Palm kernel seeds were purchased from local palm processors in Ekwuluobia, Anambra state. Palm kernel oil was extracted from the palm kernel seeds using the traditional method of heating and pressing. Bitumen was purchased from C & O civil engineering laboratory Awka, Anambra state. Laboratory thermometer was placed into the steel pot containing the palm kernel seed oil and bitumen blend, and then heated to its boiling temperature. One sample each from the alloys was taken out as control (as untreated) before heating the other ones. The remaining samples were given a normalizing heat treatment by heating the samples in an electrical furnace at various temperatures starting from 840°C to 960°C, soaked at various time intervals ranging from 0min to 1 hour, removed and cooled in air. One sample each was taken and kept aside as normalized sample. Normalized samples of 0.76%C-steel were taken and placed in a crucible, loaded into the furnace, heated to 900°C , soaked for one hour and quenched in a blend of hot kernel seed oil and bitumen boiling at temperature of 420°C. After some minutes, the first set of samples were removed from those quenching medium, cooled in air and washed in kerosene, then with soap solution. Another set of samples were removed after 0 minute, 30 minutes, 1 hour, cooled in air and washed in kerosene then in soap solution. Bitumen was added in a small quantity to avoid under reaction or over reaction.
area accounted for by grain boundaries is much higher in the alloys containing Sc, their partitioning effect must be increased with Sc addition. The sequence of precipitation in aluminium alloys strongly depends on the history of the materials, including quenching conditions, natural ageing and further heat treatment. Different processes may be involved: dissolution, coarsening or phase transformation from metastable precipitates to a more stable phase. GP zones formed at low temperature after quenching (typically room temperature); can act as nucleation sites for more stable precipitates. When the temperature is increased from the pre-ageing temperature up to the ageing temperature, dissolution of GP zones occurs. This dissolution is called reversion, can be partial. When the ageing temperature is higher than the reversion temperature, the GP zone dissolution is complete. In spite of this complete reversion, ageing can still result in a fine distribution of ή -particles. As η particles are incoherent with the matrix (and have a relatively high interfacial energy), metastable precipitates ( ή ), with a higher level of coherency (and lower interfacial energy), may be expected to form preferentially at lower temperatures because of a lower activation barrier for nucleation. The common metastable phases in the 7xxx system are GP zones and ή particles, respectively. According to the binary phase diagram of Al-Zn (in Figure 1), because of existence of solvus solubility, at temperature decreasing, decrease the solubility of solid solution. The decreased solubility of solid solution leads to its saturation and the material becomes thermodynamically unstable and therefore will tend to decompose into two new phases . The effect of the ageing treatment is evaluated by Vicker’s hardness testing and metallography. Hardness measurements can provide a good indication of the material strength and since strength is related to the number, type and spacing of precipitates then hardness measurements can be used to monitor the precipitation process. Vicker’s hardness tests were done with the purpose of analysing the influence of the precipitated phases, formed during the ageing treatment, on the hardness of alloy. Moreover, tensile testing has been carried out to signify the materials mechanical properties to ensure engineering application. The tensile fracture surface examination can be revealed precipitates morphology, size and mode of fracture, alloy chemistry and heat treatment processes.
ket economy: it is the demarcation line between public funding (through the taxpayer) of research projects and private investment, which follows mar- ket rules and demands a return. In general, this is a global phenomenon. The width of the valley and the severity of the problem is, however, peculiarly European. The valley is wider than in any other industrialised economy in the world. The particu- lar problem is that proof-of-concept, demonstration and validation are achieved faster in Europe, but once the technologies are established, manufactur- ing facilities are established more quickly in regions outside of Europe, which are then in the position of being able to sell the innovative product back to Europe. MP3 players, flat displays, Li-ion batter- ies and solar panels are just a few recent examples of technologies first developed and even patented in Europe that led to innovative products being manufactured elsewhere. This is generally visible in the mismatch between the number of European patents licensed inside Europe but exploited outside Europe. To negotiate the valley and to become more competitive, Europe needs its own tailored fund- ing models for pilot lines and prototype production facilities. The so-called ‘knowledge society’ is neces- sary for but not alone sufficient to sustain a modern economy. Knowledge must be exploited through innovative manufacturing facilities. New materials, new processes and life cycles underpin manufactur- ing innovation. Knowledge creation in MSE must be strengthened and complemented with new business
Similarly, consideration of MatSEEC was included in the joint ESF/Science Europe working group on Boards and Committees and the Science Europe conclusion is quoted: “The Board recognised that the Expert Boards and Committees are of value within their domains, and that there is potential benefit to collaborating with these interdisciplinary groups. However, it was felt that Science Europe would not be the appropriate platform for the Expert Boards and Committees to operate from, as their mandate is clearly outside the scope of Science Europe, which is set up to operate with a Committee structure based on scientific rather than organisational representation, and with specific groups acting as sub- committees.”
Probably the most common criticism of college textbooks is that they are too long. With most popular texts, the number of pages often increases with each new edition. This leads instructors and students to complain that it is impossible to cover all the topics in the text in a single term. After struggling with this concern (trying to decide what to delete without limiting the value of the text), we decided to divide the text into two components. The first is a set of ‘‘core’’ topics—sections of the text that are most commonly covered in an introductory materials course, and second, ‘‘supplementary’’ topics—sections of the text covered less frequently. Fur- thermore, we chose to provide only the core topics in print, but the entire text (both core and supplementary topics) is available on the CD-ROM that is included with the print component of Fundamentals. Decisions as to which topics to include in print and which to include only on the CD-ROM were based on the results of a recent survey of instructors and confirmed in developmental reviews. The result is a printed text of approximately 525 pages and an Interactive eText on the CD- ROM, which consists of, in addition to the complete text, a wealth of additional resources including interactive software modules, as discussed below.
Th e state of the art in metallic systems for turbine blades, aero engines and gas turbines is the use of Ni superalloys. Th e implementation of TiAl intermetallics in applications involving moderate temperatures is foreseen within the objective to decrease the weight by up to 50% (Figure 1). Th e challenges here are to increase the ductility of TiAl intermetallics at room temperature, to improve the creep properties at temperatures up to 700 °C, and to develop alloying through optimised heat treat- ments. Such an improvement requires insight into the fundamental properties of these materials on all length scales. In a longer time perspective, the chal- lenge is to develop processing routes which integrate recycling and reuse. At that point, another chal- lenge will be the determination and control (also involving non-destructive testing) of degradation and of failure mechanisms of such alloys, including corrosion (chemical, galvanic), mechanical, thermal, bio-fouling, irradiation, wear and especially combi- nations thereof. Processing of TiAl intermetallics is currently based on casting technologies, for which Europe has a leadership that should be retained for future developments. In the longer term, challenges are the use of TiAl intermetallics in hybrid and/or composite materials, safety and quality issues, and multiscale-multiphysics modelling.
The working group is preparing a survey on small and medium-sized research infrastructure for materials. This work is being coordinated with that of the ESF Member Organisation Forum on Research Infrastructures and the recently started MERIL (Mapping of the European Research Infrastructure Landscape) project. The group also aims to establish an inventory of equipment used for
Corrosion is a harmful phenomenon that affects all kinds of materials (metals, ceramics, polymers) in various environments (aqueous media, atmosphere, high temperatures) [1,2]. Corrosion phenomena depend on a large number of factors such as: the nature and structure of the material, surface treatments (mechanical, chemical, electrochemical, etc.), the environment and its chemical characteristics, temperature, microorganisms, the hydrodynamic regime to which the material is subjected and the constraints which are imposed on it.
In recent years, corrosion inhibitors have become an effective means of reducing metal corrosion in several sectors [1,2]. Among these metals, we have the aluminum whose lightness is a major asset for the transport equipment and leisure industries. Aluminium is a very active metal  which is used in many fields because of its remarkable properties such as its aesthetic qualities and its good corrosion resistance. In particular, it is used in the aviation, automotive, packaging, construction, mechanical engineering and other industries.
The phenomenon of modification of the soil response due to the presence of the structure is called soil-structure interaction. At present, in the "engineering practice", this phenomenon of interaction is not rigorously taken into account during the design of foundation. However, in the current state of the art, should we allow ourselves to ignore the phenomenon of soil-structure interaction? Today, are the geotechnical and structural calculations to be carried out separately?
2. Waste Re-Use and Recycling – is the practice of recovering usable component of a declared waste for subsequent use in other purpose or sale either with or without pre-treatment. Generally, recycled materials can either be used in the same service from which it was generated or in an entirely different premises, activities or purpose with consideration on possible mis-use, its effect, the efficiency and safety of the receiver or user.