CENTRE FOR RESEARCH INTO READING, INFORMATION AND LINGUISTICSYSTEMS (CRILS)
Matthew, Care Home 1
Matthew has early on-set dementia and is much younger than most of the other patients on the ward. He rarely interacts with the other people and appears quite isolated and depressed, talking only in monosyllables and taking a long time to respond to questions. His speech seems slow and impaired: he struggles not only to find words to be able to express himself but also to find the will or desire to make such acts of communication in the first place. I noticed during a session that centred upon an extract about summer-time from Laurie Lee’s Cider with Rosie that Martin seemed to be looking about him more than usual and to be listening attentively to what was being discussed by the other group- members. I asked him what he’d like to eat during a hot day in summer. He replied in a single word – ‘Fruit’. I asked him what kind of fruit. He said ‘Apples, oranges.’ This response was quite a breakthrough for Matthew. On that basis I risked asking him if he’d like to re-read a poem I’d just read to the group – ‘Apples’ also by Laurie Lee:
Prison staff noted that the reading group tended to attract more solitary and less socially engaged women.
It also encouraged greater integration of women on the Personality Disorder wing and those who struggled to find acceptance within the larger prison culture. Within the reading groups, participating women reported experiencing a sense of support and inspiration from the experience, as well as feelings of enjoyment (often visible in humour and laughter), and an increase in personal confidence. This was verified by the evidence of the Reader-in-Residence record which demonstrated strengthened ease with and responsiveness to the literature in the course of the study. It was observed that the shared reading and discussion promoted respect for others’ views and tolerance of conflict or disagreement, as well as enhancing social and communication skills and encouraging a form of ‘conciliatory assertiveness’. A new pattern of social activity was also seen to emerge from the reading groups, since attendance was not based on personal friendship but on preference for the activity and a sense of reading group membership.
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In this paper, we will present the development of a resource database for research and evaluation in the domain of dialog-based Interactive Voice Response (IVR) systems. Since a correctly orthographically transcribed, consistently labeled and tagged database of unconstrained speech was not available for the targeted area, we concentrated on the annotation and structuration of a natural spoken requests database in order to make it profitable for lexicon and language modeling and for the evaluation of recognition results necessary for the assessment of our current speech recognition systems.
This distinction between fact and inference – along with the development of a consensus answer set – raises a se- ries of interesting challenges. For example, how do we arrive at an adequate set of queries and gold standard an- swers which are consistent with the ontology and based on consistent human annotation? As mentioned above, que- ries are merely incomplete assertions consistent with the task ontology. We are able to generate the full set of pos- sible queries from the ontology, so depending upon the size of that set, all or a portion of these queries are auto- matically applied to the annotations. The human annota- tions – also consistent with the ontology, as described in Section 3.2.2 – provide an initial set of gold standard an- swers to queries involving the classes and relations they involve. So, in the example we’ve been using, the relation numberOfPeriods is annotated in several texts. Specific, annotated games and numbers which fit the query tem- plate are available as a sub-set of all answers to the que- ries. The remaining answers come from two additional processes. First we take the directly annotated assertions and run them through the DSRS rules. This would pro- duce, for example, an inferred answer of 5 periods for a game where a mention of overtime was annotated. This answer is added to the gold standard set. Then, during testing, all answers provided by readingsystems are re- tained by the evaluation framework. These may include correct answers which should be included in the gold stan- dard. We have designed an adjudication process where annotators can quickly view the machine-provided an- swers along with their provenance (portions of the text where the answer was read, or where precursor facts were read from which the answer was inferred).
more advantages: it can extract information from unstructured data, pseudonymize structured and unstructured data and handle information updates. Information in text-form ought to be extracted and therefore, CRDW uses a linguistic pipeline to perform this requirement. First, elements from diverse providers must be combined and secondly, the phrases selected from the first step ought to be linked to medical terms (“concept mapping”) in a semantic knowledge base and be organized into classes. An advantage of using semantic knowledge is allowing queries for synonymous terms. Moreover, this system enables the user to utilize the web in order to gain access to the database; therefore, clinical trials and their criteria (inclusion and exclusion) are described together and former and current patient eligibility is presented together. Regarding the clinical trials criteria, it is important for them to be translated into the system’s language (terminology and structure) and, also, they will eventually pair with the structured patient data and the medical data provided by the linguistic pipeline. According to the case study’s evaluation, not many patients were missed during screening; the nurse does not have to check every patient’s eligibility status because this is CRDW’s responsibility (Geibel et al., 2015).
ambulances: north-east, north-west and south. In charge of each of these divisions were controllers who had a very good knowledge of their section, in the sense that they knew those areas of London very well. This personal knowledge allowed them to identify, for example, when an accident was being reported twice. Controllers would not send more than one ambulance to the same place. The inability of the CAD system to identify duplicate reports and the practice of sending more than one ambulance to the same incident was one of the reasons for the collapse in 1992. The design of the CAD system joined together the three divisions and included rules for dispatching ambulances, so that once the system was in place the job of the controllers was made redundant. The information system introduced new tasks and therefore new rules. These rules should have been translated effectively into the CAD system. The procedures and rules of calculation were introduced by informationsystems developers who apparently failed to appreciate the value of the judgements and skills of the controllers. This inability of the system developers was one of the causes of the failure of the system. Table 9 shows the disruption caused to system integration by the new CAD system. The organisational measures that accompanied the system, such as the elimination of the three geographical divisions and the substitution of the dispatchers triggered those disruptions. In this table we have highlighted also the empowerment and disempowerment of agencies. It is not surprising that LAS staff perceived the CAD system as disempowering because it undermined their control over operations.
Training the teachers
The training for participating staff was delivered at a local council run education provider centre. It was delivered over two separate sessions, totalling one and a half days for each participating teacher.
Session 1 lasted a full day and Session 2 was a follow up two to three weeks into the programme delivery, which lasted half a day. The teachers who would be delivering the intervention, from all participating schools, received the training but not all at the same time; rather they attended separate sessions in order to minimise the number of teachers away from the school at once. Teachers commented that receiving the training along with teachers from other schools was a positive aspect as it helped to widen their professional understanding and offered the opportunity for them to learn from others.
As discussed above, you may decide to undertake a project that is based around a real problem for a real organisation. This is certainly encouraged. In this case, you will have a client, the person or organisation for which you are working. The client, of course, is most interested in getting the job done – not in your project report. Even more so than with a traditional supervisor, a client is typically under external pressures that may mean sudden changes to your support environment. For example, you may be working in an area in which the client has some interest and can provide a high level of support, but this may be drastically reduced if the resources suddenly are needed elsewhere. In some cases, rather than withdrawing support, the client may feel they have to press ahead quicker with their work than is convenient for your timetable. In such cases, you will need to try to negotiate a new arrangement with the client that is still mutually beneficial. One possibility is to recast your project into a more theoretical form, using what you have learned so far, but assessing it within a broader framework of ideas.
What should it be?
While current ISDSR is dominated by a considerably small number of seminal studies, none of them has systematically examined the philosophical foundation of DSR. A critical examination reveals an inextricable link between these seminal works and positivism. However, it is proposed that DSR is not necessarily chained from the positivist domain. Limited and narrow philosophical foundations could possibly bound the diversity of DSR in terms of method, evaluation, outcome, etc. One proposal is that design science researchers could consider subscribing to the philosophy of pragmatism as an alternative to the philosophy of logical positivism. However, more research is needed to find how to incorporate current philosophical foundations into pragmatism. To find a solution for that question, several complementary questions should be answered first, such as, what is the philosophical foundation of current dominant ISDSR? Is it appropriate? What should the philosophical foundation of ISDSR be? The current subscription to positivism could possibly be traced back to a partially subscription of Simon’s philosophical assumption. However, as we see, although most of Simon’s works show a philosophical assumption of logical positivism, his original work, The Sciences of the Artificial, shows a very open attitude to the philosophical foundation of design science. While the
In 2010-2011, the Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Health Information continued its work towards achieving our vision of improved health through quality health information and support for the Provincial Government’s strategic directions.
During the past year, the number of community pharmacies connecting to the Pharmacy Network continued to increase and the Centre made considerable progress on the development and implementation of the electronic health record. Planning for the interoperable Electronic Health Records/Laboratory project was completed and the Centre, on behalf of the Department of Health and Community Services, managed the implementation of a province-wide electronic occurrence reporting system that will be made available at all Regional Health Authorities. Additionally, with support from the Department of Health and Community Services and Canada Health Infoway, the Centre began planning for a project that will increase the adoption of electronic medical records by physicians in the province. The Research and Evaluation Department also continued its invaluable work in applied health research, evaluation and information services to meet the needs of a broad range of health stakeholders.
RR teachers administer the Text Reading OS task in order to determine a student’s text reading level. Text reading level is defined by RR as the level at which a student can read a set of texts, specifically the Scott Foresman Specialty Practice Books. This OS task requires the administration of a running record, which teachers use to record the speed and accuracy with which a student reads a selected text with known difficulty. Using this method, RR teachers can determine a student’s text reading level with at least 90 percent accuracy (NATG, 2005). Multiple methods have been employed to estimate the reliability of the OS. Reported test-retest and internal consistency reliability estimates range from moderate to high on the individual OS Tasks (Clay, 2002, as cited in Denton, Ciancio, & Fetcher, 2006); measures of the inter-assessor reliability of the Text Reading and Writing Vocabulary tasks yielded coefficients of .92 and .87 (Denton et al., 2006). In addition, evidence of the validity of the information gathered by administering the OS has been prove by several studies. These studies assess the construct and criterion validity of the OS tasks using the sub-tests of various norm-referenced tests, including the ITBS. Across these studies, researchers have found that scores can be validly interpreted for the following purposes: a) identification of at-risk students (Gomez, Rogers, Wang, & Schultz, 2005), b) measurement of early reading constructs (Tang & Bellenge, 2007; Gomez, Gibson, Tang, Doyle, & Kelly , 2007), and c) prediction of the attainment of performance benchmarks (Denton et al., 2006).
Five ex-CRICS student members joined KPMG at the beginning of 2017. See Appendix C.
Staff members that form part of CRICS are excelling as well. All six staff members have now been promoted to professorial level (obviously their individual research outputs played a huge role), four of the six members acquired NRF ratings, all members are supervising extensively and the group culture emits mutual respect, focus and fun that all contribute to a healthy and stimulating environment.
ADMT7 Actions status
- AIC to integrate MEDS statistics on GTS problems as well as Coriolis metadata check in the bi-monthly report. DONE
- AIC to implement and document a reliable Argo user desk behind the firstname.lastname@example.org email to ensure that all request are processed and to provide history of the request to the ADMT and AST partners. See proposal above.
Under direction of the Assistant Superintendent of Research, Planning & Evaluation, to oversee department information management systems; to develop and support operational guidelines and procedures for all department technology based systems; to serve as a resource and liaison on information services hardware and software, and networking infrastructure; to oversee the data collection, analysis and reporting of District and State assessment programs and administrative research and evaluation studies; and to perform related duties as required.
Indeed, the underlying cause is much simpler. In general, lexical similarity is nor a sufficient neither a necessary condition so that two sentences convey the same meaning. On the contrary, natural lan- guages are expressive and ambiguous at different levels. Consequently, the similarity between two sentences may involve different dimensions. In this work, we hypothesize that, in order to ‘fairly’ evalu- ate MT systems based on different paradigms, simi- larities at more abstract linguistic levels must be an- alyzed. For that purpose, we have compiled a rich set of metrics operating at the lexical, syntactic and shallow-semantic levels (see Section 2). We present a comparative study on the behavior of several met- ric representatives from each linguistic level in the context of some of the cases reported by Koehn and Monz (2006) and Callison-Burch et al. (2006) (see Section 3). We show that metrics based on deeper linguisticinformation (syntactic/shallow-semantic) are able to produce more reliable system rankings than those produced by metrics which limit their scope to the lexical dimension, specially when the systems under evaluation are of a different nature.
Moreover, computing a system performance cannot be the only way to evaluate a QA system because this type of eval- uation is global and cannot provide a real understanding of the system performances relative to some specific linguistic phenomena. Research teams still need diagnostic evalua- tions to know the reasons of their successes and their fail- ures that are related to the capacities of the systems to han- dle linguistic properties and to elaborate resolution strate- gies. However there are no tools or methods to produce sys- tematic evaluations of linguistic criteria for such systems.
Similarly, as the result indicates, the roles of users in the strategic IS planning process is not limited to only providing inputs, but, to some extent, the users also act as a decision maker. The result of this study is somewhat inconsistent with those of Raja Mohd Ali , whose works are discussed above. Her study found that the users play some roles namely, input provider, feedback provider and system user but not as a decision maker. This present study, however, found that users are empowered to make a decision, particularly for decisions to acquire the systems or technology that are highly related to their routine tasks. In such cases, the users have a better grasp of the system functionalities that correspond best to the requirements for performing their tasks. As has been stated in an earlier section of this paper, SMEs are unique compared to larger organizations in terms of its operation, resource limitations and decision-making power. In most cases, only a few people are attached to functional departments such as sales and accounts. Therefore, these employees would have vast knowledge and experience about their work and related needs. As a result, the assumption is that they are the most suitable people to make decisions about what technology or application to acquire or whether to acquire a new technology or information system. More importantly, one metric for IS planning success is that a system or technology is useful and able to assist a firm in achieving its intended business objectives.
However, over longer periods of time, breaking away from the inertia resulting from uncoordinated choices required more centralized governance. This, in turn, afforded the requisite mobilization of stakeholders within and outside the user organization to mindfully evaluate debt practices and accumulation that could add maintenance costs and constrain the platform’s evolvability. Hence, a user organization must empha- size different governance regimes at different stages in managing a digital platform. Second, an organization should carefully consider whether to rely on a single digital platform to support their business or instead leverage several partly incompatible and even compet- ing platforms. Based on our research and in concur- rence with Selander et al. (2013), it is possible that an organization like Media Company would be bet- ter off investing in multiple, loosely coupled platforms in a working infrastructure rather than customizing a single platform to fulfill a variety of needs across the organization. Instead of spending resources on cus- tomizing a single digital platform and launching large- scale integration projects, organizations could instead focus on developing smaller components and scripts to loosely integrate digital platforms and IT capabilities in their digital infrastructures. In sum, a user orga- nization’s digital platform management in relation to its digital infrastructure and work processes requires a mindful approach to the interactions between digital options and digital debt that leverages the generativ- ity afforded by the digital infrastructure and platform ecosystem.
alternative identiﬁcation strategies as robustness checks in Section 5.3.
5.2. Heterogeneity of IoT Effects
So far, the preceding analyses have demonstrated that the introduction of the IoT as a sales channel leads to a signiﬁcant improvement in product sales. Focusing on the emerging IoT technologies, our paper is the ﬁrst to study the effect of the introduction of the IoT as a sales channel and demonstrate that such a technol- ogy affects consumers’ behavior, enhancing the sales of products. Although the extant literature that has examined the effect of other sales channels has pro- vided conﬂicting evidence, our paper extends the current literature, making important contributions and yielding timely implications for future research because it is the ﬁrst study to reveal that the IoT as a sales channel increases product sales; the effect is statistically and economically signiﬁcant and sur- vives an extensive set of robustness and falsiﬁcation tests. This contribution is also extended by informing future literature on the heterogeneity of the demand effect of IoT sales channel introduction. The hetero- geneity of the effect of the IoT has not been examined in prior literature, similar to the main effect; certain dimensions of heterogeneity have not been examined in prior literature on other sales channels, too. Im- portantly, the following heterogeneity effect analy- sis also bolsters the overall contribution of this pa- per because it further empirically veriﬁes the main identiﬁed mechanism and enhances the generaliz- ability of the results. In addition, apart from seeding new future research directions, these analyses and the corresponding ﬁndings also highlight the business value of IoT technology for retailers and brands while they offer timely implications, too. In order to le- verage the IoT as a sales channel, businesses and practitioners will need to develop sufﬁcient knowl- edge to make such technology investments.