usually performed in a vacuum chamber to avoid high turbulence power loss. Vacuum chamber with integrated burst protection, makes it possible to high-speed balance and spin-test small to medium sized turbo-rotors right on the shop floor. The innovative system design provides a variety of unique features to absorb the energy released when a rotor burst occurs. Safety "crush zones" are engaged and easily restored in the event of a significant burst. In this projects a vacuum chamber used for high speed turbine will be designed and modeled in 3D modeling will be done in Pro/Engineer. The vacuum chamber designed will be easy setup for rotors up to 17,500 lbs., up to 67 inches in diameter, at speeds of up to 60,000 RPM. In this project structural, modal analysis and fatigue analysis will be done in Ansys. The present used material for vacuum chamber is steel. In this project it is replaced with aluminum alloy, brass and acrylic.
Abstract—Most of the bone fractures in daily life occur within the arm bone and femur bones. Machining of medical science alloy implants, with high speed machining, offers blessings, however additionally has its own disadvantages metallic element, steel etc. are used as bone replacement; however the implants are unit straightforward geometric approximations of the bone. There is lot of probabilities of mismatches to occur between real bone and implants, which regularly causes stress concentrations and premature implant failure. To beat this stress concentration and unsustainable pain correct bone implant is needed. By Appling Rapid prototyping we are able to prepare the image to induce physical model of bone. This can be helpful to manufacture correct bone implant. This paper tries to utilize the advanced Computer Aided Design and Finite component Analysis to notice and perceive the stress within the femur bone, and aid within the manufacture of artificial joints and limbs. This method takes input from CT scan or MRI, That is then fed into CAD by using different software’s like MIMIC and 3D slicer. This CAD file can be used in prototyping the bone by using different methods of Rapid Prototyping. And it will help in different medical application.
Figure 4.3 Orthographic views of the final design with dimension 26 Figure 4.4 Bills of material for the final design 27 Figure 4.5 Analysis on threaded shaft for PVC material 29 Figure 4.6 Analysis on threaded shaft for Mild Steel material 30 Figure 4.7 Analysis on threaded shaft for High Density Polyethylene material 31 Figure 4.8 Analysis on threaded shaft for Low Density Polyethylene material 32 Figure 4.9 Analysis on threaded shaft for Polyvinyl Chloride material 33
Due to low-offset, fast speed, low power consumption, high input impedance, CMOS dynamic latched comparators are very attractive for many applications such as high speed analog-to- digital convertors(ADCs), memory sense amplifiers(SAs) and data receivers. They use positive feedback mechanism with one pair of back-to-back cross coupled inverters for converting a small input-voltage difference to a full-scale digital level in a short time.  However, an input-referred latch offset voltage, due to static mismatches such as threshold voltage Vth and ß variations in the regenerative latch, degrade the accuracy of such comparators. Moreover, dynamic mismatch from the unbalanced parasitic capacitances on the output nodes of the latch causes the additional offset term during evaluation phase. So, the input-referred latch offset voltage is one of the most important design parameters of the latched comparator. By using large device sizes for the latching stage, a low offset can be achieved at the cost of the reduced speed due to slowing the regeneration time and the increased power dissipation. In this paper we are going to implement the some pair of transistors of latch stage connected in parallel for offset voltage reduction in double tail comparator due to mismatch in transistor pairs. This technique called Differential spit level logic (DSLL) which uses the latch as load in the first stage is used to reduce offset voltage in the second stage. Fast speed and low power consumption are the two most important parameter of the comparator which is to be used in high speed ADCs.  This paper is organized as follow. Section II, describe as Convectional dynamic comparator. Section III introduced differential comparator. Section IV proposed comparator and Section V consist of simulation results of three comparators. In section V table comparison for characteristics like propagation delay, offset voltage, ICMR, slew rate and speed. Conclusion and references are illustrated in section VI.
Expression for resonance frequency of an E-shaped microstrip antenna has been found in . Here the resonance frequencies are calculated by equating its area to an equivalent area of a rectangular microstrip patch antenna. This expression of resonance frequencies showed a good agreement with measured result. Here in this work those expressions are used to find out different dimensions of the E shape patch antenna for lower resonance frequency of 4.95 GHz and higher resonance frequency of 5.77 GHz. Substrate dielectric constant is chosen as 2.2 and height as 5 mm. Parameters found from the calculation are: W = 33.89 mm, L = 18.69 mm, W1 = 10.45 mm, W2 = 8.87 mm, L1 = 12.66 mm and Ls = 13.81 mm. As a starting reference we are going to use these parameters to design a simplest form of the E shape antenna.
Jenq-Shyong Chen and Wei-Yao Hsu. et al  in this paper, the characterizing and modeling of the thermal growth of a motorized high speed spindle are reported. A motorized high speed spindle has more complicated dynamic, non- stationary and speed-dependent thermal characteristics than conventional spindles. The centrifugal force and thermal expansion occurring on the bearings and motor rotor change the thermal characteristics of the built-in motor, bearings and assembly joints. A new thermal model which correlates the spindle thermal growth to thermal displacements measured at some locations of the rotating spindle shaft has been proposed. It was found that the displacement-based thermal error model has much better accuracy and robustness than the temperature-based model Chi-Wei Lin a, Jay F. Tu a Joe Kamman et al (2003) in this paper the integrated model with experimental validation and sensitivity analysis for studying various thermo-mechanical-dynamic spindle behaviors at high
An electrical DC drive is a combination of controller, converter and DC motor. Here we are using chopper as a converter. The basic principle behind DC motor speed control is that the output speed of DC motor can be varied by controlling armature voltage keeping field voltage constant for speed below and up to rated speed . The output speed is compared with the reference speed and error signal is then fed to speed controller. If there is a difference in the reference speed and the feedback speed, Controller output will vary. The output of the speed controller is the control voltage Eg that controls the operation duty cycle of converter. The converter output gives the required voltage V to bring motor speed back to the desired speed. The Reference speed is provided through a potential divider because it is linearly related to the speed of the DC motor. Now the output speed of motor is measured by Tacho-generator. The tacho voltage we will get from the tacho generator contains ripple and it will not be perfectly dc. So, we require a filter with a gain to bring Tacho output back to controller level.
The Comparators are used in analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), data transmission applications, switching power regulators and many other applications. The voltages that appear at the inputs are compared by the comparator that produces a binary output which represents a difference between them. They are critical components in analog-to-digital converters. Designing high-speed comparators becomes more challenging when working with smaller supply voltages. In other words, for a given technology, to attain high speed, transistors with increased width and length values are required to compensate for the reduction of supply voltage, which also means increased chip area and power . So, Transistor width and length are adjusted accordingly for minimum power consumption and maximum operating speed.
The results in Fig. 10 shows the distribution of the number of passengers on the time-averaged sense on both the buses when the analysis has reached its steady-state condition. The figure reveals an interesting phenomenon that the distribution of the time-averaged number of passengers was rather similar for both buses. This fact seems acceptable by considering the model design and its input parameters that were designed to be symmetric. The actual numbers of passengers on the two buses were 14 passengers on average with 18 passengers’ deviation. When the buses left the BRT Station #2, they were boarded with about 8 time-averaged numbers of the passengers for 85% of the cases. On a few cases, the second bus was boarded by about 60 passengers. Variation of the number of passengers was much wider on the second bus, about twice wider than that on the first bus.
Using the spacing recommendation of 4 and 5 bus stops per mile combined with the 10 and 20 seconds running time saving per consolidated stop, four possible scenarios were developed. Both the linear and stepped cost savings were performed to the four possible scenarios, with the findings specified in Table 4-2 (Scenarios 1 and 2) and Table 4-3 (Scenarios 3 and 4). The first set of scenarios depict the running time and cost savings associated with the more conservative option of consolidating the average spacing along the analyzed Metrobus lines to five bus stops per mile. Within the selected piece of analysis related to the average number of bus stops per mile, the running time and cost savings were calculated in regards to the two distinct values for time savings earlier described. The linear cost savings is estimated as $8,231,195 for a scenario in which all the analyzed Metrobus lines have the spacing of their bus stops consolidated to an average of five stops per mile, with the applied factor of a ten second savings associated with each stop removal. Through application of the identical guidelines and time savings, the more realistic measurement of stepped cost savings determined an annual savings for all weekdays of $4,108,633. A second scenario for cost savings utilizes the same suggested guideline of five bus stops per mile, but applies the previously founded time savings of 20-seconds per eliminated bus stop, instead of the aforementioned 10-second time savings. For this particular scenario, the linear cost savings was determined to be $16,462,390, while the stepped cost savings was calculated as an annual weekday savings of $11,610,895. To briefly summarize the results for the two scenarios concerning a consolidation effort by Metro to reduce the average spacing of bus stops within the analyzed Metrobus lines to five stops per mile, it was discovered that an annual weekday cost savings in the range of $4,108,633 and $11,610,895 could be achieved by the transit service.
means to achieving this goal is to use available data and technology to better understand which local factors influence transit use to better plan new infrastructure investments. Traditional four- stage travel demand models estimate travel flows between traffic analysis zones (TAZs) by first estimating the number of trips originating in each TAZ, distributing the trips between TAZs, estimating mode choice of travellers, then assigning traffic to the travel networks (Cervero, 2006). Four-stage demand models can accurately predict commuting flows at a regional scale and are an essential element of long term transit planning but are not capable of assessing the role of small scale design and land use factors (Cervero, 2006; Usvyat, Meckel, DiCarlantonio, & Lane, 2009). They are also data-intensive and require specialized knowledge to derive accurate results. A Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) survey found that out of 36 transit agencies across North America that responded, only 51% used four-stage models (Boyle, 2006). Data quality, accuracy, and availability were among major concerns of respondents and it is reported that several agencies at the time were in the process of developing new tools to better assess local scale factors influencing transit use (Boyle, 2006). Four-stage models are still seen as an effective means to plan in the long term at a regional scale but impractical for smaller scale changes where professional judgement, rules of thumb, and service elasticities are widely
Agencies considering the implementation of a BRT system should know their purpose in designing a service that meets their needs and the needs of the customer. This can be done through an initial BRT planning study to define the principles, policies and standards of the system. Such a study or analysis should highlight the operational differences between BRT, Express Bus and local fixed-route bus services and define the travel markets that each service type would be tailored to address. Implementation of BRT should be justified based upon passenger demand (current and future), corridor land use plans, the operating funds available and the ability to attract and retain new and existing riders from other forms of transportation.
Page | 6 etc. and uses design, planning and context related inputs such as operation type, station type, average trip length etc. The outputs of the modelling engine include prediction of commercial speed, passenger speed, journey time, capacity, etc. Second component is the evaluation framework. Outputs generated by the modelling engine are used as inputs in the evaluation framework (S G Architects and Fazio Engineer ware 2012b). Here performance against ten critical indicators is evaluated and aggregated in to an overall performance score. Aggregation is based on individual indicator weights assigned using inputs from different stakeholders representing passengers, civil society organizations (CSOs), operators and experts in public as well urban transport. These indicators and their categories have been listed below (Gandhi 2013).
Mass RapidTransit (MRT) systems are an important mode of transportation in mod- ern cities. Currently, there are two MRT systems operating in Taiwan—one in Taipei, the capital of Taiwan; and the other in Kaohsiung, the second largest city located in the south. The systems have been named at the onset, the Taipei MRT and the Kaohsiung MRT, respectively. Contrary to the norm in English-speaking countries, where the term “MRT” is rarely used in daily communications, both verbal and written; MRT is a common term that is used extensively in Taiwan. The information from the Taipei MRT website posts ambiguity in the history of the system. For one, it is stated that the “Taipei Metropolitan RapidTransit Systems” was approved by the government in 1986 How to cite this paper: Tang, Y.-L. (2016).
Personal rapidtransit system is a new on-demand-system which is developed specially for urban cities. This is a small light (850kg empty weight) weight vehicle. The car is designed for 4 to 6 passengers travelling from an origin to a destination without intermediate stops. It is sufficient enough to carry the passengers along with space for extra luggage like wheelchair, shopping carts etc. These are run by electric driven motors installed in each car. These pod cars are equipped with air conditioning which can change according to the climatic conditions. The wheels are small in size and run on a particular path and are made of solid rubber. The pod cars are run on specially designed elevated guideway. The design, construction and maintenance of these guideways are cost effective when compared to the conventional mode of transportation systems like monorail, metro-rail etc.
AAPM station lengths are typically governed by the maximum train length while the width is designed to accommodate the AAPM tracks plus all of the people boarding and deboarding. This results in a fairly wide platform since there could theoretically be a trainload of people boarding and another deboarding at one time at one station. Typically the design peak number is somewhat less than this theoretical maximum number but nonetheless can be quite large. The AAPM station at Denver
The IR remote controlled fan regulator is implemented using IR sensor, monostable multivibrator, decade counter, transformer, comparator, opto-isolator and TRIAC. It is portable in size and the receiver responds only to the infra-red signal transmitted by any modern day remote control. The system responds favourable and alters the voltage smoothly when any button of modern day remote control is pressed, irrespective of ac supply voltage frequency. The receiver- transmitter maximum distance is approximately 10m. The experimental output voltage obtained across the load matches the theoretical waveshape, indicating a full wave voltage control of the fan regulator.
The above analysis statistically proves the increased attention of Government in development of MRTS on account of various benefits and advantages it command over other modes of existing public transport. The increased allocation of budget towards MRTS clearly signifies that it will be gradually having its presence in many urban and semi urban areas. However, the Government need to accordingly develop master plan of its new cities so that the problem being faced nowadays can be averted in future.In case of urban mass rapidtransit system (MRTS), there are a number of options which depend on the current and future needs, geographical factors, funds available, etc. Metros can be underground, elevated or at surface. However, the cost and time involve in their construction varies considerably as can be observed from the table 7.