a new category of offence. Moreover the term fraud is neither defined under the IT Act, 2000 nor under the Indian Penal Code , 1860.It more being recognized as a mental condition under Indian Penal Code,1860. 43 Cyber Regulation Appellate Tribunal (CRAT) is one man commission with law degree as an essential qualification. On contrary IT offences involves highly complex phenomenon which is beyond the understanding of common man and requires IT expertise in the field. Indian police is not well equipped to handle cybercrimes related investigations. Moreover wide powers have been given to police by the act as anyone can be searched and arrested without warrant at any point of time in public place. Moreover Indian police is still a layman in terms of modern spying technologies. There exist many cybercrimes that can be prosecuted both under the civil and criminal procedure system. As consequence of confusion regarding civil liability, criminal liability and jurisdictional issues the justice is often delayed. Several areas of It Act, 2000 are not clear. For example, meaning of „wrongful loss”, “destroy”, “attestation”, “delete and hacking‟ has not be explained. Punishment provided under the IT Act, 2000 for various cybercrimes is very nominal and therefore must be increased so as to have deterrent effect. It is to be noted that maximum offences under the Act which are carrying penalties above 3 years imprisonment have been made cognizable but they have also been made billable offence whereas lesser offences have been made compoundable. Cyber defamation has to be defined clearly under the IT Act, 2000 which is lacking. Sections 67, 67A, 67B, and 67C does not cover any book, pamphlet, paper writing, drawing, painting, representation or figure in electronic form if there is any public good defence available with the accuse which means that if he is able to prove that such pamphlet, paper writing, drawing, painting, representation or figure is in the interest of science, literature, art or other object of general concerned or if it is kept for confide religious purposes. Thus even publishers or transmitter of obscene material which is prepared in electronic form like e-books, e-magazines and blogs can avail public good defence under IT Act,
The invention of Computer has made the life of humans easier, it has been using for various purposes starting from the individual to large organizations across the globe. In simple term we can define computer as the machine that can stores and manipulate/process information or instruction that are instructed by the user. Most computer users are utilizing the computer for the erroneous purposes either for their personal benefits or for other’s benefit since decades . This gave birth to “Cyber Crime”. This had led to the engagement in activities which are illegal to the society. We can define Cyber Crime as the crimes committed using computers or computer network and are usually take place over the cyber space especially the Internet . Now comes the term “Cyber Law”. It doesn’t have a fixed definition, but in a simple term we can defined it as the law that governs the cyberspace. Cyber laws are the laws that govern cyber area. CyberCrimes, digital and electronic signatures, data protections and privacies etc are comprehended by the Cyber Law . The UN’s General Assembly recommended the first IT Act of India which was based on the “United Nations Model Law on Electronic Commerce” (UNCITRAL) Model .
Today’s in techno-savvy environment, the world is becoming more and more digitally sophisticated. Internet was initially developed as a research and information sharing tool and was in an unregulated manner. As the time passed by it became more transactional with e- business, e-commerce-governance and e-procurement etc. All legal issues related to internet crime are dealt with through cyber laws. As the number of internet users is on the rise, the need for cyber laws and their application has also gathered great momentum. in this research paper introduction about various cybercrimes, their classifications, IT-Act 2000 and the methods to registered the complaints has been included for the effective implementation of cyber laws in India and to aware the common men to registered their complaints when they suffered any cyber crime.
The issue of cyber pornography has been dealt with in section 67 of the IT Act where publishing of information which is obscene in electronic form has been made an offence. The section provides that whoever publishes or transmits or causes to be published in the electronic form, any material which is lascivious or appeals to the prurient interest or if its effect is such as to tend to deprave and corrupt persons who are likely, having regard to all relevant circumstances, to read, see or hear the matter contained or embodied in it, shall be punished on first conviction with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years and with
Some cyber attacks are so effective that the victims don’t even know that it’s happening, that was the case of Yahoo. The one time most popular search engine in the world has seen a number of instances where user data have been stolen by the hackers. This was the biggest hack in the history of the world in terms of scale. Yahoo had an information breach that affected almost a billion accounts. Yahoo reported two major data breaches during the second half of 2016. The data breach reported in September 2016 had occurred in 2014 and an estimated 500 million accounts were hacked. Hacker accessed user name, password as well as other sensitive materials. But unbelievably it took Yahoo four years to discover that even bigger hack has taken place during 2013 which was reported in December 2016 and believed to have affected over 1 billion user accounts and today also nobody knows who is responsible for this.
This examination work conducts study and study of existing utilization of information digging systems for prevention and discovery of money related proclamation extortion, which gives better comprehension of existing utilization of information mining strategy and their appropriateness. It helps in setting objectives for leading the exploration work. Objective was accomplished by performing careful investigation of existing information mining strategies by concentrating intentionally, nature of information mining systems utilized, information test determinations and observational outcomes
It is alarming that due to unawareness rate of E-victimization is increasing. E-Victimization is the type of victimization that is not occurred face to face. It occurred through computer or other electronic devices or software. This may took place to intentionally harm the reputation of victim or group. Cybercriminal are similar with traditional criminals. The aim of Cyber criminals to earn money as quickly and easy as possible and the same phenomena we study in traditional criminals (Kunz and Wilson, 2004). We try to save our houses, buildings and offices to equip them with technical checks (CCTV, Alarms etc). Similarly we can prevent ourselves in cyberspace with help of little technical education and common sense. In Pakistan a department with name of “(National Response Center for CyberCrimes) (NR3C)” under the umbrella of Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) is functional but awareness towards NR3C is a mark able question.
According to a study by Kaspersky lab, nearly 60 percent of institutions in Saudi Arabia has experienced virus and malware attacks from August 2016 to August 2017 (Arab News, 2017). In 2012, 3.6 million people in Saudi Arabia fell victims to cyber-crimes and suffered an average of $195 (730 Saudi Riyals) in direct financial losses. In 2012, 40 percent of social networking users in Saudi Arabia have also fell victims to cyber-crime. Consumer cyber-crime cost Saudi Arabia approximately $693 million (2.6 billion Saudi Riyals) in 2012 (Ministry of Communications & Information Technology, 2012). The 2016 Internet Crime Report prepared by Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) estimated financial loss to United States in excess of $1.3 billion due to cyber-crimes (Masters, 2017). Globally, the cost of consumer cyber-crimes was estimated to be $110 billion in 2012 (Ministry of Communications & Information Technology, 2012).
In the 1960s, the first studies related to cyber-crime have been seen in newspaper articles and in this period this crime involved computer abuse, computer sabotage, computer espionage and illegal use of computer system. The first scientific study on this type of crime has started around the year 1970. In the mid-50s, a large number of businesses and state agencies created the processes of computer data (PCD), automated departments, which deal with administrative data entry. The main risk in that period was introduced electro-mechanical breakdown and poor computer programming (OECD, 2011, pg. 15).
"in‟ areas and 10 million or more registered space names. Because of increment in internet use and cyberspace activities, there is additionally increment in Cyber-crimes or mechanical crimes in the nation. Alongside this lack of teaching from users, insufficient computer, and system framework protection, lack of Cyber-crime cyber security management and the mysterious utilization of ICT – enabling users to shroud their personality and furthermore conceal their tracks of crime. Information Technology Act 2000 is a legitimate system made and actualized to anticipate Cyber-crime and alterations have likewise occurred for it yet at the same time enhancements are required. Today Indian cyberspace has an increment in spam and phishing activities, spread of botnets; infection, worms, and malignant code are additionally on rising. It additionally had security approaches in which different nations could collaborate to forestall Cyber-crime. Later the alteration act additionally appeared to defeat some security issues not considered in before Act alongside some new options of security aversion and lawful treatment of Cyber-crime. The government has IT Act, National Cyber Security Policy is a strategy structure given by Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY), Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, Government of India .
According to Finkelstein (2011), despite computer crimes occurring long before the advent of the Internet, it was from the greater access of people to this important communication resource that this type of crime reached higher levels. Terminologies used for crimes or offenses committed through the Internet are not regulated in Brazil. There are several expressions used by criminologists to conceptualize computer crimes, such as cybercrimes, computer crimes, technological crimes, computer crimes, internet crimes, cybercrimes, digital crimes, among others. In this research was used the nomenclature "computer crimes", because it is the term brought by law nº 12.737 / 2012, object of study. In this context, Silva (2003) points out that because of the lack of unanimity in nominating criminal or criminal conduct practiced online, it requires care when using these nominative expressions. That being so, computer crime may be regarded as any typical, unlawful or guilty conduct practiced by a natural or legal person through information technology for the purpose of automatic data processing or its transmission in which a computer connected or not to the worldwide computer network (ROSSINI, 2004). Rosa (2005), in turn defines computer crime as any illegal conduct practiced from data processing via the internet and with the objective of obtaining undue and illicit advantages. Similar to that adopted by Rodrigues (2002).
Available online: https://pen2print.org/index.php/ijr/ P a g e | 749 Some of the most common causes which are associated with juvenile crimes are: Poverty; Drug Abuse; Anti-social Peer Group; Easy availability of firearms; Abusive parents; Single- parent child; Nuclear Family; Family Violence; Child sexual abuse and Role of Media. However, as far as India is concerned, it is Poverty and the effect of media, especially the social-media which make juveniles more inclined towards criminal activities. Poverty is one of the biggest causes which force a child to get involved in criminal acts. Also, role played by social media today which is having a more negative than positive imprints on young minds. Others factors are also there which need greater study and analysis at a later time.
When any crime is committed over the Internet it is referred to as a cyber-crime. There are many types of cyber-crimes. The growing danger from crimes committed against computers, or against information on computers, is beginning to draw attention worldwide. In most countries around the world, however, existing laws are likely to be unenforceable against such crimes. This lack of legal protection means that users and governments must rely solely on technical measures to protect themselves from those who would steal, deny access to, or destroy valuable information. This study showed that cyber terrorism, online phonography, and piracy are rare cyber- crimes experienced by both internet users and cyber café operators in the north-eastern Nigeria. The most commonly experienced crimes include: hacking, malware, spamming botnets, phishing, social engineering and cyber stalking. Others are web jacking, password sniffer, denial of service among other cyber-crimes.
The growing danger from crimes committed against computers, or against information on computers, is beginning to claim attention in national capitals. In most countries around the world, however, existing laws are likely to be unenforceable against such crimes. This lack of legal protection means that businesses and governments must rely solely on technical measures to protect themselves from those who would steal, deny access to, or destroy valuable information. Self-protection, while essential, is not sufficient to make cyberspace a safe place to conduct business. The term cyber crime subsumes many different activities. Here focus is given on ―unauthorized access‖ crimes and ―unauthorized disruption‖ crimes viruses, worms, logic bombs, Trojan horses, distributed denial of service attacks, etc. These are crimes committed by computers via the internet that illegally access or harm files and programs on other computers. Our goal is to investigate if Internet and mobile technology can increase reporting of committed crimes to law enforcement. This study is a first step and we investigate whether or not people would use the Internet to report crime.
This thought evolved with the Criminologist and Sociologist Edwin H. Sutherland, in the year 1939, who popularised the term white collar crimes‘ by defining such a crime as one committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation. Sutherland also included crimes committed by corporations and other legal entities within his definition. Sutherland‘s study of white collar crime was prompted by the view that criminology had incorrectly focused on social and economic determinants of crime, such as family background and level of wealth. It is true to the common knowledge that there are certain professions which offer lucrative opportunities for criminal acts and unethical practises which is very often overlooked by the general mass of the society. There have been crooks and unethical persons in business, various other professions, who tend to become unscrupulous because of no reason apart from the thirst of gaining more and more for themselves. These deviants have least regard for ethical and moral human values. Therefore,
Computers, Mobile phones and the Internet have become part of our life. As most human activities are part of computer and mobile networks, many traditional crimes have also changed their modus operandi and certain new crimes have come into existence. Most of these instruments permit their users a high degree of privacy. The technology does not distinguish between use and misuse, cyber criminals enjoy privacy too. The internet is a global medium while laws are mostly local. This makes investigation agencies difficult to find jurisdiction when a cyber crime originated out from a different country.
Cyberspace is virtual world where everything is present but no one present, in other words we can also say it is a world of fictitious bodies, who enter do work , play, chit chat and go away but not physically. This fast moving nowhere present world is now effecting the present moving world and the effect is so deep that the present world’s entire crime can actually be performed in virtual world. But a very big question arises that how to control this crime, as neither the crime nor the criminal is traceable easily being virtual. Another big issue is that which law shall be applied whether new law for new crime or old tested law for virtual world crime. In India for dealing traditional crimes Indian Penal Code, 1860 is sufficient and for cyber crime where computer is either tool or target Information Technology Act, 2000 is present. The author has tried to deal with all the issues in detailed manners which are raised here. Author has also dealt with some new types of cybercrime which are upcoming in today’s world.
Mostly the cyber attacker focus on data, they create alteration process, deletion process such type process over the data. To prevent this type of crime the Hemraj Saini et al.  suggest Data Interception techniques. In this case an attacker monitors data streams & try to gather information. This attack data collected may be the end goal of the attack. This attack usually involves sniffing network traffic, but may include observing other types of data streams. This differs from attacks that collect more qualitative information, such as communication volume, not explicitly communicated via a data stream. For such type of attacks the Data Increption Techniques are used.