Time Allowance for Question Papers: The time allowed for each paper is shown against the name of ZIMSEC, viz:- statements of entry, attendance registers, etc, unless otherwise advised officially by . between the two Economicspapers. (ZIMSEC). ZIMBABWE GENERAL CERTIFICATE OF EDUCATION. (ZGCE). For Examinations in June/November 2013 - 2017. O-Level Syllabus. ECONOMICS (ZIMSEC). ZIMBABWE GENERAL CERTIFICATE OF EDUCATION. (ZGCE). For Examinations in June/November 2013 - 2017. O-Level Syllabus. ECONOMICS Success in Cambridge International A Level & AS LevelEconomics is accepted by take the AS Level components (Papers 1 and 2) at one exam session and, ..
At sectoral level, several studies have shown the impact of services liberalisation on prices, productivity and output. The fact that such stud- ies are partial and mostly focus on very specific measures makes difficult to extrapolate the results. However, they provide useful insights on the way deregulation affects other economic variables such as prices, output and investment. Faini et al. ( 17 ) analyse the effects of liberalisation on a number of service sectors in three European countries. They provide a general overview on the evolution of productivity, employment and prices. Their analysis focuses on energy, telecommunications, retailing and postal services amongst others. They identify that liberalisation in general implied an increase in productivity (partly linked to the decrease in employment) and a decrease in employment, in particular in infra- structure-based industries. However, the conclusions are not clear cut for prices. In the case of industries that were previously state-run monopo- lies, this could be explained by below-cost pricing before liberalisation. The paper highlights the political difficulties to implement reforms due to the decline in employment they can induce and the limited impact on prices.
Nothing is further from what actually happened. The devaluation was immediately arbi- traged by an increase of the product price, so that the price of Japanese raw silk in the New York market even rose in the mid-1880s. Of course, it did not mean that the entire Japanese market was efficient. The arbitrage of prices for non-tradable goods, for example, was delayed for about a few years. But, as far as the product of the modern silk reeling manufacturer is concerned, its price in the international market did not fall, and his real income, equivalently his income compared with the domestic price level, rose during the fall of the exchange rate. Therefore, reflecting the structural change of international market, the price of Filature rose more than that of Hanks, and the falling exchange rate increased the real income of the modern silk reeling manufacturers, which prompted the reorganization of sericulture.
Finally, implementing truck scheduling in real-world cross docks seems an especially challenging eld. The most straightforward implementation would be do consider all trucks (i.e., all trucks already waiting on the yard plus all those which presumably arrive during the planing horizon) in a unique planning run. Then, the resulting schedule could x truck processing over the complete planning horizon. However, arrival times of trucks are typically bound to heavy inaccuracies, because trac congestions or engine failures delay inbound trucks with the utmost probability. Thus, the following research questions need to be answered in this context: Up to which level of uncertainty are expected arrival times of trucks useful information to be considered in truck scheduling? How to derive robust plans, i.e., plans which remain feasible in spite of (shorter) delays? To further attenuate the impact of uncertain arrivals, truck scheduling is often applied in a rolling horizon setting. Scientic advice on how to dimension the planning horizon and how to link adjacent planning runs is still missing. In the extreme case, truck scheduling is executed once a door is released to merely determine the truck to be called- up taking over the empty door (see Boysen, 2007). Such an online procedure has the advantage, that uncertain truck arrivals become irrelevant because only trucks already waiting on the yard would need to be considered. In this context the question whether a complete planning run each time a door is released is actually better than a (simple) selection rule needs to be investigated.
Figure 4 displays that the solution time roughly increases in a linear manner if both BW and F W rise. However, this increase is smaller with regard to a rising F W than BW , since the completion of F W partial solutions by the myopic priority rule approach during detailed ltering is computational inexpensive when compared to the more com- plex branching process of BW nodes and the subsequent consolidation of duplicate nodes. On the other hand, with rising F W and BW the solution quality increases. This result is not astounding, because with increasing control parameter values a larger part of the complete solution graph is explored. In view of these results, we apply a parameter set- ting of F W = 35 and BW = 20 for the following computational tests, which turns out to be a reasonable choice to level the trade-o between solution quality and solution time. To answer questions (ii) and (iii), we solve all 1458 instances with our novel Beam Search approaches BS s basing on the sequence based graph and BS o (occurrence based graph) and compare their results with the so-called Goal Chasing (GC) procedure, which is a simple myopic priority rule based heuristic, and the Ant Colony approach (ANT) provided by Boysen et al. (2007b). Table 2 displays the aggregated results over all small instances, where the results are compared in relation to optimal solution values. For the medium and large test instances these optimal solutions are unknown, so that Table 3 lists the aggregated results for these two instance sets compared to the results of a lower bound procedure (LB) introduced by Boysen et al. (2007b).
regulatory provisions on broadcasting at home. In this sense, one could say that the mutual recognition (or origin principle) has generated a form of regulatory competition putting pressure on domestic broadcasting systems of a range of Member States. Harmonisation is accomplished in the TV without frontiers directive 40 and concerns mainly a limited form of contents regulation. These developments reflect the gradual emergence of commercial broadcasting, based on the inapplicability of the natural monopoly argument for (public monopoly) broadcasting, itself enabled by technological progress and less scarcity of spectrum for broadcasting. Europe has moved towards a system of 'dual broadcasting', that is, co-existence of public and private/commercial services. In the light of 'convergence' driven by digitilisation, internal market logic and EU competition policy, a range of other constraints have further reduced national and regional, even local, discretion. A sample of examples of such constraints includes whether or not to disallow commercial broadcasting in a Member State ( e.g Austria , the Netherlands), how precisely to define the mission of public broadcasting ( so as to identify cross-subsidisation of state-aided broadcasters for programmes outside their mission), the proper policy with respect to "must-carry" obligations of cable monopolists (often , municipalities in the EU), the opening up of cable transmission, the (un)desirable link between quotas for European programmes and the competitiveness of the EU audiovisual producers, etc. etc. Furthermore, both via the Strassbourg Human Rights court and via the EU merger regulation even political and democratic aspects have moved to a European level. The EU merger regulation (art. 21) specifies that plurality of the media is regarded as a legitimate public interest justifying certain protective measures by the Member States. In the years 1995 and 1996 Commissioner Monti has attempted to draft a directive on media concentration (rejected by the EP after a lot of debate, inter alia because it would be too weak on plurality) and the EP requested a Green Paper on pluralism and concentration in the European media in 2002. And the Constitution, in art. II-71 sub 2 says that "the freedom and pluralism of the media shall be respected".
To create supervised topic mappings, we take advantage of the fact that economicspapers are manually categorized by the Journal of Economic Literature (JEL). These codes are hierarchical in- dicators of an article’s subject area. For exam- ple, the code C51 can be read, in increasing order of specificity, as Mathematical and Quantitative Methods (C), Econometric Modeling (C5), Model Construction and Estimation (C51). We construct two sets of topic mappings: JEL1 derived from the 1st-level codes (e.g. C) and JEL2 derived from the 2nd-level codes (e.g. C5). The former cov- ers broad areas (e.g. macroeconomics, microeco- nomics, etc.) while the latter contains more refined ones (e.g. monetary policy, firm behavior, etc.).
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simple and compound interest, profit and loss, etc. might be assumed to be understood by all students. In contrast, some questions may make assumptions about students’ knowledge of sport, for example in modelling, mathematically, the conversion of a try in rugby in order to maximise the angle between the posts. In other A-level mathematics questions, there may be assumptions about scientific knowledge, for example calculus questions in the context of dynamics, or exponential growth and decay in economics, or the physics of radioactive decay. Such questions might try to overcome a lack of universal familiarity by attempting to explain the context from first principles; however, this explanatory text has to be weighed against the increase in the demands of comprehension it places on the solver in that the more wordy the question, the less accessible it might become, especially to those whose first language is not English.
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We examine the e¤ects of welfare spending on crime, using the universal credit (UC) system in England and Wales as a case study. Motivated by a seemingly positive crime-UC nexus, we develop a novel theoretical model of crime and cash transfer that distinguishes between introductory and level e¤ect, as well as a crime-speci…c human capital-induced heterogeneity between criminal activities. Based on county-level data for 10 crime types, we use both standard …xed-e¤ect estimator and di¤erent instrumental variable-estimation strategies (to account for endogeneity of the UC rate) to evaluate the theoretical propositions. Criminal damage and arson are found to exhibit the characteristics of being criminal human capital-dependent. In contrast, as a policy tool to combat crime, welfare spending appears to be most e¤ective in reducing public disorder and weapon possessions. Overall, we …nd the claim that UC policy has led to an increase in crime rate to be overstated.
gains than patients of master-level professionals because of the amount of personal contact given by those not driven by insurance systems and need to make more money to pay higher educational costs and malpractice insurance. Individuals who want to be a doctor should go to medical school
In addition to contributing directly to military capacity, gains from trade give rise to economic dependencies that governments can use to exercise influ- ence over trading partners. 10 Work on international bargaining and the use of economic sanctions suggests that trade ties may also allow governments to resolve conflicts without resorting to violence (Crescenzi 2003; Oneal et al. 1997). Survey evidence suggests that Americans are cognizant of the role that economics plays in world politics. Asked “which is more important for a country’s overall power and influence in the world,” 71% of respondents chose economic strength over military power (28%) (CCGA 2016). Further, two CCGA polls of US respondents in 2015 and 2016 asked if “signing free trade agreements with other countries” was effective at “achieving the foreign policy goals of the United States.” On the whole, 65–68% of respondents agreed with the statement. This is comparable to the 65% of respondents from the same surveys who think that maintaining military superiority is an effective way to achieve foreign policy goals. 11
Table 4 shows the average intake levels for those whose three responses were equal (Q1 = Q2 = Q3). Average intake levels are 12.5 – 13.78 tons in 10% – 30% groups; the corresponding figure for the 40% group is 18.8 tons. Thus, at least for such respondents, there is a tendency to lower the average intake level when the impact of a regime shift on them is high (10% – 30% groups) and to increase the average intake level when the impact of a regime shift on them is less (40% group). Because our sample size is small, we applied the Kruskal-Wallis test to test the null hypothesis that there are no differences among the 4 average intake levels. The test statistic was 5.9 and the null hypothesis was not rejected at 10%. We do not have a statistically significant result but once enough data is accumulated, the result may change.
In a sense, forecasting of this type runs counter to the philosophy of the Oxford English Dictionary, which is to record and describe the usage of a word over a period of time, and provide a historical perspective for the items we include. As such, there is by no means a guarantee that any of the words listed will ever attain a level of currency that merits inclusion in the OED, or that, if they do, the definition will resemble that given below.
Financial economists are also partly responsible. They offered instruments to evaluate the risks of security papers that, as we know today, were not appropriate. The empirical estimates were based on data from periods of low volatility and, therefore, underestimated the risk. It is a pressing and important task of Financial Economics to develop models that are better suited to evaluate the risk of such papers and, in addition, to propose regulations that, on the one hand, reduce the probability that such a crisis will happen again and, on the other hand, do not obstruct innovations in the financial markets overmuch.