The service sector has emerged as the fastest sector of the economy throughout the developed world. His growth has been accompanied by a corresponding decrease in the importance within the balance of trade of primary industries such as agriculture and fishing and secondary industries such as manufacturing. The growth of service Industries and the service economy has stimulated interest in servicesmarketing theory and practice. A further development is the international- ization of services. Changes in lifestyle has led to increased demand for leisure services and foreign travel, for example, while developments in technology have led to increased demand for hi-tech services such as computing. New Technologies have also revolutionized service provision processes through the use of automation and computerized systems. There is every sign that service economy will continue to grow in size and the importance and this will be reflected in future developments in servicesmarketing. In striving to gain and maintain competitive advantage, both productivity and quality are the key importance. However, the nature of services implies that it is difficult to avoid a trade-off situation, when improvements in service productivity can lead to sacrifices in the level of quality. This is the most sensitive in servicesmarketing where people are the service deliverers. If a bank cashier or travel agent needs to process globally, the Indian software services and ITES-SM industries have introduced a novel management system and work culture into the Indian Work place. I.T.E.S. industry should make strategic decisions to proactively fulfill those needs that will become the dominant players in their respective markets.
Venkateswaran et al., (2016) have analyzed the impression of telemedicine on patient happiness in the rural area. The study concludes that by applying informationtechnology in healthcare services some improvements may be done in clinical governance, professional relationship between patient and doctor, and patient’s satisfaction. Moghavvemi et al., (2016) have examined the medical tourism scenario in competing Asian countries (India, Malaysia and Thailand) and concluded that informationtechnology is highly useful for showcasing and promoting destinations’ medical facilities through online presence. Mohapatra and Murarka (2016) have concluded that using technology to maintain electronic healthcare records (EHR) improves performance of healthcare services and also optimizes cost. In a descriptive study, Khanna and Narula (2016) have shown the applicability of mobile health units (MHUs) in public health. In a comparative study of healthcare providers, Seblega et al., (2015) have found differences in patient outcomes on the basis of healthcare informationtechnology. Sintonen et al. (2015) have analyzed the feasibility of electronic health record system in a regional hospital in south-eastern Finland and found that a system’s complexity and problems with reliability negatively influence its usefulness and decrease the willingness of personnel to use the healthcare informationtechnology. In a sample of 623 healthcare providers in Saudi Arabia, Bennett et al., (2015) have examined the role of demographical factors on employee’s perceptions of healthcare informationtechnology. The results indicated that employees with longer tenure perceived fewer benefits and more barriers in applying informationtechnology in healthcare services. However, the study highlighted that females perceived more benefits and fewer barriers as compared to than males. The study concludes that if effective training is designed and delivered in the area of healthcare informationtechnology, benefits could be given to associated stakeholders. Mohapatra (2015) explains how hospital information system (HIS) is used as a comprehensive and integrated information system designed to manage the administrative, financial, and clinical aspects of a hospital in urban India. The case also illustrates how the information system ensures financial returns by improving timeliness of patient care, accounting and administration, record keeping, and management reporting. Ornes et al., (2014) suggest the role of informationtechnology in designing and managing a website that can engage patients and their family members during care. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, Mehraeen et al., (2014) have evaluated indices of hospital information systems (HIS) in selected hospitals of Iran. The study concludes that evaluation indexes checklist includes 9 organizational components and 11 hospital information system server components, along with the
This study is enumerated among descriptive – survey studies in respect of data collecting method. In descriptive studies, the scholar is seeking the quality of the issue which includes collecting information for testing the hypothesis or answering questions relating the present status of studied issue (Sarmad et.al, 1385). This research statistical population includes managers and departmental personnel of ShahidRajaie Hospital in Shiraz city who were 138 persons that according to Cochran formula the research sample number was considered 102. For data collecting a questionnaire was used. The respective questionnaire was constituted from 42 questions and two parts. Services quality was assessed by 6 criteria of services physical quality, services warranty, communion, reliability and access and informationtechnology variable was analyzed by 6 questions. And finally, for this research data analysis, first data were arranged and classified using Excel software and then they were analyzed using Lisrel software.
In addition to providing new service offerings, technology has introduced new ways of providing vehicles for delivering existing services in more convenient ways. It is true to say that technology facilitate basic customer services functions like bill paying, tracking orders, seeking information, etc. The face of customer service has changed with the influx of technology. Before the development oftechnology every customer services was provided face to face through direct personal interaction between employees and customer. Nowadays, large organization centralist their customer services functions. It is possible by establishing a few large call centers that could be located in the world. 3. Close link with customer:
Today whole business is depend on marketing, therefore marketing of any product is the whole business seen from the point of view of its final result, that is from customer’s point of view. Thus marketing means working with market to actualize potential exchanges for the purpose of satisfying human needs and wants. Information is the power and libraries and information centers are the reservoir of this information. Libraries are also profit services industries and information is their key product. Marketing in Library with rapid advanced in on-line technology sector the libraries are experience a period of radical changes in all the activities, particularly while providing informationservices to their users. Today Libraries and information professional must assume a proactive role to cope with increasing competition.
The advancement of science and technology has made a tremendous improvement and changed almost all walks of life. Especially, the magnetic word Informationtechnology has been chanted in all corners of the global arena and been incorporate in organizational, managerial, developmental and marketing sectors. The services rendered with the help of ICT are faster and more effective. Moreover, it creates faith and confidence about the products and services of an organization among its customers.
The issue of low trust in e-commerce is important as both the nature and significance of e-commerce as a part of the overall economy are continuously developing. There is a growing need for marketing researchers and practitioners to design novel informationtechnology mechanisms to establish trust when individuals trade via electronic interfaces (Fang et al., 2014). Such research can consult a vast literature within computer-mediated communication (CMC) studies that deals with medium design and choice. It contains multiple theoretical frameworks including various forms of presence (co- presence, telepresence, social presence, see Nowak and Biocca 2003 ), immersion (Blascovich et al., 2002), vividness (Coyle & Thorson, 2001), channel expansion and information richness (Daft, 2013). Theories of this kind typically classify different media according to the extent to which their features simulate various aspects of face-to-face interaction (Postmes, Spears, Sakhel, & de Groot, 2001). One popular example is the theory of information richness which posits that a medium’s capacity to reduce ambiguity in interactions lies in its ability to transmit rich information, which in turn depends on its objective features (Carlson & Zmud, 1999; Daft, 2013; El-Shinnawy & Markus, 1998; Kock, 2004; Rockmann & Northcraft, 2008; Simon & Peppas, 2004). The information richness a particular medium achieves is determined by four criteria (Daft, Lengel, & Trevino, 1987, p. 358). First, feedback is the degree to which interaction partners can respond to one another instantaneously. Second, multiple cues is the extent to which the message can be accompanied by non-verbal communication or signals from the other’s physical presence or social identity. Third, language variety relates to the range of transmittable symbols such as natural language as well as numerical or graphical information. Fourth, personal focus is the extent to which personal (motivations, feelings, perceptions) and situational characteristics can be part of the interaction. Different media are classified hierarchically regarding their ability to transmit rich information through their particular features. Face-to-face is the richest medium followed by telephone, written addressed (e-mail, SMS) 2
However, within Scotland itself there is a vibrant information science sector. Although only two universities (Robert Gordon and Strathclyde) have long- established departments of information science of the traditional sort, with the function of training librarians, at least four more have departments or groups working on elements of the information sector. In addition, the National Library of Scotland, the Scottish Consortium of University Research Libraries and the Scottish Library and Information Council have been keen proponents of digital libraries and related research. There is a wide recognition that, in a small country, moves towards significant resource sharing will be essential. That recognition does not however extend to the Scottish Parliament’s Enterprise and Lifelong Learning Committee which noted that ‘It does not appear, on present trends, that the main universities will become powerful drivers of the knowledge economy’ 1 , although it is unclear whether this says more about the Committee’s lack of perception, or the universities’ lack of marketing. Against that may be set the experience of small nations from Finland to Singapore 2 , which have shown that national planning and government support can deliver fundamental change.
In contrast to a separatedness approach, relational ontology (Latour, 2005; Pickering, 2005; Orlikowski, 2009) emphasises that human and technology are not separated entities but entangled in relationships and practices. Indeed, competencies and skills are embodied in neither technology nor human but are ‘enacted in practice, and the focus is, mingles assemblages, etc’ of human and technology (Orlikowski, 2009, p.12). Within relational ontology, theorists have developed various theoretical approaches such as the actor-network and sociomateriality based on their understanding of the relationship between material agency, human agency and human intentionality (Latour, 2005; Pickering, 2005; Orlikowski, 2009). We argue that a relational ontology can provide a lens for us to make sense of consumer consumption of ITESs, by emphasising the entwinement of the consumer and ITESs in consumer routine practices in a way which avoids either technological or social determinism. In the next section, we develop a theoretical framework integrating Borgmann’s concept of the focal thing and aligning it with a sociomaterial approach.
The need of a fast and reliable global communication service has increased the competition among mobile companies. For the past few decades, communication technology has been widely and continuously devel- oped. Worldwide, mobile companies needed to develop new methods to keep on providing the quality service expected by their customers. InformationTechnology (IT) solutions can reduce time and cost for companies by automating the systems connecting the companies with different marketing stores using Internet services.
- 93 - Some issues that needs further investigation is whether microfinance reinforce women’s traditional roles or promote gender equality. Government of India has taken a large initiative in empowering rural women through SHGs, Agricultural resources, forest resources, but not much has been done in the application of IT Enabledservices in rural women empowerment. Therefore the paper emphasis on developing a conceptual framework in the light of information required for the application of IT in the rural women empowerment which may in fact help women to gain respect and achieve more in their socially defined roles, which in turn may lead to increased esteem and self-confidence. Although increased self-confidence does not automatically lead to empowerment, it may contribute decisively to a woman’s ability and willingness to challenge the social injustices and discriminatory systems that they face. This implies that as women become financially better-off their self confidence and bargaining power. There is an important role of InformationTechnology in the field of women empowerment such empowerment could easily be seen higher in the Urban area as compared to the rural area. There is high time for providing training in the rural areas with the support of the administration for strengthening the National Computer literacy Mission. The use and application of Informationtechnology in e-ticketing, online services, etc may also be disseminated in the rural areas so that the rural women could understand the working and functioning of the Micro-Finance Institutions. There must be the provision of allocation of budget and funding in the Ministry and also in the Planning commission for testing conceptual framework at the grass root level to assess the effectiveness of InformationTechnology in empowering women through Micro finance. However, there are many factors affecting this process. The below diagram depicts the driving as well as restraining forces affecting women empowerment in rural India in imparting informationtechnology.
Cloud computing is the next natural step in the evolution of on-demand informationtechnologyservices and products. The Cloud is a metaphor for the Internet, based on how it is depicted in computer network diagrams, and is an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it conceals. It is a style of computing in which IT-related capabilities are provided ―as a service‖, allowing users to access technology-enabledservices from the Internet (i.e., the Cloud) without knowledge of, expertise with, or control over the technology infrastructure that supports them. The technical foundations of Cloud Computing include Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Virtualizations of hardware and software. The goal of Cloud Computing is to share resources among the cloud service consumers, cloud partners, and cloud vendors in the cloud value chain.
The responses of the study's sample to the questionnaire’s items (20 questions) were all positive, except for two questions (questions 3 and 6) as the means for these questions were less than three (midpoint=3). The data of the study’s first dimension (infrastructure) indicated that the organizations provide the necessary technology, the infrastructure and the use of informationtechnology with a mean value of (3.75). In contrast, the results indicated that the organizations did not provide skilled researchers to help in using information technologies, as the mean value of this dimension was (2.95) which is lower than (3). In general, the knowledge factors within its dimensions indicated a positive effect on marketing performance showing a mean value of (3.45) and T value of (3.54). Conversely, the surveyed organizations did not provide the necessary services for the use of informationtechnology, and the value of this dimension was (2.31), which is lower than the midpoint (3). Regarding the second factor, which is related to knowledge, it was found that organizations provide special advising and educational programs that help in using informationtechnology with a mean value (3.81). As for the third dimension, the information system, results indicated that the organizations provide information that can highly affect its customers and scored a high mean value of (3.65), results additionally indicated that this dimension has a positive influence on marketing performance with a mean value of (3.57) and a T. value of (4.57). Regarding the fourth dimension, marketing performance, the results of this dimension in general have had high values with a mean value of (4.46) and T-value (24.17), indicating that the use of informationtechnology has an effect on sales, marketing share and marketing performance. The current study also observed a relationship between the period of informationtechnology use and the increase in sales and market share percentage. The findings of the current study showed that the use of informationtechnology in business organization has an influence on sales, market share and marketing performance. Moreover, all the hypotheses of the current study, relating to the four dimensions, were accepted and indicated that the factors that were chosen in this study have significant influence on marketing performance. Additionally, the current study confirmed that there is a statistically significant correlation between the components of the study's model in which marketing performance infrastructure dimension had the highest correlation value. (535).
Over the years libraries and information centres have enjoyed positive and good relation with clients. The new internet environment and technological advances have made libraries to rethink and adapt these innovations for effective and efficient functioning of the system and services. Enhancing usage of resources and services is essential and possible with the help of effective marketing strategies. Library professionals should consider this cyber age as an important opportunity rather than a challenge. This paper aims at exploring different applications of web technologies and social media, which libraries and information centres can endorse for effective flow of information resources to meet the objectives of the organization.
The study sought to find out the age of all respondents because the subsequent factors of advertising are largely dependent on the respondents. As we all know, informationtechnology is well embraced by young people as compared to the old generation. Respondents working in different departments at Bharti Airtel were clustered into two main categories of strategic and junior managers. From the findings, most strategic managers range between the age of 31-40 represented by 12.5% of the overall respondents. Majority of the junior managers lie between the age of 21-30 years. This demographic trend spreading through the organization would indicate the profile of corporate strategy decision makers and implementers. Thus the older persons would exercise their experience in management and specifically on strategy implementation while the younger ones would derive mentorship from the older group. Most of the customers who responded are of the age 21-30 years. Table 2 represents these findings.
Countries, which fail to prepare for informationtechnology and do not use IT are likely to lose their global competitiveness, as IT has changed the way we live, interact, and communicate with each other (Gates, 1999). The usage of computers got more implication after the World War I. In the1930s the use of Computer was enhanced. Its significance increased day by day in World War II, computers were used to calculate and managed the weapons. This helped the Western allied to get victory over the Rivals. The use of InformationTechnology has been started in developed countries a long time ago. It has helped them to visit the moon and now in recent time to visit the Mars too. The countries that took keen interest in InformationTechnology, they crossed all the barriers of fictitious and conservative ideas and activities as well, and the nations or countries which ignored its use became far behind as compared to other nations. Electronic business, e-commerce, e-marketing, e-governance, telemedicine, wired money, virtual universities and digital libraries are the buzzwords of these days. Communication channels such as World Wide Web (WWW), internet, Intranet have linked people and information, and have fundamentally changed all the ways of scientific, technical, and even commercial information are transferred and accessed.
Abstract: On-line marketing is a recent phenomenon in the field of E-Business and is definitely going to be the future of selling and buying in the world. This study looks into the various aspects about how markets are being affected and also the various recovery mechanisms they are coming up with to report those E-stores in their race of survival. Price, the trust, the convenience and the recommendations have been identified as important factors . Most of the consumers hesitate not to do shopping online, because of the insecure payment and transactions systems. Online Marketing is the concept that makes all the marketing tools to work together as a unified force rather than work in isolation. It makes the use of whole marketing efforts in the form of advertising, individual selling, promoting sales, online marketing, direct marketing in order to generate maximum influence on the target customers at the minimum cost  .The results of the study could be used by the researchers and practitioners for conducting up-coming studies in the similar area .
PROCESS: Process is an element of service that sees the customer experiencing an organization‟s offering. It is best viewed as something that customer participates in at different points in time. Process for laboratory service begins, when a patient enters a laboratory. How he gets greeted at reception counter, the information provided, waiting time, etc is the nodal point of contact between patient and laboratory. Once the blood sample is collected by technician the job of patient is over, but blood sample takes place of patient. It enters into pre analytical, analytical and post analytical phase next. At each and every step hygiene, proper direction, instructions and utmost care is essential mandate. Once the outcome is ready, the doctor signs the printed reports to be submitted to patients. Standard operating procedures are followed to maintain uniformity and standardization of procedure to be followed for all the samples.
different types of university, those using different technologies and especially those in different organisational locations. There was an attempt to include a significant proportion of women, though it proved rather difficult to identify relevant individuals. Interviewees were identified through web searches, but primarily from visibility in an online community, an annual practitioner conference series and the Heist awards for web sites for tertiary sector marketing (http://www.heist.co.uk/awards/?a=a). All the interviewees were people who could claim to have a central responsibility for their university web site, but how this was interpreted varied from institution to institution. Several people at the same institution might make such a claim, and though there is some usage of the concept of the „institutional web manager‟ - the word webmaster is commonly but not universally derided - it was not consistently used or understood. The interpretative approach used to analyse the interview data acknowledges both the importance of the “interview as local accomplishment” (Silverman, 2001, pp.104-5), that is constructivism, but also sees it as offering, if handled well, a level of access to informants‟ authentic beliefs, expressed in their own words, that is to say,