In Figure 27: Occurrence of InformationQuality Criteria in Media Provision websites we can see that the Process-Pragmatic Criteria are of relative importance. In this case, that is because most of these informationquality criteria are expected factors in a Media Provision context. Latency and Response Time have additional importance when the Media provided in a Media Provision context become more data-intensive, as is the case with (HD) movies, songs and large pictures. With respect to Currency and Timeliness we see the opposite of what we saw in Collaborative Content Creation websites. In Media Provision we see a focus on Currency, as a substitute of a focus on Timeliness. This is to be expected, since Currency is an objectively measurable criterion, which makes it easy to implement methods which rank information objects according to Currency. Since information objects cannot be updated on an ongoing basis, Currency is a good indicator for the expected Timeliness. The last focus of Media Provision websites is the Relevancy, which is present at all websites. This is displayed by the fact that all websites have implemented some kind of Search Engine, but in the case of hedonic websites, Relevancy becomes of smaller importance. We observed that Understandability was of no concern to all Media Provision websites. This was expected for photo and video sharing websites, but a discovery for blogging websites. It turns out that the ranking of information objects according to
monputeaux.com the Court of first instance of Paris held as follows: "Although he is a journalist by trade, the accused responsible for the litigious site for private and not-for-profit purposes was not obliged to realize the most complete and objective investigation on the facts he related. He could therefore, in a section dedicated to a press review, cite extracts from an article relating to a dispute between the city hall of Puteaux published in the regional daily Le Parisien provided that, as in the case at hand, he precisely specified his source and did not distort it, without having to check the merits of the information he was reproducing.
Grid computing , as it is normally defined, is aligned closely with Web Service Architecture principles. The Open Grid Forum’s Open Grid Computing Architecture (OGSA)  provides, through a framework of specifications that undergo a community review process, a precise definition of Grid computing. Key capabilities include the management of application execution, data, and information. Security and resource state modeling are examples of cross cutting capabilities in OGSA. Many Grid middleware stacks (Globus, gLite, Unicore, OMII, Willow, Nareji, GOS, and Crown) are available. Web and Grid Services are typically atomic and general purpose. Workflow tools (including languages and execution engines)  are used to compose multiple general services into specialized tasks. Collections of users, services, and resources form Virtual Organizations are managed by administrative services. The numerous Web Service specifications that constitute Grids and Web Service systems are commonly called “WS-*”.
One of the gaps in many social bookmarking services that we hope to address in this project is user matchmaking. While it is possible to proactively identify collaborators through tag searching, there is also value in having this information pushed to users as well, and the associated algorithms for determining clique formation and cluster boundaries are classic computer science problems. Our initial plan is to use common tags to help identify users with overlapping interests. This information can then be pushed to users, who can initiate additional contact. Related to this is the “classified ad” approach, in which funding opportunity announcements can be tagged specifically by users who are looking to join a proposal team.
The collaboration tools that we study were mapped with the features of those four categories, and criteria that was adopt from , using Multi Criteria Mapping (MCM), MCM offers a systematic part of quantitative and qualitative approach to clarify why various Web 2.0 collaborative tools are mapped to certain category of features. MCM is one of many multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods. The common purpose of these methods is to evaluate and choose among different decision alternatives based on multiple criteria using systematic, structured and transparent analysis decisions . A number of different MCDA methods exist following various optimization algorithms and varying in both the types of value information needed and in the extent to which they are dependent on computer applications. Some techniques rank options whereas others identify a single optimal alternative, criteria’s were either measured or based on expert judgments .
During the course of the year academic teaching staff attended conferences in three overseas countries: Japan, UK, and Spain as well as numerous New Zealand conferences in cities outside of Auckland. Staff used mobile Web 2.0 technologies to share these experiences and stay in contact with their student(s) from these countries and locations. The use of mobile Web 2.0 technologies allowed real time text, video and still images of the conferences, sites, design, and architecture to be easily and immediately uploaded to the staff member’s blog for students to see and share in. The use of instant messaging and blog comments allowed students to remark on the posts, pose questions and request further information on the conference before the end of the visit. The use of mobile Web 2.0 technologies allowed the staff member, his fellow staff members and students to stay in regular contact sharing comments and project concerns: in effect a “virtual studio situation” was created. Upon the staff member’s return, there was no need for time consuming catching up to take place and students were not significantly disadvantaged due to his taking time away from studio teaching.
In 2007 I set up a Facebook Page (now called a Public Profile) for Warwick University Library. It has been active since then and currently has 1282 fans (as of 21 st August 2009). Approximately 60 new fans are attracted to the page every month, both in and out of term time. The Wall has been set up (through the use of Yahoo Pipes to aggregate a collection of RSS feeds) to receive information from a range of Library blogs and news feeds, so we don’t have to add a lot of content directly to it. This means
Facebook - Facebook has been the most popular and widely used Web 2.0 applications in most of the university library websites. With a user friendly applications and interesting features, it is easy to use, even for new beginner. Most of the academic libraries use Facebook for sharing library news or events, sharing pictures as well as marketing library services. As for the Universiti Malaya Library (UML), we use Facebook for disseminating information on latest updates, opening hours, providing online reference services and also interacting with users. With this application, it will help forge relationships among users. Blog - different library websites used blog for different purposes. The uniqueness of the blog is, it allows users to comment on the post. Therefore, the percentage of usage is quite high compared to other Web 2.0 applications. For instance, Universiti Sains Malaysia library (USM) (http://hamzahsendutlibrary.wordpress.com/), Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM) library (http://cmslib.uum.edu.my/blog/), Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA) library
Looking to the future, Web 2.0 has momentum as it is driven by success of social web sites and the user friendly protocols attracting many developers of mashups. For narrow Grids, their momentum is driven by the success of eScience and the commercial web service thrusts largely aimed at Enterprise-level computing. We expect application domains such as business and military, where predictability and robustness are often essential, might be built on Web Service (Narrow Grid) technologies with the user interactivity of Web 2.0 added to support social interactions in their virtual organizations. However, the higher complexity of Web Services discourages both the broad adoption and high implementation quality of WS-* components, requiring substantial investment. Maybe this will just wither away, leaving a simpler Web 2.0 technology base. On the other hand, robustness and coping with unstructured blooming of a ten thousand flowers are forces pressuring Web 2.0 and confusing its future role. The usability and full exploitation of Multicore systems will drive the development of Parallel Programming 2.0, and we expect this to see much innovation. Perhaps the most interesting near term questions for distributed system Grids and Web 2.0 are the Grid Cloud architecture, data interchange standards and usage models.
Podcasting began in 2004. At the beginning it was used for radio broadcasting through the internet rather than by air. Unlike webradios, however, the podcast is asynchronous and can be used at any time after the download. Obviously, before downloading it, it has to be found. This is why the Podcast needs a distribution channel. There are, for example, databases like the iTunes App Store which classify podcasts into categories and allow their purchase. Since 2001 the arrival of the Apple iPod has favoured the development of playlists, i.e. lists that catalogue the downloaded files. The task is usually carried out by the e-tutor who organises the files in the most suitable order for learning. The Moodle platform (also called LMS) allows you to catalogue every file in the module which corresponds to the topic that is being taught in the course. Thanks to mTouch students can have access to the contents downloaded from the platform by using a mobile device. Moodle is one of the most used platforms both in the university and business sectors. Moodle was elaborated within the University of Curtin in Australia in 1999 to enhance cooperative formation on the interaction between students and professors. For those students who fear exams, it is also possible to download applications such as Esame OK (Exam ok) to learn how to manage anxiety and organize information about the exam contents. Students can also download a university student’s personal record book to make notes of exam dates and marks. Once they reach the disserta- tion writing phase, the iTesi (iThesis) application can help them to write the bibliography, subdivide their work into chapters and prepare the final defence. Professors can use the class register called Grade Book.
With respect to filtering for trusted recommendations, effectively exploiting Semantic Web-based social networks the FilmTrust project has lead the way (16). The cost of entry however is not nothing: participants muse take time to rank a set of 50 films, from which the system inferences about other movies about which the participant is interested. Is such ranking necessary for all domains? How might inferences be applied across a few domains to generalize decisions about other domains? And if that is possible, what attributes are to be assessed? For instance, how match food preferences or environment attributes from which to develop particular recommendations for restaurants, hotels, historic cites, books, movies, friends and so on? Perhaps more particularly, once these methods for cross domain inferred trust are developed, we again come to the question of how expose the data needed to feed the algorithms to associate with great services? Again, there has been considerable work on post hoc semantic extraction of information from existing Web documentation, such as GATE (12), and Armadilo(11), to name two. By tuning some of this work from the the Research space to the mundane, we would have a compelling test case for the viability of Semantic Web technologies in the wild: either it will be, as we predict, readily easy to add value to such a Web2.0+ SW scenario, or it will not. Both cases offer interesting and compelling feedback to the Semantic Web community. We suspect the former will be the case, and reflect on three sites where we are investigating Semantic Web opportunities for Web 2.0 engagement.
form genre of web applications: users who incorporate reading or writing blogs in their everyday Internet experience do so in very different ways not only according to their indi- vidual circumstances, interests and skills but also according to the ways in which different blogging platforms expose their functionality in unique ways that may or may not fit users’ expectations and needs. My technical overview in Chapter 4 is meant to also address this common shortcoming in order to better inform the ethnographic analysis of user agency. For the analysis of reflective discourses of hacker involved in the development of the al- ternative rationalizations of lifeworld Internet developed in Chapters 7 and 8, my sources are mainly the discourses of web developers, designers and software engineers as emerg- ing from online discussions and from formal and less formal print and web magazines written by and for these Internet professionals themselves, with the specific non-technical focus of trying to develop a shared understanding of the role that web professionals have in today’s world, and which relies considerably on the Internet as a conduit of information in the most disparate contexts. Although the inclusion of these discourses may partially sound like a posthumous attempt to turn the inexorable procrastination efforts of a grad- uate student who spent uncountable hours absorbed in such publications while supposed to be working on his dissertation into structured and productive procrastination (Perry 2012b), in fact my immersion in such publications, initially only aimed at improving my own understanding of my role as a web developer thanks to the accounts of other fellow web professionals, actually enabled a pivotal shift in the way I developed a broader under- standing of the complex networks behind the Internet affordances that permeate users’ daily lives. In hindsight, my exposure to the reflective accounts of hackers is what most contributed to my realization that even when focusing on the common user, tracing any process of reassembling would provide only a partial view unless the ’sweat and tears’ in- volved in the production of software, and the often mundane materiality of developers’ own daily lives and motivations, are also analysed.
Except for the earliest days of personal computing, when the almost exclusively male Homebrew Computer Club (which gave birth to the first Apple) defined the culture of hackerdom , the PC desktop has never been a cultural phenomenon. In contrast, Web 2.0 has always been about the culture. Community is everywhere in the culture of Web 2.0, and end users rally around affinity content. Craigslist, Digg, and Slashdot exist as aggregation points for user commentary. Narrow-focus podcasts have become the preferred alternative to broadcast TV and radio for many; and blogging has become a popular alternative to other publishing mass-distribution formats. Remixing and mashups are enabled by the fact that data models, normally closed or proprietary, are exposed by service APIs, but they also wouldn’t exist without end users’ passion and sweat equity. Some enterprising developers (such as Ning at www.ning.com ) have even managed to monetize this culture, offering a framework for creative hobbyists who create social applications based on existing APIs. When you create an application, you should consider the social culture that may arise to embrace your application. You can likely build in collaborative and social capabilities (such as co-editing and social tagging) pretty easily. If there’s a downside to having an application exist only “in the cloud,” the best upside is that a networked application also obeys the power law of networks: The application’s value increases as a log function for the number of users. Most RIAs in the wild have many or all of these characteristics.